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On Angels: The Evil One and His Angels

Connecting the Dots: Making Sense of the Whole Bible  •  Sermon  •  Submitted   •  Presented   •  1:04:16
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Understanding the Spiritual Battle: The Evil One and His Angels Connecting the Dots Series 3/23/2022 “It would be difficult to find a subject anywhere replete with more fantastic distortion and unbridled extravagance than popular demonology uncontrolled by the truths of divine revelation. In this realm popular imagination has run riot and recklessly disported itself since the dim ages of antiquity. Uncounted multitudes throughout the centuries have lived and died in the clutches of appalling fear and absurd superstition, under the thraldom of evil supernaturalism.” Merrill F. Unger Table of Contents: Demons Who they are What they do He Whom We Call The Devil The Accuser / Adversary Anointed Guardian Cherub Beezebul, Prince of Demons Belial Deceiver Destroyer, Angel of the Abyss The Dragon Enemy / Hostile One Evil One Father of Lies God of This World / Age Murderer Prince of the Power of the Air Ruler of This World The Serpent Tempter Events Involving Satan We Are At War FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Are Demons In The World? Does Satan Carry a Pitchfork Do Satan and Demons Perform Miracles? Does Satan Read Minds? Can Satan Put Thoughts Into People’s Minds? Can We Bind Satan? Who Are The Nephilim? Are There Different Kinds of Demons? Can Christian’s Be Demon-possessed? Can Demons Manifest Physically? Can People or Animals See The Spiritual Realm? Other Issues The Origin of the Title “Lucifer” All We Know On The Nephilim And Their Descendants The Usage of Serpent/Dragon As Imagery of the Devil The Issue of Angelic Regional Rule Satan Is Not Always The Satan Bibliography J.C. Andrews 3 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 9 10 10 10 12 15 16 16 18 18 18 21 22 24 24 26 36 37 39 41 The Evil One and His Angels 2 Demons Who they are: While the Bible makes clear the existence and actions of demons in our world, it does not answer every question the Christian may have on demons.1 Because of the Bible’s silence, there are some who seek external answers to Biblical “As Adam and Eve were originally questions which leads some to diverge from Biblical created good and holy, so the angels were teaching.2 It is not inherently wrong to surmise an created good, but a portion of the angelic answer and fill in the gaps, however to be sure and realm fell with Lucifer. Lucifer became dogmatic on such a topic when there is no clear answer the supreme archangel of those fallen is wrong. We study to show ourselves approved, rightly angels.” dividing the word of God (2 Tm 2:15) and we give grace – R.C. Sproul, 97 to each other on tertiary issues. - The demons which roam our world are __________ __________ (Mt 25:41; Rv 12:7-9)3 - They were, as other angels, ____________ by God for service, yet chose to _______ against God (Jb 38:4-7; Ps 103:19-22; Col 1:16; Hb 1:14) - Demons are called by many different names, including _______ _________, ____________ __________, and ________________ __________ (See below) References to demons: • • • • • • • • Demon (Dt 32:17; Ps 91:6; 96:5; 106:37, Is 13:21; 34:14; 65:3, 11, Septuagint; Mt 7:22; 9:33-34; 10:8; 11:18; 12:24, 27-28; 17:18; Mk 1:34, 39; 3:15, 22; 6:13; 7:26, 29-30; 9:38; 16:9, 17; Lk 4:33, 35, 41; 7:33; 8:2, 27, 29-30, 33, 35, 38; 9:1, 42, 49; 10:17; 11:14-15, 18-20; 13:32; Jn 7:20; 8:48-49, 52; 10:20-21; Acts 17:18; 1 Cor 10:20-21; 1 Tm 4:1; Jm 2:19; Rv 9:20; 16:14;18:2) Evil or Harmful Spirit (Jdg 9:23; 1 Sm 16:14-16, 23; 18:10; 19:9; Mt 12:45; Lk 7:21; 8:2; 11:26; Acts 19:12, 13, 15-16) Lying Spirit (1 Kgs 22:22-23; 2 Chr 18:22) Prince of Greece, Prince of Persia (Dn 10:13, 20) Spirit of uncleanness / unclean spirit (Zech 13:2; Mt 10:1; 12:43; Mk 1:23, 26-27; 3:11, 30; 5:2, 8, 13; 6:7; 7:25; 9:25; Lk 4:33, 36; 6:18; 8:29; 9:42; 11:24; Acts 5:16;8:7; Rv 16:13; 18:2 ) Destroying Angels (Ps 78:49) Host of Heaven (Is 24:21; 34:4) Frog (Rv 16:13) 1 Cyprian acknowledges that the Biblical teachings on demons is limited and, even in his writing here, he subtlety separates the identity of fallen angels from demons: “In regard to the devil and his angels and opposing powers, the ecclesiastical teaching maintains that these beings do indeed exist, but what they are or how they exist is not explained with sufficient clarity. This opinion, however, is held by most: that the devil was an angel and, having apostatized, he persuaded as many angels as possible to fall away with himself; and these, even to the present time, are called his angels.” Cyprian of Carthage, The Fundamental Doctrines 1:Preface:6 [inter A.D. 220-230]. 2 For a brief discussion on the extra-biblical argument on the identity of demons, see All We Know About The Nephilim and Their Descendants: The Fate of the Nephilim. 3 “If Satan’s angels and the demons are not identical, then no other origin of demons is anywhere explicitly revealed in Scripture” (Unger, 52). J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 3 • • • • • Locust (Rv 9:3) Mute and deaf spirit (Mk 9:25) Spirit (Mt 8:16; 12:45; Mk 9:17, 20; Lk 9:39; 10:20; 11:26; Acts 16:16, 18; Rv 16:14) Spirit of divination (Acts 16:16) Star (Rv 12:4) What they do: “It is true of all demons that they were not originally demons. Rather, they became so in departing from the true way. Accordingly, the name ‘demon’ is given to those beings who have fallen away from God.” Origen (c. 248), 4.638. Satan, the prince of demons, is most often described as an Adversary to God and to God’s people.4 This is clearly seen in how he and his angels oppose both God and man. Demons act in two distinct ways: they ______ ____________ God and they __________ man. Demons Act Against God • • • Attempted Exaltation Over God (2 Thess 2:3-4) Seeking to Overthrow the Promised Seed of Eve (Gn 3:15; 4:8; Mt 2:16; Rv 12) Accuse God Before Men (Gn 3:1-7) Demons Afflict Man5 • • • • • • • • • • Possess / Indwell both humans and animals (Mk 1:23-27; 5:1-16) Afflict Individuals with Physical Ailments (Mt “Secretly working in their inward parts, they corrupt the health of these persons, bring on diseases, terrify their souls with dreams, and harass their minds with frenzies. They do this so that by these evils, they may cause men to come to them for aid.” 12:22; Mk 1:26; 9:17, 20, 22, 25; Lk 9:39; Acts 8:7; 10:38)6 Deceive (1 Kgs 22:19-23; 2 Cor 11:14-15) Lactantius (c. 304-313), 7.64; extended Tempt (Gn 3:1-7; Mt 4:3; Jn 13:37; Acts 5:3; 1 Thess. discussion: 4.328-4.334 3:5) Terrorize (1 Sm 16:14-15; 18:10; 19:9; Acts 19:13-16; 2 Cor 12:7) Introduce and Promote False Teachings (1 Tm 4:1) Perform False Signs, Wonders, and Miracles (2 Thess. 2:9; Rv 16:13-14) Promote Idolatry (Dt 32:17; Ps 106:37) Promote Plots to Murder (Jdg 9:23, 56-57) Accuse Men Before God (Zech 3:1-2) 4 Zuber, 271. A similar list can be found in MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 713. 6 “It is noteworthy that the biblical writers did not attribute all illness to demon possession. Luke reports that Jesus distinguished between two types of healing: ‘I will drive out demons and heal people today and tomorrow’ (Luke 13:32). A similar distinction is made in Matthew 10:8; Mark 1:34; 6:13; Luke 4:40-41; 9:1. Nor was epilepsy mistaken for demon possession. We read in Matthew 17:15-18 that Jesus cast out a demon from an epileptic, but in Matthew 4:24 epileptics (as well as paralytics) are distinguished from demoniacs. In the case of numerous healings no mention is made of demons.” (Erickson, 418). 5 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 4 He Whom We Call The Devil “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” This soliloquy in Shakespeare’s Romeo And Juliet addresses the fundamental problem in the story: the fight between two families. Romeo and Juliet were to hate and avoid each other based solely on a name, yet Juliet says Romeo, even without the same familial name, would be Romeo. Even unto their death the two teenagers struggle with the concept that names bear weight in the world when to them the ontology7 of a person matters more. In contrast, in Judaism a name is of great importance because the ontology of the person is wrapped up in the person’s name. One’s name reveals information about one’s character, “I believe Satan to exist for two reasons: background, or destiny.8 A good name is desired above first, the Bible says so; and second, I've all (Prv 22:1-2; Eccl 7:1). done business with him.” God reveals much about Himself to us through – Dwight L. Moody titles and names. As Unger says, in relation to the name of Jesus, “The ‘name’ was tantamount to the infinite Person behind the name.”9 Likewise, God and the Biblical authors give us titles and names for the ancient evil one in order to give us an understanding of who he is and what he does.10 There is a history of depicting Satan with gross imagery when he, biblically, is more likely to appear as “an angel of light” (2 Cor 11:14). Satan is oft depicted as a beast with hooves, a tail, horns, and carrying a pitchfork. This image draws us away from the biblical depiction of the evil one whom we call the Devil.11 An overview of the titles given to this demon follow: The ________ given to the Devil tell us about _____ ____ ____ and ______ ____ ______. The Accuser / Adversary12 ‫ – שָׂ טָׂ ן‬Satan, Accuser, Adversary - “Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of Yahweh, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him.2 And Yahweh said to Satan, ‘Yahweh rebuke you, Satan! Indeed, Yahweh who has chosen Jerusalem rebuke you! Is this not a brand delivered from the fire?’” Zechariah 3:1-2, LSB Διάβολος - Diabolos – Slanderer, Adversary - “The one who does sin is of the devil, because the devil sins from the beginning. The Son of God was manifested for this purpose, to destroy the works of the devil.” 1 John 3:8, LSB Or fundamental / foundational being. A person’s metaphysical existence. Examples include Ichabod (1 Sm 4:21) and Peter (Mt 16:18). Every name has meaning and as you read Scripture you will find the names of people matching well with the actions of those people. 9 Unger, 103. 10 “…it would be logical to assume that a supernatural being would have been given this designation [of Satan] as a description of his function—that is, a heavenly adversary.” (Enns, Wisdom, Poetry & Writings 714-715). 11 For more information see “Does Satan Carry a Pitchfork” under FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS. 12 -For more, see 1 Chron 21:1; Jb 1-2; Zech 3:1-2; Mt 4:1, 5, 8, 10-11; 12:26; 13:39; 16:23; 25:41; Mk 1:13; 3:23, 26; 4:15; 8:33; Lk 4:2-3, 6, 13; 8:12; 10:18; 11:18; 13:16; 22:3, 31; Jn 8:44; 13:2, 27; Acts 5:3; 10:38; 13:10; 26:18; Rm 16:20; 1 Cor 5:5; 7:5; 2 Cor 2:11; 11:14; 12:7; Eph 4:27; 6:11; 1 Thess 2:18; 2 Thess 2:9; 1 Tm 1:20; 3:6-7; 5:15; 2 Tm 2:26; Heb 2:14; Jm 4:7; 1 Pt 5:8; 1 Jn 3:10; Jd 9; Rv 2:9-10, 13, 24; 3:9; 12:9, 12; 20:2, 7, 10.. See also Satan Is Not Always The Satan in Other Issues. 7 8 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 5 Σαταν, Σατανᾶς – Satan, Satanas - “Therefore, I want younger widows to get married, bear children, keep house, and give the enemy no opportunity for reviling, for some have already turned aside after Satan.” 1 Timothy 5:14-15, LSB ἀντίδικος – antidikos – Accuser, Adversary - “Be of sober spirit, be watchful. Your adversary, the devil, prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour.” 1 Peter 5:8, LSB Anointed Guardian Cherub - If Isaiah 14 and Ezekiel 28 are about the Devil, then another moniker for him would be Anointed Guardian Cherub (Ez 28:14, 16). For more discussion on the issues of understanding these passages, see “The Origin of ‘Lucifer’” under “Other Issues.” Beelzebul: Prince of Demons13 - “But some of them said, ‘He casts out demons by Beelzebul, the ruler of the demons.’” Luke 11:15, LSB Belial14 - “Do not be unequally yoked with unbelievers; for what partnership have righteousness and lawlessness, or what fellowship has light with darkness? Or what harmony has Christ with Belial, or what has a believer in common with an unbeliever?” 