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Presbytopia Session 9

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Chapter 13 Lord’s Supper

Q1. What are the Old Testament roots of the Lord’s Supper concerning sacrificial meals? How were they fulfilled in Christ?

Ken points out that the Gospel presents the Last Supper as a Passover, one of the sacrificial meals of the Old Testament.
Matt 26:17-29 “Now on the first day of Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying, “Where will you have us prepare for you to eat the Passover?” He said, “Go into the city to a certain man and say to him, ‘The Teacher says, My time is at hand. I will keep the Passover at your house with my disciples.’ ” And the disciples did as Jesus had directed them, and they prepared the Passover. When it was evening, he reclined at table with the twelve. And as they were eating, he said, “Truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me.” And they were very sorrowful and began to say to him one after another, “Is it I, Lord?” He answered, “He who has dipped his hand in the dish with me will betray me. The Son of Man goes as it is written of him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been better for that man if he had not been born.” Judas, who would betray him, answered, “Is it I, Rabbi?” He said to him, “You have said so.” 26 Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after blessing it broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat; this is my body.” 27 And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, “Drink of it, all of you, 28 for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. 29 I tell you I will not drink again of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.”
This account of the Last supper is also located i Mark 14:12-25 and Luke 22:7-22
The Passover involved 3 things
sacrificing
and eating a Lamb.
Spreading the blood on the door frames of a home as a propitiation.
The Peace Offerings
It involved sacrificing part of an animal
Giving a portion tom the priest
Then eating the rest
We see this in Lev 7:19-21 ““Flesh that touches any unclean thing shall not be eaten. It shall be burned up with fire. All who are clean may eat flesh, but the person who eats of the flesh of the sacrifice of the Lord’s peace offerings while an uncleanness is on him, that person shall be cut off from his people. And if anyone touches an unclean thing, whether human uncleanness or an unclean beast or any unclean detestable creature, and then eats some flesh from the sacrifice of the Lord’s peace offerings, that person shall be cut off from his people.””
In the New Testament these types and shadows are fulfilled in Jesus Christ.
Christ is the true passover lamb that turns away the wrath of God
We see this taught in
1 Cor 5:7 “Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed.”
and
Heb 10:1-7 “For since the law has but a shadow of the good things to come instead of the true form of these realities, it can never, by the same sacrifices that are continually offered every year, make perfect those who draw near. Otherwise, would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers, having once been cleansed, would no longer have any consciousness of sins? But in these sacrifices there is a reminder of sins every year. For it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins. Consequently, when Christ came into the world, he said, “Sacrifices and offerings you have not desired, but a body have you prepared for me; in burnt offerings and sin offerings you have taken no pleasure. Then I said, ‘Behold, I have come to do your will, O God, as it is written of me in the scroll of the book.’ ””

Q2. What are the Old Testament roots of the Lord’s Supper concerning spiritual feeding? How were they fulfilled in Christ?

God provided Mana to his people after delivering them from Slavery.
It sustained them during their time in the wilderness according to Exodus 16
Ken points out that even thought they did not always appreciate the meal. They recieved it until they entered the land of Canaan.
We see this fulfilled as when Jesus referred to himself as the true mana who gives life from heaven in
John 6:31-35 “Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness; as it is written, ‘He gave them bread from heaven to eat.’ ” Jesus then said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is he who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.” They said to him, “Sir, give us this bread always.” Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me shall not hunger, and whoever believes in me shall never thirst.”
Then as Ken points out the imagery took an even more radical turn in John 6:53-56 “So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him.”
Which leads us into question 3

Q3. Should Christ’s words concerning the bread and wine be taken literally or figuratively? Why or why not? Give examples of various approaches.