2 Corinthians 6:14-15, LSB Deceiver15 - “And the devil who deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are also, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.” Revelation 20:10, LSB Destroyer,16 Angel of the Abyss - They have as king over them, the angel of the abyss. His name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in the Greek he has the name Apollyon. Revelation 9:11, LSB The Dragon17 - “Then another sign appeared in heaven: and behold, a great red dragon having seven heads and ten horns, and on his heads were seven diadems.” Revelation 12:3, LSB Enemy / Hostile One18 - “The slaves of the landowner came and said to him, ‘Sir, did you not sow good seed in your field? How then does it have tares? ’And he said to them, ‘An enemy has done this!’ The slaves said to him, ‘Do you want us, then, to go and gather them up?’” Matthew 13:27-28, LSB Evil One19 - “In addition to all, having taken up the shield of faith with which you will be able to extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one,…” Ephesians 6:16, LSB There is division over the exact meaning of the name. Some argue for the meaning “lord of heaven” or “ruler of the heavenly realm” while others argue for a straightforward reading as “prince Baal” (Heiser, Demons, 177-178). There may be a connection with the Hebrew name Baalzebub which could best be translated as “Lord of the flies” or “Chaos-maker.” Baalzebub was once the Philistine god of the city Ekron (2 Kgs 1:2). 14 “This transliterated Hebrew word appears twenty-seven times in the Old Testament (see Deut. 13:13; Judg. 19:22; 1 Sam. 2:12; 1 Kings 21:13; Prov. 6:12) and refers to vile, wicked, and worthless scoundrels and troublemakers. It is quite possible that Nahum 1:15 uses this word to refer to Satan. Certainly, Paul intended the term to portray Satan as the most vile, wicked, and worthless creature, without peer or superior.” (MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 679). 15 For more, see Rv 12:9 16 “This transliterated Hebrew word is normally associated with death and destruction in the six Old Testament texts where it appears (Job 26:6; 28:22; 31:12; Ps. 88:11; Prov. 15:11; 27:20).” (MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 677). 17 -For more, see Rv 12:4, 7, 9, 13, 16-17; 13:2, 4, 11; 16:13; 20:2. See also The usage of serpent/dragon as imagery of the Devil in Other Issues 18 Even though this description is given of a character representing Satan in a parable, the title is instructive. Satan is hostile. He is an enemy to the salvific work of God, seeking to upend it and make it harder. 19 For more see Mt 5:37; 6:13; 13:38; Jn 17:15; 2 Thess 3:3; 1 Jn 3:12. 13 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 6 Father of Lies20 - “You are of your father the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth because there is no truth in him. Whenever he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own nature, for he is a liar and the father of lies.” John 8:44, LSB “Hell is the highest reward that the devil can offer you for being a servant of his.” – Billy Sunday God of This World / Age21 - And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those who are perishing, in whose case the god of this age has blinded the minds of the unbelieving so that they might not see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God. 2 Corinthians 4:3-4, LSB Murderer - “You are of your father the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth because there is no truth in him. Whenever he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own nature, for he is a liar and the father of lies.” John 8:44, LSB (emphasis added) Prince of the Power of the Air - And you were dead in your transgressions and sins, in which you formerly walked according to the course of this world, according to the ruler of the power of the air, the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience, among whom we all also formerly conducted ourselves in the lusts of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. Ephesians 2:1-3, LSB (emphasis added) Ruler of This World22 - “Now judgment is upon this world; now the ruler of this world will be cast out.” John 12:31, LSB The Serpent23 - “Now the serpent was more crafty than any beast of the field which Yahweh God had made. And he said to the woman, “Indeed, has God said, ‘You shall not eat from any tree of the garden’?” Genesis 3:1, LSB (emphasis added) Tempter24 - “For this reason, when I could endure it no longer, I also sent to know about your faith, lest somehow the tempter has tempted you, and our labor be in vain.’ 1 Thessalonians 3:5, LSB “Not only is Satan a perpetual liar, he is the originator of lies. The Devil, by deceiving Eve (Gen. 3:1-6; 2 Cor. 11:3; 1 Tim. 2:14) into disobedience, has in a sense fathered the entire human race, characterized by lies, sinful children who walk in the footsteps of their primogenitor (Rom. 3:10-11, 13).” (MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 679). 21 Contrary to what some believe and teach, this passage is not saying that Satan is a god in the sense that God is God. Rather the focus is on Satan’s rule over the world, being in a position over it as though he were their god, whom they truly worship through pagan religions and practices. 22 See also Jn 14:30; 16:11 23 -For more, see Gn 3:2, 4, 13, 14; 2 Cor 11:3; Rv 12:9, 14-15; 20:2. See also The usage of serpent/dragon as imagery of the Devil in Other Issues 24 For more, see Mt 4:3 (the tempter) and 1 Cor 7:5 (Satan as the source of temptation). 20 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 7 Figure 1: Events Involving Satan25 What Creation of Satan Moral Fall of Satan Deception of Eve When Beginning Of Creation Postcreation Post-Moral Fall Edenic Curse Accusing Job Dispute with Michael Provocation of David Lying to Ahab Influencing the king of Babylon Influencing the king of Tyre Accusing the High Priest Birth of Christ Temptation of Christ Postdeception Circa 2250 BC Circa 1405 BC Circa 975 BC Circa 853 BC Circa 700-681 BC Circa 590-570 BC Circa 480-470 BC Circa 5-4 BC Circa AD 27-28 Debilitating a Woman Sifting of Peter Defection of Judas Influencing the lie of Ananias Hindering Paul Inflicting Paul Final Banishment From Heaven Circa AD 29-30 Circa AD 30 Circa AD 30 Circa AD 31-32 Circa AD 51 Circa AD 55-56 Middle of Daniel’s Seventieth Week Middle of Daniel’s Seventieth Week Last Half of Daniel’s Seventieth Week Christ’s Millennial Kingdom End of Christ’s Millennial Kingdom End of Christ’s Millennial Kingdom Empowering the Antichrist and the False Prophet Performing False Signs Millennial Incarnation Final Battle Final Judgement 25 Passage(s) Nh 9:6 Jb 38:7; Ps 148:2, 5; Ez 28:13, 15; Col 1:16 Is 14:12-13; Rv 12:4 Gn 3:1-6; 2 Cor 11:1-3; 1 Tm 2:14 Gn 3:15; Jn 16:11; Rm 16:20 Job 1-2 Jude 9 1 Chr 21:1 1 Kgs 22:1-40; 2 Chr 18:1-34 Is 14:12-14 Ez 28:12-17 Zech 3:1-2 Rv 12:4 Mt 4:1-11; Mk 1:12-13; Lk 4:1-13 Lk 13:16 Lk 22:31 Lk 22:3; Jn 13:2, 27 Acts 5:3 1 Thess 2:18 2 Cor 12:7 Rv 12:7-13 Rv 13:2, 4 Rv 16:13-14 Rv 20:1-3 Rv 20:7-9 Is 27:1; Rv 20:10 Adapted from MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 682-683. J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 8 We Are At War “The first step on the way to victory is to recognize the enemy.” Corrie Ten Boom ⸰ Our battle is against the ________ of ______ (Mt 16:23; Eph 6:10-13; Jm 4:7) ⸰ Our battle can be _________ (Mt 5:29-30; 1 Pt 5:8-9) ⸰ Our battle is waged ________ (Lk 9:23-26) ⸰ Our battle finds its _________ in ________ (Mk 3:11-12) ⸰ Our battle _______ in __________. (Mt 16:17-18) ⸰ Our battle is ______ by _________. (Rv 19:11-16) “If you will tell me when God permits a Christian to lay aside his armour, I will tell you when Satan has left off temptation. Like the old knights in war time, we must sleep with helmet and breastplate buckled on, for the archdeceiver will seize our first unguarded hour to make us his prey. The Lord keep us watchful in all season, and give us a final escape from the jaw of the lion and the paw of the bear.” – Charles Spurgeon “Believers who would be spiritual and live victoriously face a tremendous conflict with Satan and demons, who vehemently oppose true spirituality and Christian usefulness (Eph. 6:11-12). The panoply of prayer (Eph. 6:1020), faith (1 John 5:4), and the Word of God (Matt. 4:4, 7, 10), combined with a knowledge of Satanic devices (II Cor. 2:11), are the Christian’s resources for triumph. – Merrill Unger, 101. “Oh give us help against the adversary, For salvation by man is worthless. Through God we shall do valiantly, And it is He who will tread down our adversaries.” Psalm 60:11-12 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 9 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Are Demons In The World? “And you were dead in your transgressions and sins, in which you formerly walked according to the course of this world, according to the ruler of the power of the air, the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience, among whom we all also formerly conducted ourselves in the lusts of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.” Ephesians 2:1-3, LSB (emphasis added) Yes. Satan and his demons presently work in our world to achieve the ends of Satan. As you review the works of Satan and his demons above, you will recognize similar events and ailments occurring in our world today. Though demons are not “around every corner” and responsible for every sickness, ill-event, or catastrophe, “The existence of angels and demons is we must not underestimate their activity in our world. portrayed by many as being pure fantasy. Demons are active in the spiritual realm, bringing about Such individuals can be found even their desires in the physical realm. among those claiming to be Christian. They try to update Christianity so as not to feel silly when confronted by their friends. They will often attribute symbolic meanings to the terms. For instance I once heard an Elder imply that the devil was actually symbolic for ‘evil in all of its forms.’ But why the disbelief? We believe that God is pure Spirit? Is He not capable of creating beings that are also pure spirit? The Early Church Fathers certainly thought so.” Paul encouraged the Christian to gear up for war with the armor of God, which actively repels the attacks of Satan (Eph. 6:10-20). Paul’s commands are not limited to the first century Christians but are meaningful for us as well. Satan, even now, “prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour” (1 Pt 5:8) and will do so until he is bound in the abyss and then cast into the lake of fire. We must recognize Satan’s actions in this world so that we are not caught unaware. He is truly at work. - Clement of Rome Does Satan Carry A Pitchfork? Probably not. The current depiction of Satan, seemingly being concocted in the Middle Ages, draws from multiple resources in order to create such a picture. There is not strong biblical evidence for the following image: Hooves, a tail, horns, hairy legs, and a beard The connection between Satan and hooves likely comes from the Hebrew term sā-īr (‫ )שָׂ עִ יר‬which means either goat or goat-demon. The myths of sexualized satyrs (Greek) and fauns (Roman) was not unique to pagan cultures, bearing some presence in the Scriptures. They shall no longer sacrifice their sacrifices to the goat demons with which they play the harlot. This shall be a permanent statute to them throughout their generations. Leviticus 17:7, NASB (emphasis added) For the Levites left their pasture lands and their property and came to Judah and Jerusalem, for Jeroboam and his sons had excluded them from serving as priests J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 10 to the Lord. He set up priests of his own for the high places, for the satyrs and for the calves which he had made. 2 Chronicles 11:14-15, NASB (emphasis added) But desert creatures will lie down there, And their houses will be full of owls; Ostriches also will live there, and shaggy goats will frolic there. Isaiah 13:21, NASB (emphasis added) The desert creatures will meet with the wolves, The hairy goat also will cry to its kind; Yes, the night monster will settle there And will find herself a resting place. Isaiah 34:14, NASB (emphasis added) The Septuagint translation (LXX) translates the Hebrew sā-īr as the Greek daimonion (δαιμόνιον) or demon, which communicates the Jewish understanding of the intention of the above passages. As some demons are described as “goat demons” it was not unreasonable to associate Satan with such an image: a demon with hooves. The view itself, though with some biblical reasoning, became prevalent in the Middle Ages and has since held on in popular culture. There are questions as to whether the inventors of such an image truly believed Satan looked as such or invented the image to mock him.26 Red “Our policy, for the moment, is to conceal ourselves…I do not think you will have much difficulty in keeping the patient in the dark. The fact that ‘devils’ are predominately comic figures in the modern imagination will help you. If any faint suspicion of your existence begins to arise in his mind, suggest to him a picture of something in red tights, and persuade him that since he cannot believe in that (it is an old textbook method of confusing them) he therefore cannot believe in you.” -C.S. Lewis, The Screwtape Letters The Seven Deadly Sins doctrine,27 defined and categorized primarily between the sixth and thirteenth centuries,28 claimed that there were demons behind each mortal sin. Various images and colors eventually became associated with each sin.29 It is possible that the reason Satan is viewed as red is his association with wrath/anger. This seems reasonable given that in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, the devil is said to be dressed in green and is seemingly reflecting the characteristics of green in the story. An association between Satan and wrath at the time may have originated this view. It is also possible “That image of Satan originated during the Middle Ages, when the church was acutely conscious of the devil’s reality. People then were much concerned about finding ways to resist Satan’s evil impulses. Theologians were teaching that Satan had been a good angel before he fell, and that since his particular sin had been ride, people could resist him by mocking him. As a result, people invented ludicrous portrayals of Satan in order to attack his pride so that he would depart from them. No one in those days really believed that Satan carried a pitchfork and had horns and cloven feet, but subsequent generations came to believe that the people of the Middle Ages had actually believed in such a creature.” (Sproul, 93-94). 27 This is a Roman Catholic doctrine which teaches that there are seven “mortal” sins which can cause a person to go to hell if they fail to repent of them before death (in contrast to “venial” or “not deadly” sins which may not, except by culmination, cause one to not enter heaven): Gluttony, Lust, Avarice/Greed, Envy, Wrath, Sloth, Vainglory/Pride. 28 This author recognizes that Tertullian of Carthage (3rd Century), Evagrius Ponticus (4th century), and Pope Gregory the 1st (6th century) all compiled lists of sins that that mirror or are like the seven deadly sins list we have now, however it was not until the 13th century that these concepts were explored further by Thomas Aquinas. Thus, this author has elected to state a later understanding of the seven deadly sins, leading into the middle ages. 29 Violet Pride, Green Envy, Red Wrath, Light Blue Sloth, Yellow Greed, Orange Gluttony, Blue Lust. 26 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 11 that an association with the flames of hell (which are red) caused some to view Satan as red, given that hell was “prepared for the devil It is Well With My Soul, Horatio Spafford and his angels” (Mt 25:41, NASB). This would Though Satan should buffet, though trials should come, all be compounded by Satan being labeled “a Let this blest assurance control, great red dragon” in the Bible (Rv 12:3, That Christ hath regarded my helpless estate, NASB). In the end there is no clear standout And hath shed His own blood for my soul. reason for how this conception originated. Carries a pitchfork Greek mythology tells of three brothers who, after defeating their father Cronos and the other Titans, drew lots to determine who would rule over what. Zeus drew the lot for Mt. Olympus or the heavens. Poseidon drew the lot for the oceans. Hades drew the lot for the underworld. Hades, the god of the underworld, was classically associated with a bident (a twopronged pitchfork). This seems the most reasonable explanation for how the imagery of Satan, for whom the lake of fire was created, was associated with a pitchfork. What does he look like then? We don’t know what Satan looks like, but we do know that he likely doesn’t look like the description above. If Satan appeared as this creature, he would likely be rejected instantly. Instead, he chooses to appear as an angel of light (2 Cor 11:14) to deceive and tempt. If we are to understand Ezekiel 28 as being in reference to Satan, he was “perfect in beauty” (Ez 28:12) and covered in “every precious stone” (Ez 28:13). This is hardly the image of the beast given above. Do Satan And Demons Perform Miracles? Before answering the question, miracle must be defined. After all, there are many times in our lives where we’ve heard the term miracle. There’s the miracle of childbirth. The miracle of surviving various diseases and accidents. And countless other things we’ve heard are miracles. Though these things may be acts of God within the world, they are not always by definition a miracle. A miracle is when something occurs that cannot be explained by the laws of nature and could even be opposed to the laws of nature. Biblical examples of miracles are plenty: • • • Fire didn’t burn – How is it that “the bush was burning with fire, but the bush was not consumed” (Ex 3:2b, NKJV)? A miracle. The laws of nature related to fire were suspended. A like miracle occurred when a few faithful men were cast into a fire and “they [were] not hurt” (Dn 3:25, NKJV). The Earth’s Rotation Paused – How is it that “the sun stood still” (Jsh 10:13a, NKJV)? A miracle. The laws of nature related to the earth’s rotation and all that occurs because of that were suspended and God actively sustained the earth. Density and weight changed – How is it that Elisha caused the “iron [to] float” (2 Kgs 6:6, NKJV)? A miracle. Against the laws of nature, the heavier iron rose to the top of the water, floating. There are countless more examples with the crux of God’s suspension of the laws of nature being the resurrection of Jesus Christ, our Lord and Savior. That which is truly dead and rotting cannot become alive without overcoming the laws of nature. A miracle is not in play when a person is J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 12 revived after being dead briefly. A miracle is in play when one is dead for days and revives. Now that we have defined what a miracle truly is, let us turn our attention toward the question at hand: do Satan and demons perform miracles? While Satan and his demons can do works that give the appearance of miracles, they are incapable of performing true miracles.30 All that is done by the works of darkness is ultimately done by permission from God (Jb :1-10) and is limited to the ability and nature of created-beings (Satan and Demons). This means that Satan’s deeds, being limited by his nature – A.W. Pink and control, are incapable of matching the deeds of God. Satan’s attempts at manufacturing miracle-like events are evidence of this. For this reason, even the Jewish people questioned whether a demon can perform miracles, as Jesus did: “As Christ has a Gospel, Satan has a gospel too; the latter being a clever counterfeit of the former. So closely does the gospel of Satan resemble that which it parades, multitudes of the unsaved are deceived by it.” “And many of them were saying, ‘He has a demon and is insane. Why do you listen to Him?’ Others were saying, ‘These are not the words of someone demonpossessed. Can a demon open the eyes of the blind?’” John 10:20-21, LSB Like the forces of evil, those who serve evil perform dark arts in a way that mirrors reality but always falls short of the power of God. There are several examples of this in Scripture. In Exodus, we see that God gave Moses and Aaron the ability to turn a staff into a serpent and cause leprosy to appear and disappear in addition to other miraculous acts (Ex 4:1-17). The “wise men” of Pharoah, Jannes and Jambres (2 Tm 3:8), reproduced the miracles of God, yet to a lesser extent: And Yahweh spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying,9 “When Pharaoh speaks to you, saying, ‘Work a miraculous wonder,’ then you shall say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down before Pharaoh, that it may become a serpent.’”10 So Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh, and thus they did just as Yahweh had commanded; and Aaron threw his staff down before Pharaoh and his servants, and it became a serpent.11 Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers, and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did the same with their secret arts.12 And each one threw down his staff, and they became serpents. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs.13 Yet Pharaoh’s heart was hardened with strength, and he did not listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken. Exodus 7:8-13, LSB (emphasis added) 8 This reproduction of miraculous acts continued between the magicians of Egypt and the servants of God (Ex 7:22; 8:6-7) until the magicians were no longer able to reproduce what God was doing (Ex 8:16-19), demonstrating that their own power was confined to evil’s ability to mimic the miraculous. They were incapable of performing true miracles. This does not mean that what they did was sleight of hand, however. “Secretly creeping into human bodies with subtlety (as being spirits), they simulate diseases, alarm the minds, and wrench about the limbs. They do this so that they may constrain men to them. ... By remitting what they had bound, they seem to have cured it.” -Mark Minucius Felix (c. 200), 4190. “…demons can possibly give the convincing appearance of healing, but they cannot heal miraculously in reality. They are deceiving spirits (1 Tim. 4:1) whose signs are not of God (Rev. 16:14).” (MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 729). 30 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 13 The Hebrew terms used to describe these men imply demonic power behind each attempt to copy Moses and Aaron.31 Another example of pseudo-miracles appears in First Samuel. King Saul of Israel visited a “medium” (lit. “spirit mistress woman” 1 Sm 28:7) to put him in contact with Samuel who had died (1 Sm 28:11). Based on the medium’s response (“And the woman saw Samuel and cried out with a loud voice” 1 Sm 28:12, LSB) she seemed to be surprised to see the spirit of the true Samuel. Some commentators have surmised that the woman’s necromancy did not involve bringing forth the spirits of individuals, but the imitation of demons32 or even knowingly bringing forth “knowing ones” (‫יִדְּ עֹ ִ֔ ִנים‬, yiddĕ‘ōnîm, Lv 19:31; 20:6, 27) from the pit.33 Ultimately this event was not of her doing, but of God’s.34 She anticipated an imitation from or communion with evil and received a miracle from God. 2 Corinthians 12:6-9 Further examples abound in the New Testament in Philip’s true miracles vs. Simon the Magician (Acts 8:4-25) and Paul’s being filled with the Holy Spirit vs. Bar-Jesus / Elymas the sorcerer being filled with “all deceit and all fraud” (Acts 13:412). Space does not allow us to examine those stories further. For if I want to boast, I wouldn’t be a fool, because I would be telling the truth. But I will spare you, so that no one can credit me with something beyond what he sees in me or hears from me, 7 especially because of the extraordinary revelations. Therefore, so that I would not exalt myself, a thorn in the flesh was given to me, a messenger of Satan to torment me so that I would not exalt myself. 8 Concerning this, I pleaded with the Lord three times that it would leave me. 9 But he said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is perfected in weakness.” 