Ken points out that some people thought they were listening to a cannibal.
And that Jesus uses similar language at the last Passover with his disciples in the book of Luke.
Let’s look at Luke 22:19-20 “And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.”
This should be obvious to those who are believers
But many in the church see things differently.
Roman Catholics hold to Transubstantiation
That the Bread and the wine are actually transformed into the actual body and blood of Christ.
Such an understanding would make Jesus’s words “THIS IS BECOMING MY BODY”
Lutherans believe in Consubstantiation
which teach’s that Christs Body and blood are IN, WITH, and UNDER the elements.
This would make Jesus say “THIS ACCOMPANIES MY BODY”’
Others Understand Jesus words in a figurative sense.
Examples are Deut 16:3 “You shall eat no leavened bread with it. Seven days you shall eat it with unleavened bread, the bread of affliction—for you came out of the land of Egypt in haste—that all the days of your life you may remember the day when you came out of the land of Egypt.”
The bread didn’t cause his people affliction rather it represented it.
In a similar way Jesus words can be understood in a figurative way in John 6:53-56 “So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him.”
and Luke 22:19-20 “And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.”
If his Words are figurative then does this mean they are only Symbols of the body and blood of Christ?
Ken points out that This is what many contemporary Christians believe.
Ken points out that Christ said do this in rememberance of me in Luke 22:19-20 “And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.”
Did Christ mean a bare remembrance?
Was Jesus saying he would be absent from the sacrament?
THE ANSWER IS OF COURSE NO
Paul taught the opposite in 1 Cor 10:16 “The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ?”
Its not participation
The Greek Work Koinonia in 1 cor 10:16 elsewhere is translated
as FELLOWSHIP or COMMUNION
And Fellowship is not Subjective
But rather it is an Objective State. The supper rather expresses UNITY IN JOY AND SUFFERING WITH CHRIST AND HIS PEOPLE.
1 John 1:3 “that which we have seen and heard we proclaim also to you, so that you too may have fellowship with us; and indeed our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ.”
2 Cor 1:7 “Our hope for you is unshaken, for we know that as you share in our sufferings, you will also share in our comfort.”
2 Cor 8:4 “begging us earnestly for the favor of taking part in the relief of the saints—”
Ken says this should bring up a question in our minds.
So how can Gods people have fellowship with their risen Savior?
The answer is by the power of the Holy Spirit who is in Christ’s presence in the World.
John 14:26 “But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you.”
Therefore Remembrance speaks not of absence but of of worship.
Its a proclamation of the Lords Death until he comes.
1 Cor 11:26 “For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.”
And it points to the future Glory of God’s people when they feastwith their risen Savior Luke 22:18 “For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.””

Q4. Briefly summarize the expectations for participants in the sacrament.

They Must be Baptized
Member in a Gospel Preaching Church.
Be able to Self Examine themselves along with Repentance, Love and New Obeidiance.
Pages 110-112 for explanation.
1. So why must you be baptized before you take part in the Lords Supper?
Ken points back to the correlation between Circumcision and the Passover meal
And compares it to Baptism and the Lords Supper.
You couldn't take part in the Passover meal unless you were circumsiczed.
And CIrcumcision is the mark of the covenant in the Old Testament.
And now Baptism is the mark of the covenant and you must have it before you can take part in the Lord’s Supper.
Ken quotes Exodus 12:43-49

Institution of the Passover

43 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the statute of the Passover: no foreigner shall eat of it, 44 but every slave that is bought for money may eat of it after you have circumcised him. 45 No foreigner or hired worker may eat of it. 46 It shall be eaten in one house; you shall not take any of the flesh outside the house, and you shall not break any of its bones. 47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. 48 If a stranger shall sojourn with you and would keep the Passover to the Lord, let all his males be circumcised. Then he may come near and keep it; he shall be as a native of the land. But no uncircumcised person shall eat of it. 49 There shall be one law for the native and for the stranger who sojourns among you.”

Ken also points to the New Testament for instruction on the why
2. church membership is important before you take the supper.
1 Cor 10:17 “Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread.”
The Body referred to in this passage is referring to the Body of believers.
This body of believers is the visible church. And its made up of many believers.
According to 1 Corinthians 12
1 Cor 12:12-13 “For just as the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the body, though many, are one body, so it is with Christ. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body—Jews or Greeks, slaves or free—and all were made to drink of one Spirit.”
Ken points out that since the Lord supper is a church ordinance.
Only those in membership of a true church.
One that believes in the trinity
And preaches that being engrafted into the body by Christ’s atoning work is the only way to have a true saving Faith.
Methodists
Baptists
Lutherans.
Presbyterians to name a few true church’s
If you are a member of a true church and not a false church then you are under the oversight of local Elders.
Then you can partake of the supper.
And that is why if you are not a member of a true church that Pastor Wagonamkeer rightly warns you each Sunday to abstain until this takes place.
3. Be able to Self Examine themselves along with Repentance, Love and New Obedience.
We find this taught in
WSC 97

Question 97

What is required to the worthy receiving of the Lord’ s supper?

It is required of them that would worthily partake of the Lord’ s supper, that they examine themselves of their knowledge to discern the Lord’ s body, (1 Cor. 11:28–29) of their faith to feed upon him, (2 Cor. 13:5) of their repentance, (1 Cor. 11:31) love, (1 Cor. 10:16–17) and new obedience; (1 Cor. 5:7–8) lest, coming unworthily, they eat and drink judgment to themselves. (1 Cor. 11:28–29)

1 Cor 11:28-29 “Let a person examine himself, then, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For anyone who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment on himself.”
2 Cor 13:5 “Examine yourselves, to see whether you are in the faith. Test yourselves. Or do you not realize this about yourselves, that Jesus Christ is in you?—unless indeed you fail to meet the test!”
1 Cor 10:16-17 “The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread.”
1 Cor 5:7-8 “Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. Let us therefore celebrate the festival, not with the old leaven, the leaven of malice and evil, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.”
So to partake in the Supper we need to one know why we are in the faith and understand what the supper represents and is pointing to.
If we are to young and cannot articulate this yet then we are told to abstain from the Lords supper until we can understand what this meal is pointing to.
We also are taught that if you have some public sin that your Elders see and have brought to your attention they can withhold the Lords supper from you until you repent of this sin.
We see this in 1 Cor 5:12 “For what have I to do with judging outsiders? Is it not those inside the church whom you are to judge?”
this would be called Fencing the Table to protect you from eating and drinking damnation to yourself as the scripture says in
1 Cor 11:29 “For anyone who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment on himself.”
And ken points out that this is not a trivial warning if we look at the members of the church in Corinth
1 Cor 11:30-31 “That is why many of you are weak and ill, and some have died. But if we judged ourselves truly, we would not be judged.”

Chapter 14 PRAYER

Q1. What does prayer involve?

Question 98 of the WSC States

Question 98

What is prayer?

Prayer is an offering up of our desires unto God, (Ps. 62:8) for things agreeable to his will, (1 John 5:14) in the name of Christ, (John 16:23) with confession of our sins, (Ps. 32:5–6, Dan. 9:4) and thankful acknowledgement of his mercies. (Phil. 4:6)

Some of the Scripture proofs are
Psalm 62:8 “Trust in him at all times, O people; pour out your heart before him; God is a refuge for us. Selah”
1 John 5:14 “And this is the confidence that we have toward him, that if we ask anything according to his will he hears us.”
John 16:23 “In that day you will ask nothing of me. Truly, truly, I say to you, whatever you ask of the Father in my name, he will give it to you.”
Psalm 32:5-6 “I acknowledged my sin to you, and I did not cover my iniquity; I said, “I will confess my transgressions to the Lord,” and you forgave the iniquity of my sin. Selah Therefore let everyone who is godly offer prayer to you at a time when you may be found; surely in the rush of great waters, they shall not reach him.”
Dan 9:4 “I prayed to the Lord my God and made confession, saying, “O Lord, the great and awesome God, who keeps covenant and steadfast love with those who love him and keep his commandments,”
Phil 4:6 “do not be anxious about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God.”
Ken points out that Jesus said in John 16:23 “In that day you will ask nothing of me. Truly, truly, I say to you, whatever you ask of the Father in my name, he will give it to you.”
Does this mean God will grant anything we ask?
No because that would contradict the clearer part of Scripture in 1 John 5:14 “And this is the confidence that we have toward him, that if we ask anything according to his will he hears us.”
It has to be ain accordance with Gods revealed will in the Bible.
Lets now look at Question 2

Q2. How is Prayer a Means of grace?