6 In addition to what has already been mentioned, seemingly the only sicknesses demons can heal are those they have afflicted upon a person.35 And even then, they are not healing per se but ceasing to cause to be afflicted. Even in the end when that beast will rule over the earth by the power of Satan, he heals from a head wound that only gives the appearance of being fatal (Rv 13:3): a sort of mimicking of Christ’s death and resurrection but without the true miraculous power. Satan and his demons are only able to mimic and give the appearance of the miraculous while God, who created everything, brings about miracles. We should not marvel at the workings 31 Unger, 111-112. “This is a special instance when God intervenes via a forbidden practice to deliver a prophetic word by His decree and under His guidance. Normally, this kind of practice did not bring about actual contact with the dead. How do we know this? This woman ‘cried with a loud voice’ and mistook Samuel for being a ‘god coming up out of the earth’ (v. 12-13), which indicates that she had never before initiated contact with a crossed-over spirit like that of Samuel” (Bancarz, 19) 33 See Heiser, Demons, 17-18 for further discussion on the use of the term “knowing ones.” 34 Koch argues for this reading of the text (Koch, Demonology, 28-29) as does Andrews: “Did the medium actually bring up Samuel? More than half a dozen interpretations have been offered to explain how this event happened… The text does seem to imply that mediums had the ability to communicate with the dead. The Old Testament prohibited doing so because it offered supernatural guidance from a source other than the Lord. It is reasonable to suggest that this medium was not able to conjure up Samuel’s spirit by her skill alone. This was a unique act of God to permit Saul to have one more audience with Samuel. Samuel served once again as a prophet bringing the word of God to a desperate and rebellious king.” (Andrews, Stephen J. and Robert D. Bergen. Holman Old Testament Commentary: I&II Samuel. Holman Reference: Nashville, TN, 2009. 187) 35 Unger argues from Scripture on this point (104-105). Koch anecdotally disagrees, believing that Satan and his demons are capable of healing, but the healing comes at a cost: “Occult healings really do exist, even demonic healings can be substantiated, but the result is bondage of the soul to the forces of the devil. When Satan heals a person of tuberculosis of the lungs or of cancer, he afterwards presents his bill: the eternal life of the soul” (Koch, Demonology, 16). 32 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 14 of the devil, who is the god of this world, but rather rest in the omnipotent power of God, our creator and Lord who not only created the laws of nature but can supersede them. And the men marveled, and said, “What kind of a man is this, that even the winds and the sea obey Him?” Matthew 8:27, LSB36 Does Satan read minds? In short, “no.” Unlike many world religions, the Bible does not teach dualism, the belief of equal and opposite forces that create a balance in the world.37 So, we must understand Satan, as a created being, does not have the characteristics of God like omnipotence (all-powerful), omnipresence (all-present), and omniscience (all-knowing).38 Satan is not the evil version of God; he is a created being. Satan, who is not all-knowing, is unable to read the minds of individuals39 however it is highly likely that he and his demons are very capable at predicting behavior of individuals.40 Satan and his demons reside in the unseen spiritual realm and, thus, could easily know information about us that others do not.41 From this knowledge, Satan and his demons can craft “schemes,” against which Christians must “stand firm” (Eph 6:11), and foretell the futures of individuals (Acts 16:16-24). An example of Satan’s failure to rightly read an individual’s actions and thoughts is in the case of Job: “Satan’s two conversations with God and the encounter with Job (Job 1-2) illustrate this point. Satan pretended that he knew the details of Job’s thinking, but subsequent events proved the Devil to be inept and unable to correctly know the particulars of Job’s mind because he cannot read minds.”42 God’s command to us “Satan can make men dance upon the is to “resist the devil” and instead “draw near to God” brink of hell as though they were on the (Jm 4:7-8). When a thought enters our minds, we must verge of heaven.” seek “the way of escape” (1 Cor 10:13) and so prove in – Charles Spurgeon our own lives that Satan does not read our minds. See also Psalm 65 as God is shown to be the one “who stills the roaring of the seas, the roaring of their waves, the tumult of the peoples” (Ps 65:7, ESV). Jesus’s calming of the storm was a direct statement of His identity as God. 37 “It is critical that Christians understand that Satan is not God. We are not dualists who believe in two equal and opposite powers, one good and one evil, one light and ne dark. Satan is a creature. He does not have the power of God. He cannot do things that only God can do, yet he is more powerful and crafty than human beings.” (Sproul, 97). 38 “In the area of knowledge, we should not think that demons can know the future or that they can read our minds or know our thoughts. In many places in the Old Testament, the Lord shows himself to be the true God in distinction from the false (demonic) gods of the nations by the fact that he alone can know the future: ‘I am God, and there is note like me, declaring the end from the beginning and from ancient times things not yet done’ (Isa. 46:9-10)” (Grudem, 416). 39 “With respect to knowing our thoughts, the Bible tells us that Jesus knew people’s thoughts (Matt. 9:4; 12:25; Mark 2:8; Luke 6:8; 11:17) and that God knows people’s thoughts (Gen. 6:5; Ps. 139:2, 4, 23; Isa. 66:18) but there is no indication that angels or demons can know our thoughts.” (Grudem, 416). 40 “True prophecy does not necessitate benevolent origin. An evil spirit is able to make predictions about the future based on the data available…” (Bancarz and Peck, 79). 41 Grudem, 416. 42 MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 728. 36 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 15 Can Satan put thoughts into people’s minds? Perhaps you have heard the old adage “the devil made me do it.” This phrase assumes that Satan is capable of overpowering either the human will or God’s will. Satan can, according to this phrase, command a person what to do and force them to do it. The foundational problem with this view is that it assumes that Satan is the primary or only source of sin. We each, fallen as we are, have within us all that is needed to sin and sin greatly. We do not need Satan to implant thoughts within us for us to think about and desire sinning. To return to the original question: the answer “Satan doth sow most of his seed of seems to be “no.” Satan cannot force a thought into temptation in hearts that lie fallow. When one’s mind. Could it be as though Satan’s temptations he sees persons unemployed, he will find work for them to do.” manifest to us like thoughts? Certainly. Satan does not speak to us directly as though a voice from the deep, – Thomas Watson rather his temptations come in many forms and it is likely that his temptations come to us as though they were thoughts originated within our own minds. To differentiate between our own flesh and Satan / his demons tempting us would be an impossibility. Knowing that Satan cannot read our minds and cannot force us to think about something, should be comforting. Knowing that some of our own temptations come from our own flesh should drive us to mortify our sin all the more. We must all guard our hearts and minds, asking God to likewise guard us (Mt 6:13). 6 Be anxious for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known to God; 7 and the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus. 8 Finally, brethren, whatever things are true, whatever things are noble, whatever things are just, whatever things are pure, whatever things are lovely, whatever things are of good report, if there is any virtue and if there is anything praiseworthy—meditate on these things. 9 The things which you learned and received and heard and saw in me, these do, and the God of peace will be with you. Philippians 4:6-9, NKJV Can we bind Satan? Perhaps you’ve heard a person with certain theological leanings pray, in a sense to Satan, telling Satan that they are “binding” him and keeping him from interfering in their life. They say something like “Satan, in Jesus’ name, we bind you! You may not interfere in our efforts to evangelize today.” The idea of binding Satan is that a person can rebuke Satan and, through their prayers, overpower and hinder Satan. However, the belief that a person can “bind” Satan has no Biblical root. Rather binding of demonic powers seems to first appear in Jewish folklore in the second temple era. The apocryphal book of Tobit describes a man who burns fish liver and heart on incense; the result is as follows: “The demon, repelled by the odor of the fish, fled into Upper Egypt; Raphael pursued him there and bound him hand and foot” (Tobit 8:3). How this story about Raphael, an angel, binding Asmodeus turned into individuals believing they could bind Satan is unclear. There are a few New Testament passages that, when read out of context, may have contributed to this theological misunderstanding: J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 16 • • • “But no one can enter the strong man’s house and plunder his property unless he first binds the strong man, and then he will plunder his house.” Mark 3:27, LSB (emphasis added) (See also Mt 12:22-29 and Lk 11:14-23)43 “I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever you bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall have been loosed in heaven.”” Matthew 12:19,44 LSB (emphasis addd) “Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, having the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold of the dragon, the serpent of old, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years; and he threw him into the abyss, and shut it and sealed it over him, so that he would not deceive the nations any longer, until the thousand years were finished. After these things he must be released for a short time.” Revelation 20:1-3, LSB (emphasis added) Each passage, in its context, does not mention or encourage “binding” of Satan by individuals. Arguably, to seek to do so is problematic and “pronounc[ing]…a blasphemous judgement” (Jd 9). We should resist Satan, but we need not pursue “spiritual warfare” outside of Biblical means. God will one day bind Satan and has, if you are a Christian, bound Satan from your life that Christ may dwell in you. It is because Christ bound the strong man in your life that you now can serve Him. A Mighty Fortress Is Our God, Martin Luther A mighty fortress is our God A bulwark never failing Our Helper He, amid the flood Of mortal ills prevailing For still our ancient foe Doth seek to work us woe His craft and power are great And armed with cruel hate On earth is not his equal Did we in our own strength confide Our striving would be losing Were not the right Man on our side The Man of God's own choosing Dost ask who that may be? Christ Jesus, it is He Lord Sabaoth His name From age to age the same And He must win the battle And though this world with devils filled Should threatеn to undo us We will not fear, for God hath willed His truth to triumph through us Thе Prince of Darkness grim We tremble not for him His rage we can endure For lo, his doom is sure One little word shall fell him That Word above all earthly pow'rs No thanks to them abideth The Spirit and the gifts are ours Through him who with us sideth Let goods and kindred go This mortal life also The body they may kill God's truth abideth still His kingdom is forever! His kingdom is forever! 43 In the context of this passage, the strong man (who may be in reference to Satan and/or his demons) is bound not by an individual but by Jesus. So too, we must recognize we cannot bind Satan but it is Jesus who binds him in the Spiritual sense (in our lives) and at the end of the world. 