Ken points out that God is Sovereign.
He is all knowing.
He knows the future.
So why should we pray?
Ken says that God sometimes condescends to accomplish his will through prayer..
the Psalmist new this in
Psalm 5:3 “O Lord, in the morning you hear my voice; in the morning I prepare a sacrifice for you and watch.”
and Paul new this in Col 4:2-3 “Continue steadfastly in prayer, being watchful in it with thanksgiving. At the same time, pray also for us, that God may open to us a door for the word, to declare the mystery of Christ, on account of which I am in prison—”
If we are praying for things in accordance with God’s will.
And we are creatures bound by time and space.
So God will answer these prayers throughout our lives.
Like who we should marry.
Prayer for Children.
Prayer for church growth.
Prayer for the Word of God preached to have an effect on our lives.
These are all Godly prayer that are in accordance with his will.

Q3. Why are some people reluctant to pray?

Let’s see if you can relate.
They hear others speak beautiful prayers.and they become self Conscious.
Ken points out that God cares less about beautiful Words and rather likes a humble heart that is truly seeking to speak with his or her heavenly Father.
Ken points us to the Model of Prayer the Lord taught his disciples in Matthew
Christ also warns those like the Pharasees with Self rewarding Public Prayers. in Matt 6:5 ““And when you pray, you must not be like the hypocrites. For they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and at the street corners, that they may be seen by others. Truly, I say to you, they have received their reward.”
So God only cares if you are sincere.
Wether your prayers are elegant in speech is not his concern
So we should not be reluctant to pray.

Q4. Briefly Summarize the Lord’s Prayer, explaining how to best understand each part.

And Question 99 asks

What rule hath God given for our direction in prayer?

The whole Word of God is of use to direct us in prayer; (1 John 5:14) but the special rule of direction is that form of prayer which Christ taught his disciples, commonly called The Lord’ s prayer. (Matt. 6:9–13, Luke 11:2–4)

Matt 6:9-13 After this manner therefore pray ye:
Our Father which art in heaven, lHallowed be thy name. 10 Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. 11 Give us this day our daily bread. 12 And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. 13 And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.
Address: God is our Father and we are to Address him as our Father.
2. 1Adoration: ( Hallowed be thy Name) WSC 1 What is the chief end of man?Man’ s chief end is to glorify God, (1 Cor. 10:31, Rom. 11:36) and to enjoy him for ever. (Ps. 73:25–28)
Psalm 67:1-3 “May God be gracious to us and bless us and make his face to shine upon us, Selah that your way may be known on earth, your saving power among all nations. Let the peoples praise you, O God; let all the peoples praise you!”
3. Advancement: (Thy Kingdom Come, Thy will be done, On Earth as it is in heaven
Its a Future Reality we read of in
John 18:36 “Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would have been fighting, that I might not be delivered over to the Jews. But my kingdom is not from the world.””
But it is also represented in the Church here on earth as we read in
Mat 16:18-19 “And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.””
And the second coming of Christ is pointed out in Rev 21:4
Rev 21:4 “He will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain anymore, for the former things have passed away.””
4. Provision ( Give us this Day our Daily Bread)
Mat 6:31-33 “Therefore do not be anxious, saying, ‘What shall we eat?’ or ‘What shall we drink?’ or ‘What shall we wear?’ For the Gentiles seek after all these things, and your heavenly Father knows that you need them all. But seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things will be added to you.”
Prov 30:8 “Remove far from me falsehood and lying; give me neither poverty nor riches; feed me with the food that is needful for me,”
5. Confession (Forgive us our Debts as we forgive our debors?
1 John 1:9 “If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.”
6. Protection (And Lead us not into temptation, But deliver us from evil)
This is our ongoing struggle with the world the flesh and the devil
John 17:15 “I do not ask that you take them out of the world, but that you keep them from the evil one.”
Ken points out that Christ doesn't pray that we would be raptured out of the world but rather God uses the difficulties in this life to test our faith and to refine us more and more.
And the final deliverance is in the New heavens and the New Earth
Rev 21:1 “Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea was no more.”
1 Cor 15:52 “in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we shall be changed.”
7. Doxology: For thine is the Kingdom, and the power and the glory forever Amen.)
This is recognition of God’s Supremacy over all things.
And nothing in this World can stop or hinder Gods plans or promises.
Close in Prayer
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