44 “Matthew 16:16-19 (esp. 16:19) speaks metaphorically about the apostles forgiving sin using the terms ‘bind’ for ‘prohibited’/’unforgiven’ and ‘loose’ for ‘permitted’/’forgiven.’ The ancient rabbis used these terms in exactly this manner in this context. The passage has everything to do with authority to deal with sin and nothing to do with Satan. John 20:23 makes the same point using the straightforward terms ‘forgive’ and ‘withhold forgiveness.’ Matthew 18:15-18 should be understood similarly in the context of disciplining a sinning brother.” (MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 730). J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 17 Who are the Nephilim? Nephilim likely bears relation to the word ‫( ָׂנפַל‬naphal) implying the meaning “the fallen ones.”45 The Nephilim were “those… mighty men who were of old, men of renown” (Gn 6:4, LSB). Seemingly they were the result of when “the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were good in appearance; and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose” (Gn 6:2, LSB). These offspring of “the sons of God” and “the daughters of men” not only were mighty men of renown but also were giants (Nm 13:32-33). The issue of the Nephilim is a subject of great interest and controversy. There are many myths and theories attached to them even to this day. See “All We Know On The Nephilim and Their Descendants” under “Other Issues” for more details. Are there different kinds of demons? Given that there are different kinds of angels46 and that demons are fallen angels, there must be different kinds of demons. There is a chance that the kind of demon is directly related to their function or actions (e.g. lying spirit vs. mute spirit), however we do not have enough information from Scripture to truly draw out different classes or titles of demons. We must avoid the speculative theology of the charismatic movement, which manufactures classes like the “jezebel,” “python,” and “Absalom” spirits, and that of the middle ages, which established the seven deadly sins and invented a demon to oversee each one (greed, sloth, lust, etc.). Scripture should be our only authority on the topic and Scripture is relatively silent on it. The only passage that sets apart a type of demon is in Mark 9:14-29. The disciples were unable to cast out the mute spirit and asked why. Jesus responded “this kind cannot come out by anything but prayer” (Mk 9:29, LSB). Jesus himself distinguished in kinds of demons, however he did not give us enough to create a robust theology on the topic. This should be a reminder to us that we must keep the main thing the main thing. We must preach the gospel and not become bogged down on the finer points of theology to which we don’t have answers. Can a Christian be demon-possessed? 26 And if Satan has risen up against himself and is divided, he cannot stand, but he is finished!27 But no one can enter the strong man’s house and plunder his property unless he first binds the strong man, and then he will plunder his house. Mark 3:26-27, LSB Jesus, after being accused of casting out demons by the power of Satan, used two analogies to explain the foolishness of the accusation. He explained that (1) a “kingdom divided against itself is laid waste…and…will not stand” (Mt 12:25, LSB) and (2) when robbing a house, you have to first bind “the strong man” (Mt 12:29) who – J.C. Ryle resides in the house. Satan would never purposefully set his kingdom up to fail and he would never give up his belongings without a fight. Thus, Jesus “We are evidently no friends of Satan. Like the kings of this world, he wars not against his own subjects. The very fact that he assaults us should fill our minds with hope.” 45 46 Unger, 48. Cherubim, Seraphim, etc. J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 18 makes the case that by casting out a demon, he is overpowering Satan and narrowing Satan’s kingdom for “the kingdom of God has come” (Mt 12:28, LSB).47 After this, Jesus receives the call for another sign to prove what he is saying. Jesus makes clear, as a warning, the state of the present generation before him: “an evil and adulterous generation” (Mt 12:39, LSB). And he concludes this portion of teaching with another analogy: “Now when the unclean spirit goes out of a man, it passes through waterless places seeking rest, and does not find it. 44 Then it says, ‘I will return to my house from which I came’; and when it comes, it finds it unoccupied, swept, and put in order. 45 Then it goes and takes along with it seven other spirits more wicked than itself, and they go in and live there; and the last state of that man becomes worse than the first. That is the way it will also be with this evil generation.” Matthew 12:43-45, LSB 43 Though Jesus’s words put the focus on “The obstinate wickedness of the devil prevails even up to the how individuals should not simply saving water, but that in baptism it loses all the poison of his wickedness...when, however, they come to the water of “clean up” their lives but needed true salvation and to the sanctification of baptism, we ought to heart change in response to the words know and to trust that there the devil is beaten down, and the of Christ, his words are telling on man, dedicated to God, is set free by the divine mercy. For as issues involving the spiritual realm. scorpions and serpents, which prevail on the dry ground, What would happen after Jesus cast out when cast into water, cannot prevail nor retain their venom; a demon from an individual? Based on so also the wicked spirits, which are called scorpions and Scripture, there are several potential serpents, and yet are trodden under foot by us, by the power outcomes48 including what is seen here: given by the Lord, cannot remain any longer in the body of a that a demonic spirit will wander (Jb man in whom, baptized and sanctified, the Holy Spirit is beginning to dwell". 1:7; 1 Pt 5:8) and ultimately return to its former duty. If the person is – Eusebius, Letter 75:15 [A.D. 255] “unoccupied” and has no resident “strong man” to keep him or her from being plundered, then the demon will simply return, and the life of the individual will get worse. “At the return of the seventy disciples who were give the authority to cast out demons, Jesus proclaims, ‘I saw Satan fall like lighting from heaven’ (Luke 10:18). This is not a reference to the primeval past…The point is that the reversal and demise of Satan’s kingdom has begun—for good.” (Heiser, Demons, 192). 48 When Jesus interacted with the demon possessed man from the Gerasenes, the legion of demons pleaded that they not be sent “away into the abyss” (Lk 8:31). The abyss, being that locked location (Rv 9:1) which Satan will be granted the ability to open and release demonic entities from (Rv 9:2-11). This is the same Abyss which Satan will be locked away in for Christ’s millennial reign (Rv 20:1-3) before being released and being thrown into the Lake of Fire. Some commentators argue that this Abyss is the same darkness / gloom / blackness referred to in 2 Peter 2:4, 17 and Jude 6. This would be consistent with what we know about the Abyss (Such a linguistic argument is beyond the scope of this work). Jesus, for reasons unknown to us, did not cast / command the demons to go to the abyss but rather granted them the ability to leave their host and enter into swine. Not all agree with this author’s analysis above. Unger disagrees with the equation of the abyss and Tartarus and argues “the pit of the abyss, from whence these teeming demonic agencies emerge, is not Hades, the abode of the spirits of wicked human beings until the second resurrection, nor Tartarus, the prison house of the fallen angels (II Pet. 2:4; Jude v.6), nor the lake of fire, the final doom of Satan and his angels (Matt. 25:41); but it is the place of the present detention of many fallen spirits, who, for some reason, have been denied the privilege which many of their colleagues enjoy, of ranging at large” (Unger, 71). Still others, like Grudem, believe that the binding of Tartarus is more metaphorical than literal, setting the Abyss as a separate location. 47 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 19 When an individual responds rightly to the words of Christ (Mt 7:24-27) in repentance (Acts 3:19, Heb 6:1) and faith (Acts 16:31; Rm 10:9) the Holy Spirit indwells the believer (Lk 11:13; Jn 14:17, 26). The Holy Spirit acts as an unbreakable seal upon the believer,49 who will never be plundered (2 Cor 1:22; 5:5; Eph 1:13-14; 4:30). Given this, we must conclude that the true Christian, indwelt by the Holy Spirit, is incapable of being demon-possessed.50 Let us now turn our attention to various moments in Scripture to examine this principle played out. King Saul, who having the Holy Spirit upon him (1 Sm 11:6) followed God (1 Sm 15:11), was later tormented by a demonic entity (1 Sm 16:14-15) after his disobedience. Is it possible that a person who could be categorized as an Old Testament believer51 could be possessed by a spirit? Despite the spirit’s constant presence with Saul, there is no language betraying an internal possession. Rather “the text speaks about external torment”52 which ceases and flees in the presence of David’s music. This demonstrates the principle that believers cannot be possessed but can be oppressed by demons. Another example is found in Judas Iscariot, the betrayer of Jesus. On two separate occasions we Let us mark…in these verses, the power and are told that Satan entered Judas. There are malignity of our great enemy the devil. We are told some commentators who imply a lack of clarity in the beginning of the Chapter that he ‘put it into in these passages as though Satan entering Judas the heart’ of Judas to betray our Lord. We are told is more about Satanic influence in Judas’ here that he ‘entered into’ him. First he suggests: decision-making than actual possession. This then he commands. First he knocks at the door and author disagrees with such a vague assessment asks permission to come in: then, once admitted, he given the clarity of the statements, the takes complete possession, and rules the whole inward man like a tyrant. progression of Satan’s influence over Judas’ life (Jn 12:6; 13:2, 27), the seeming comparison -J.C. Ryle on John 13:21-30 between the indwelling of Satan vs. the indwelling of the Spirit in John (Jn 20:22), and a later comparison between the filling of the Spirit vs. the filling of Satan among believers (Acts 2:4; 4:31; 5:3). Given that biblical language exists to explain satanic influence, we should read the text plainly when it describes possession. “The Devil evidently gained direct control over Judas on two occasions: just before the betrayal was arranged [Luke 22:3], and now [John 13:27] as it was about to be carried out.”53 Judas, given his fruit and rejection of Christ’s teachings, was an unbeliever. His failure to have the right resident within himself allowed for the indwelling of Satan. The consequences of this in Judas’ life was just as Jesus said: “worse than [at] first” (Mt 12:45). His fate resulted from the demonic influence in his life (Mt 27:3-10; Acts 1:18-19). As seen in the lives of Saul and Judas, unbelievers can be possessed but believers can only be oppressed. Despite this reality for the Christian, there are still many who grow concerned with the issue of demon possession. We must not assume every ailment is demonically given,54 because 49 Unger, 100. “[Satan] is stronger than we are, but far weaker than God Himself, which is why anyone indwelt by the Holy Spirit does not have to fear being possessed by a demon. ‘He who is in you is greater than he who is in the world’ (1 John 4:4).” (Sproul, 97). Unger echoes this sentiment in differentiating between “demon possession” and “demon influence” (Unger, 99-100). 51 MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 717. 52 MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 717. 53 MacArthur, The MacArthur New Testament Commentary: John 12-21. Moody Publishers: Chicago, Illinois, 2008. 80 54 Unger, 97. 50 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 20 Jesus didn’t assume this (Lk 13:32).55 We must also be aware that possession is but one of many tactics Satan uses, and it seems to be a less prominent one. May we heed the words of Millard Erickson warning this very thing: “In recent years there has been a flare-up of interest in the phenomenon of demon possession. As a consequence, some Christians may come to regard this as the primary manifestation of the forces of evil. Rather, Satan, the great deceiver, may be encouraging interest in demon possession in hopes that Christians will become careless about other more subtle forms of influence by the powers of evil.”56 Can demons manifest physically? And [Jesus] said to them, “Why are you troubled, and why do doubts arise in your hearts?39 See My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself; touch Me and see, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have.”40 And when He had said this, He showed them His hands and His feet. Luke 24:38-40, LSB (emphasis added) 38 Angels, and consequently demons,57 are spiritual “My main ambition in life is to be beings (Mt 8:16; 12:45; Lk 7:21; 8:2; 11:26; Acts 19:12; Eph 6:12; Col on the devil's most wanted list.” 1:6; Hb 1:14; Rv 16:14) whose “substance is more ethereal than – Leonard Ravenhill human flesh.”59 They do not have flesh and bones as we do or will, in our glorified state, have (Lk 24:39) but are “purely spiritual.”60 This does not mean they are incapable of appearing in corporeal form in the appearance of humans61 (Mt 28:5; Hb 13:2) by the instruction of God or even alongside God (Gn 11:5; 18:1-33). The question then is, to what degree are Satan’s angels “fallen?” Does their present state separate them from some of the abilities of their elect brethren?62 These are questions to which we do not have full answers. We do know that, despite their rebellious nature, demons are still subject to the command of God, holding back from what God restricts (Jb 1-2) and going after what God commands (1 Kgs 22). Certainly, there is a possibility that demons can manifest physically in a form that is not their own given that angels can, however we do not have express examples of this. Given that we may “unwittingly entertain… angels” (Hb 13:2, NKJV) it follows that we “[Demons] can exert a powerful influence could likewise be in the presence of fallen angels on the vulnerable but, as Christ proved in without express knowledge. We should heed the biblical His ministry, they are no match for God’s power. Believers should be wary of warnings which say that these evil forces can disguise demons but not fear them.” themselves as “angel[s] of light” (2 Cor 11:14, CSB) and may even attempt to deliver “a gospel contrary to” the -Kevin D. Zuber, 276 58 55 Erickson, 418. Erickson, 419. 57 “The good angels are still what the evil angels once were.” (Erickson, 415). 58 Erickson, 409. See also Heiser, Demons, 6-7. 59 Sproul, 95. 60 Unger, 63. 61 Unger, 64. 62 Heiser argues that the “rebellion affected (and still characterizes) their disposition toward, and relationship to, Yahweh” (Demons, 8) but otherwise does not affect their nature as spirit beings. 56 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 21 gospel of God (Gal 1:8, CSB). Thus, the Christian should always be ready to “test the spirits to see if they are from God” (1 Jn 4 1, CSB) and rebuke in the name of the LORD (Zech 3:2; Jd 1:9). “An angelic appearance today would be unusual If one should (apparently) occur, we should evaluate it with caution. But there is no convincing reason for saying that such an event absolutely could not happen, particularly in a time of extreme danger or intense conflict with the forces of evil.” – Wayne Grudem63 Can People or Animals see the Spiritual realm? There are biblical references to individuals seeing what is occurring in the Spiritual realm. Each instance has a specific purpose behind it with the individual seeing not on account of themselves but because they were granted the ability at that time. • David saw The Angel of YHWH “striking down the people” of Israel because of David’s sin (2 Sm 24:15-17, LSB) • Elisha was aware of the armies of angels surrounding him at a particular time and prayed that others would see the “horses and chariots of fire all around” him (2 Kgs 6:17, LSB). • Balaam’s donkey was able to see the angel of YHWH and sought to protect the life of Balaam, until “Yahweh opened the eyes of Balaam, and he saw the angel of Yahweh standing in the way with his drawn sword in his hand; and he bowed his head down and prostrated himself to the ground” (Nm 22:31, LSB). Can individuals see the spiritual realm today? We certainly can see the effects of the spiritual realm and where the earthly realm64 and spiritual realm meet (e.g. in demon possession) and it is possible for the eyes of individuals to be opened to see the spiritual realm, however valid accounts of such a thing are difficult to confirm and if such an occurrence happens, it is not normative. What is more common in Scripture are people who experience the effects of the intersection of the spiritual and earthly but are not entirely aware of the spiritual reason behind it. • Acts 9:3-7, LSB (emphasis added) - 3 And as he was traveling, it happened that when he was approaching Damascus, suddenly a light from heaven flashed around him; 4 and falling to the ground, he heard a voice saying to him, “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me?” 5 And he said, “Who are You, Lord?” And He said, “I am Jesus whom you are persecuting, 6 but rise up and enter the city, and it will be told you what you must do.” 7 And the men who traveled with him stood speechless, hearing the voice but seeing no one. 63 Grudem, 408. “And thus he saw the three hideous unclean frog-like spirits, which come out of the mouth of the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet (Rev. 16:13-16). John glimpsed these denizens of the evil spirit world by supernatural vision. Nevertheless, the demon-locusts and frog-like evil spirits will be invisible to the natural eye, but their presences will be known by the intense suffering they inflict, and the gross deception they cause, which will be unavoidable because of their invisibility and the human inability to provide any material screen against their attack” (Unger, 65). 64 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 22 • Daniel 10:7, NASB - Now I, Daniel, alone saw the vision, while the men who were with me did not see the vision; nevertheless, a great dread fell on them, and they ran away to hide themselves. As far as animals go, we do not have an answer to this in Scripture, so I would advise against believing whole-heartedly that animals can see the spiritual realm. From my own anecdotal experience, I have seen adherents to this view fall into superstitious behavior and beliefs, avoiding areas of their home and believing that demons are around every corner. We have a singular example of an animal seeing into the spiritual realm in the story of Balaam and his donkey: 17 But as for us, brothers and sisters, after we were forced to leave you for a short time (in person, not in heart), we greatly desired and made every effort to return and see you face to face. 18 So we wanted to come to you—even I, Paul, time and again—but Satan hindered us. -1 Thessalonians 2:17-18 “When the donkey saw the angel of the Lord standing on the path with a drawn sword in his hand, she turned off the path and went into the field. So Balaam hit her to return her to the path. Then the angel of the Lord stood in a narrow passage between the vineyards, with a stone wall on either side. The donkey saw the angel of the Lord and pressed herself against the wall, squeezing Balaam’s foot against it. So he hit her once again. The angel of the Lord went ahead and stood in a narrow place where there was no room to turn to the right or the left. When the donkey saw the angel of the Lord, she crouched down under Balaam. So he became furious and beat the donkey with his stick.” Numbers 22:23-27, CSB Though Balaam’s donkey “saw” into the spiritual realm, not all animals seem to be able to see the same. As noted above, there is a moment in which the armies of God surround Elisha (2 Kgs 6:17) yet the enemy’s horses do not seem to be aware of that spiritual reality (2 Kgs 6:14), implying that not all animals are able to see the spiritual realm. We must err on the side of caution, recognizing that God grants the ability to see at specific times for specific purposes both for man and animals. This is not normative and we should not expect to see these things ourselves. And if someone tells you they have, be cautious lest you be led astray. “If a prophet or a dreamer of dreams arises among you and gives you a sign or a wonder, and the sign or wonder that he tells you comes to pass, and if he says, ‘Let us go after other gods,’ which you have not known, ‘and let us serve them,’ you shall not listen to the words of that prophet or that dreamer of dreams. For the Lord your God is testing you, to know whether you love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul. You shall walk after the Lord your God and fear him and keep his commandments and obey his voice, and you shall serve him and hold fast to him. But that prophet or that dreamer of dreams shall be put to death, because he has taught rebellion against the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt and redeemed you out of the house of slavery, to make you leave the way in which the Lord your God commanded you to walk. So you shall purge the evil from your midst.” Deuteronomy 13:1-5, ESV J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 23 Other Issues: The Origin of the title “Lucifer” One of the more common names attributed to the Devil is “Lucifer.” As you may have noticed, I have not included that name in the section above titled “Names/Titles.” The reason may shock you: “Lucifer” is most-likely not a name or title of The Accuser. The confusion on this issue rests on the interpretation and translation of a single passage by St. Jerome. Jerome (c.345-420 AD) is best known for being the translator of the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures into the Latin Vulgate. Though Latin translations existed prior to Jerome’s Vulgate, none had translated the Hebrew into Latin; rather each Latin translation utilized the Greek Septuagint translation (LXX) of the Old Testament Hebrew over the Hebrew itself. Jerome’s translation was a great endeavor and a return to the Scriptures. As is common with all translators, presuppositions can slip into word usage in translations either by accident or purposefully.65 Jerome, when translating Isaiah 14:12 departed from the likely translation because he had already determined the passage was about Satan.66 Thus Jerome’s translation set a standard which is reflected best in the King James Version (KJV) Bible: “How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!” The term Lucifer (Latin lux and ferre)67 literally means “light-bringer.” In the Greek Septuagint a similar decision was made to move toward the term “light-bringer” rather than the verb “wail.”68 One of the problems with Jerome’s single use of Lucifer in Isaiah 14 is that it is inconsistently done through the rest of his translation.69 Good examples of this can be seen in Catholic translations as the term “bishop” is used where “elder” would be used in a typical protestant translation. Additionally if one were to compare the English Standard Version (ESV) to other translations, various word choices will lean more towards covenant theology and Presbyterianism. Likewise, the Legacy Standard Bible (LSB) translators have chosen to avoid the term “bond-servant” and “servant” where it would seem “slave” is a more accurate translation. 66 “In fact, Jerome, who produced the Latin Vulgate featuring the name Lucifer admits in his commentary on Isaiah that a better translation of the Hebrew helel in this passage is the Latin ulula, which means ‘howling.’ So why go with Lucifer? Jerome is already convinced from his reading of Origen that Isaiah 14 refers to Satan, so his Latin translation bends to this view. That’s not all. The use of yalal in Isaiah and other prophetic Old Testament books falls in the context of judgement and lament, making it a better fit for this passage. In fact, ‘the word only occurs in the prophets and is frequently parallel to other Hebrew words for crying out in sorrow and distress (zaaq and sapad),’ according to scholar John Gilhooly. ‘Since this particular passage (Isaiah 14) contains admitted elements of lament, the natural translation for the term would be ‘Wail!’ or ‘Howl!,’ not ‘light-bringer.’” (Phillips, Satan, 5) 67 Harper. 68 “But whether Isaiah spoke of radiating or wailing, when the Greek Septuagint was being written, the authors decided to spice Isaiah's statement up a bit, and turned ‫( הילל‬helel) into εωσφορος (eosphoros). This epithet consists of (1) an unusual variety of the noun ηως, meaning dawn (or even the personal name Ηως, which belongs to the deity Eos or Aurora) and (2) the verb φορω (phoreo) meaning to bear or bring… The authors of the Septuagint hadn't made up the title εωσφορος (eosphoros), because it existed at least since the time of Homer, and was used as an epithet for the Morning Star, now known as Venus, and then also known as φωσφορος (phosphoros, or phos + phoros = light bringing) as used in 2 PETER 1:19.” (Abarim Publications) 69 See Jeremiah 47:2, Ezekiel 21:12, Zechariah 11:2. Additionally, given Jerome’s following of the Septuagint understanding of Ezekiel 28, he could have transposed Lucifer as a proper name in 2 Peter 1:19. 65 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 24 The issue at hand is broader than a potential translational error on the part of Jerome. Isaiah 14 and Ezekiel 28 are two passages that are literally about humans, namely the King of Babylon (Is 14:4) and the ruler of Tyre (Ez 28:2, 11). However, in the midst of clear prophecies against these human rulers, including coming physical death (Ez 28:18-19) there are passages that seem to display allusions to Satan (Is 14:1215; Ez 28:12-17).70 The Isaiah passage is less blatant, but in light of the Ezekiel passage it bears more weight as a reference to Satan.71 It is not uncommon in Scripture for prophecies to bear multiple targets (see 2 Sm 7; Is 7).72 If we are to believe that the passages within Isaiah 14 and Ezekiel 28 do indeed reference Satan, then we must remember the following: Embracing Accusation, Shane & Shane The father of lies coming to steal, kill and destroy All my hopes of being good enough I hear him saying, "Cursed are the ones who can't abide" He's right, Hallelujah, he's right The devil is preaching the song of the redeemed That I am cursed and gone astray I cannot gain salvation, embracing accusation Could the father of lies be telling the truth Of God to me tonight? If the penalty of sin is death, then death is mine I hear him saying, "Cursed are the ones who can't abide" He's right, Hallelujah, he's right The devil is preaching the song of the redeemed That I am cursed and gone astray I cannot gain salvation • The internal passages, in reference to Satan, are not the main focus of the prophecies in Isaiah and Ezekiel but rather are used as a device to communicate the pride of the rulers mentioned.73 • There is a title/description given to the character in reference: “anointed Guardian Cherub.” If these passages are about Satan, then another name for him would be “anointed Guardian Cherub.” • The term used for Lucifer in the Greek is found elsewhere to describe Jesus (2 Pt 1:19). Seemingly either both Satan and Jesus are being compared to an external “morning star,” as the planet Venus was often considered in those days, in a positive way or the Hebrew is mistranslated as mentioned above. “Because the archangel Michael kicked satan out of heaven (REVELATION 12:9), and satan was present in Eden (Genesis 3), there is some similarity between satan and the kings of Babylon and Tyre in the words of Isaiah and Ezekiel, but similarity is not the same as equality, and they are really three different entities.” (Abarim Publications) 71 “The origin of Satan as a perfect angel who rebelled against God before creation may be found from a theological reading of Isa 14:12–15 and Ezek 28:12–19, but not a historical one. The historical referent in these passages is not Satan, but the wicked kings of Babylon and Tyre. However, the hyperbolic language seems to describe someone more than human (Isa 14:13–14; Ezek 28:12–14).” (Bass, J. W. (2016). Devil. In J. D. Barry, D. Bomar, D. R. Brown, R. Klippenstein, D. Mangum, C. Sinclair Wolcott, … W. Widder (Eds.), The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.). 72 Zuber, 274. 73 “Isaiah 14:12-14 provides a glimpse of Satan through the life of Babylon’s king. It pictures one who would elevate himself to the level of God (Isa. 14:13-14) but who failed (Isa. 14:12) in his attempted self-exaltation. This was true of the Babylonian monarch in much the same manner as it replicated the earlier fall of the of the Evil One. Ezekiel 28:2, 6, 12-17 also shows how the king of Tyre behaved in his reign similarly to Satan in the past. This ruler modeled Satan’s previous attitudes and actions.” (MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 726) 70 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 25 The evil one bears many names / titles that speak to his functions and deeds in this world. We must be cautious to not attribute to him what is not his. I have argued that Lucifer is not a name attributed to Satan by either the human or divine author behind Ezekiel, given a more faithful translation and the hermeneutical implications of the passage. However, we do not leave these passages without information about the evil one. We possibly have a new title: anointed guardian cherub. All we know on the Nephilim and their descendants “Satan's greatest success is in making people think they have plenty of time before they die to consider their eternal welfare.” Few Biblical mysteries garner as much interest as the question of the Nephilim. Due to what little information the Bible provides, this topic has become the source of great John Owen speculation even to the point of professing-Christians losing themselves in mythology. The only reason this topic is so extensively covered here is to point you to what we can know while steering you clear of those who claim “what is falsely called knowledge” and by it “have strayed concerning the faith” (1 Tm 6:20-21, LSB). Below is listed what we know of the Nephilim and their gigantic descendants from Scripture: • Genesis 6:4, LSB – “The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown.” • Numbers 13:28-33, LSB - 28 Nevertheless, the people who live in the land are strong, and the cities are fortified and very large; and moreover, we saw the descendants of Anak there. 29 Amalek is living in the land of the Negev and the Hittites and the Jebusites and the Amorites are living in the hill country, and the Canaanites are living by the sea and by the side of the Jordan.” 30 Then Caleb quieted the people before Moses and said, “We should by all means go up and take possession of it, for we are surely able to overcome it.” 31 But the men who had gone up with him said, “We are not able to go up against the people, for they are too strong for us.” 32 So they gave out to the sons of Israel a bad report of the land which they had spied out, saying, “The land, which we have passed through to spy out on, is a land that devours its inhabitants; and all the people whom we saw in it are men of great size. 33 There also we saw the Nephilim (the sons of Anak are part of the Nephilim); and we became like grasshoppers in our own sight, and so we were in their sight.” • 1 Samuel 17:4, LSB - Then a champion came out from the camps of the Philistines named Goliath, from Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span. o To trace the Anakim to Gath of the Philistines, see Joshua 11:22. • 2 Samuel 21:16-22, LSB - 16 Then Ishbi-benob, who was among those born to the giants, the weight of whose spear was three hundred shekels of bronze in weight, was girded with a new sword, and he intended to strike down David. 17 But Abishai the son of Zeruiah helped him, and struck the Philistine and put him to death. Then the men of David swore to him, saying, “You shall not go out again with us to battle, so that you do not extinguish the lamp of Israel.” 18 Now it happened afterwards that there was war J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 26 again with the Philistines at Gob; then Sibbecai the Hushathite struck down Saph, who was among those born to the giants. 19 There was war with the Philistines again at Gob, and Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim the Bethlehemite struck down Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like a weaver’s beam. 20 Then there was war at Gath again, and there was a man of great stature who had six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot, twenty-four in number; and he also had been born to the giants. 21 And he reproached Israel, so Jonathan the son of Shimei, David’s brother, struck him down. 22 These four were born to the giants in Gath, and they fell by the hand of David and by the hand of his servants. Based on the passages mentioned above, we know that (1) the Nephilim are likely the result of demon-involved procreation (Gn 6:4), (2) somehow the genetic line of Nephilim was not limited to antediluvian (pre-flood) life (Gn 6:4; Nm 13:33), (3) there were enough ancestors of Nephilim to intimidate the Israelites and stop them from entering the promised land, and (4) as time progresses, the descendants of the Nephilim seem to decrease in size. For treatment on all four points, see below. Demon-involved procreation? There are four prevalent views within orthodox Christianity as to how to understand Genesis 6:4 and the identity of “the sons of God.” Those who “came into the daughters of men” were either the line of the righteous Seth, fallen angels in corporeal form, demon-possessed men, or unrighteous kings. There are benefits and detriments to each view. The goal when studying ambiguous passages is to adhere to the view that solves the most and creates the fewest problems. Let us examine these views briefly and see which one fulfills our goal: (1) The first view claims that “the sons of God” are from the godly line of Seth and “the daughters of men” were from the wicked line of Cain. Thus, the communion between these two lines would be an “unholy intermarriage.”74 Though the view adheres well with the flow of the passage, transitioning from the genealogies of Cain (Gn 4) and Seth (Gn 5) to a description of the sons of Seth and the daughters of Cain (Gn 6), there is no evidence in the passage or elsewhere that the mentioned groups signify those two familial lines. This view assumes then, with contrary linguistic evidence (see option 3), that “the sons of God” are the sons of Seth. Additionally this view relies on the prohibitions throughout Scripture that the Israelites should not intermarry with those outside of the covenant of God and reads them back into this earlier text.75 While light should have no part with darkness, there is not enough language in Genesis to make the claim that Seth’s line was viewed as inherently righteous, and Cain’s line was viewed as inherently unrighteous.76 This view additionally neglects to fully explain the origin of the giants in relation 74 MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 731. This is an anachronistic reading of the Mosaic covenant into Genesis. The argue against anachronism would be that Moses was the author of Genesis. 76 The genealogy’s goal in Genesis 5 is to draw the line between Adam and Noah to set up the scene in Genesis 6. Abel seemingly was the savior/seed through whom mankind would be saved (Gn 3:15). When Abel was killed, hopelessness certainly abounded. Moses makes abundantly clear through the progression of Genesis 5 that hope could live on. Seth was born (Gn 4:25) and people called upon the name of the LORD (Gn 4:26). Sethite Lamech fathered a son of whom he said “Out of the ground that the LORD has cursed, this one shall bring us relief from our work and from the painful toil of our hands” (Gn 5:29 ESV). Sethite Lamech died at the age of what is the number 75 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 27 to Genesis 6. This is problematic as those descendants of the Nephilim are shown to be genetically superior in height.77 To get around the Nephilim problem, the Sethite view claims a generalized understanding of the term. Thus ,Nephilim becomes a term used of any “men of renown.” The giants, then, are Nephilim by nature of their renown and greatness and not by nature of their genetics and family background. The Sethite view is a newer view that is especially prominent today. (2) The second view, that demons had sexual relations with women, was held by many Jews and Christians throughout history. This view, however, is an unlikely fit with the problem at hand given that angels “neither marry, nor are given in marriage” (Mt 22:30, LSB) and would be incapable of procreating due to being of a different creational “kind.”78 For this reason, we won’t engage with this solution any further. (3) The third view takes the linguistic connection between angels and “the sons of God” (Jb 1:6; 2:1; 38:7)79 and claims that fallen angels must have been involved with the procreation, though indirectly due to the failure of the second view. Thus, demons would’ve inhabited humans through possession, procreated,80 and the Nephilim are the offspring having a unique genetic disposition for gigantism. This view, though consistent with the “sons of God” term, introduces demons which were not spoken of in Genesis 1-5. Furthermore, Moses had “angel” in his vocabulary but chose not to use it in Genesis 6:4 (Gn 19:1, 15; 28:12; 32:1), opting instead for an angelic reference.81 Additionally, when Jesus references the days of Noah and the judgement upon Noah’s day, demons, possession, and demonic-procreation are not named among the sins deserving judgement (Mt 24:37-39; Lk 17:6-27). Though this view does give explanation to the Nephilim’s identity, is consistent with the Nephilim identity through the rest of the Old Testament, and is more consistent with “the straight-forward reading of Genesis 6:4”82 it does of perfection: 777 years old, perhaps as a sign unto the importance of his statement. The seed is the center of Genesis 4-6 meaning Jesus is ultimately the center of it. Returning to the issue of righteousness and unrighteousness: Though the genealogy does draw out the righteousness of the Sethite Enoch who “walked with God” (Gn 5:22 ESV) and the unrighteousness of the Cainite Lamech, the lines are not inherently reflective of those characteristics. Notice Genesis 5:30: “Lamech lived after he fathered Noah 595 years and had other sons and daughters” (ESV). Noah had siblings, all Sethites, yet Noah was the only righteous one who “found favor in the eyes of the LORD” (Gn 6:8 ESV). The implication then is that, if the Sethite view of Genesis 6:4 is correct, Noah is the only Sethite who abstained. This is a massive claim and assumption. 77 Some who hold the Sethite view attempt to get around the gigantic nature of the Nephilim by crying “hyperbole:” “It is possible that the mention of the nephilim here was hyperbole (metaphorical exaggeration)—the Hebrew in Numbers 14:37…emphasises the ‘bad/evil’ nature of the ‘slanderous report’—intended to discourage the Hebrews from entering the Promised Land. God punished the spies for bringing this ‘bad report’ (Num. 14:36-37).” (Batten, 142). 78 “Demons cannot mate with humans directly, since reproduction is after one’s own kind (Gen 1:20-25). Additionally, spirit beings cannot reproduce, even among themselves (see Matt. 22:30; Mark 12:25).” (MacArthur, Biblical Doctrine, 731). 79 There are four uses of “The Sons of God” (‫ֵי־האֱֹלהִ ים‬ ָֽ ָׂ ‫ ) בְּ נ‬in the Hebrew Old Testament (Gn 6:2, 4; Jb 1:6; 2:1). We use Scripture to interpret Scripture. Clearer passages help us understand less clear passages. The identity of “The Sons of God” was clear in Job and should be used to help us understand who the Sons of God are in Genesis 6. 80 “But some outraged both the constitution of their nature and the oversight entrusted to them..., These angels fell into impure love of virgins and were subjugated by the flesh. . . . Those who are called giants were begotten from these lovers of virgins.” Athenagoras (c. 175), 2.142. 81 Despite Moses’ non-use of “angel,” the term “sons of God” is used exclusively for angels in the OT and the Septuagint (LXX) translators chose to change the phrase from “sons of God” (Hebrew) to “angels of God” (Greek) in their translation of this passage (Batten, 141). 82 Batten, 141. J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 28 not seem to adhere well with the greater context given the brevity of the passage. Namely, we must ask why Moses found this interruption in the narrative to be of importance.83 There are some who make the case that Genesis 6:1-4 is not to be read in association with the flood narrative but rather as an epilogue to Genesis 5.84 (4) The fourth view seems to correlate well with the context of Genesis 6, given the focus on mighty men of renown. This view likewise fits well with the description of the days of Noah in the New Testament. This view, however, is arguably anachronistic, reading later cultures back into the culture of the time. In support of this view, human rulers are at times labeled “sons of God” (Ps 82:6; Jn 10:33-36).85 There are many assumptions that have to be made in order to adhere to this view and it, like the first view, fails to fully explain the gigantism of the Nephilim. We are left with four potential views which bear benefits and detriments. Some give help in understanding who the Nephilim are, others do not. After all, Genesis 6:4 does not say the Nephilim are the children of the union between the two groups, rather it says they were there in those days and also afterward. As mentioned there are benefits and detriments to each view and we must seek wisdom on which one answers more questions and creates fewer problems. This author finds the third view to be most convincing argument and consequently the following sections will primarily refer to the Nephilim through that lens. A chart of the views follows: Is Possible, According To Scripture Linguistic Consistency (“sons of God”) Good Flow In The Text Avoids Anachronism Explains the Nephilim Consistent With Nephilim’s OT identity Fits Well With “The Days of Noah” Believed By The Jewish People Believed By The Early Church Sethite View ✓ Corporeal Angels ✓ Demonpossessed ✓ ✓ ✓ Kings / Rulers ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Postdiluvian Nephilim It should be obvious that all except Noah’s family died in the flood, including those Nephilim mentioned in Genesis 6. This would mean one of two things: either that the process of demon-involved procreation would have happened again after the flood (labeled “the second incursion”) or the Nephilim genes boarded the ark through the wives of Noah’s sons. Though Scripture does not explain explicitly which is true, it does say that there are Nephilim “in those days, and also afterward” (Gn 6:4, LSB), even including the name of a Nephilim who had descendants (Nm 13:33). The plurality of Nephilim-based families can be assumed because “the 83 Some who hold to this view believe that this section is not an interruption but an explanation for the flood. The flood then was in reaction to Genesis 6:1-4, in accordance with pseudepigraphal texts like 1 and 2 Enoch and in contrast to Jesus’ teachings on the days of Noah. 84 Garland, 113. 85 In both references the phrase which appears in Genesis 6 (literally “sons of God”) is not in view. Rather we see “Sons of the Most High.” J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 29 sons of Anak are part of the Nephilim” (Nm 13:33 LSB, emphasis mine). If we are to hold to Biblical tradition that Moses authored the Pentateuch (Gn, Ex, Lv, Nm, Dt) then his reference in Gn 6 stands in clear relation to his reference in Nm 13 meaning when Moses wrote Genesis he had the reality of Numbers in mind (being closer in time to the occurrence of Numbers himself). Though the author of Samuel does not explicitly use the term “Nephilim” to describe the familial line of Goliath (the term is limited to Moses as an author), he does make a point to draw out Goliath’s size and place of origin in addition to those other giants who likewise come from the lands of the Philistines where the descendants of one particular Nephilim family line fled to (Jsh 11:22). After Moses, the Biblical authors seem to stick with the term Rephaim which means giants. How it is that there were giants after the flood, we do not have an answer and should not be dogmatic on which theory best coheres with what we do know from Scripture. The important thing is that the Nephilim or their descendants were present after the flood. Nephilim Family lines Given what we know of the presence of the Nephilim, post-flood, it would be helpful to see how the Biblical authors relate the descendants of Nephilim. Below you will see references to groups of people who were considered giants or related to the Nephilim. The term Rephaim became a term used of the various descendants of the Nephilim, including some other names given to them by the Moabites (Emim) and Ammonites (Zamzummim). Seemingly the Amorites likewise had ties to the Nephilim. • Anakim (Neck; Sons of Anak): Dt 1:28; 2:10-11, 21; 9:2; Jsh 11:21-22; 14:12, 15; 15:13-14; Jdg 1:20; Jsh 11:22; 1 Sm 17:4; 2 Sm 21:16-22 • Rephaim (‫ – ְּרפ ִָׂאים‬deity or giant): Gn 14:5; 15:20; Dt 2:11, 20; 3:11, 13; Jsh 12:4; 13:12; 17:15; 1 Chr 20:4 o Emim (‫ימים‬ ִ ֵ‫ – א‬frightful ones; name according to the Moabites): Gn 14:5; Dt 2:10-11 o Zamzummim (‫ – ז ְַּמז ִֻמים‬gibberish speakers or great masters of war; name according to the Ammonites): Gn 14:5; Dt 2:20 • Amorites (“…his height was like the cedars…” Amos 2:9, CSB) (Gn 10:16; 14:7, 13; 15:16, 21; 48:22; 49:21; Ex 3:8, 17; 13:5; 23:23; 33:2; 34:11; Nm 13:29; 21:13, 21, 25-26, 29, 31-32, 34; 22:2; 32:33, 39; Dt 1:4, 7, 19-20, 27, 44; 2:24; 3:2, 8-9; 4:46-47; 7:1; 20:17; 31:4; Jsh 2:10; 3:10; 5:1; 7:7; 9:1, 10; 10:56, 12; 11:3; 12:2, 8; 13:4, 10, 21; 24:8, 11-12, 15, 18; Jdg 1:34-36; 3:5; 6:10; 10:8, 11; 11:19, 21-23; 1 Sm 7:14; 2 Sm 21:2; 1 Kgs 4:19; 9:20; 21:26; 2 Kgs 21:11; 1 Chr 1:14; 2 Chr 8:7; Ezra 9:1; Neh 9:8; Ps 135:11; 136:19; Ezk 16:3, 45; Amos 2:9-10) o King Og of Bashan – between 13.5 and 16 feet tall (Nm 21:33; 32:33; Dt 1:4; 3:1, 3-4, 10-11, 13; 4:47; 29:7; 31:4; Jsh 2:10; 9:10; 12:4; 13:12, 30-31; Neh 9:22; Ps 135:11; 136:20) Over time Scripture speaks to the wiping out of those descendants of the Nephilim/Rephaim such that Og of Bashan is described as the only descendant of the Rephaim within the Amorites in Deuteronomy: “For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of the giants. Indeed his bedstead was an iron bedstead. (Is it not in Rabbah of the people of Ammon?) Nine cubits is its length and four cubits its width, according to the standard cubit.” (Dt 3:11, NKJV). The last clear reference to the descendants of the Rephaim comes in 2 Samuel 21 when four brothers, possibly the sons of Goliath of Gath, were felled by David’s mighty men. Genetics and the Nephilim J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 30 What an odd title to include in a theological and historical conversation about a great Biblical mystery: genetics. Yet, if DNA can be physically altered by the presence of demonic activity in procreation (which it seems to have been, given the gigantism of descendants), then each descendant’s gigantism would decrease each following generation. This, of course, is assuming that the third view of “the sons of God” is accurate. Though the Israelites could’ve exaggerated about the size of the sons of Anak the description goes from them feeling like ants beside this generation to King Og at around 13.5 feet tall a generation later to a nine-foot tall Goliath several generations later. Goliath’s children (2 Sm 21) then seem to be slightly smaller themselves. Here we must stop and ask the question “can demons change dna?” Again, this is speculation so we should not “hang our hats” on this, but I would argue “yes.” Satan was able to manipulate bacteria in order to give Job boils (Jb 2:7). Likewise, demons are shown to be able to enhance strength of individuals (Mk 5:2-4) and afflict them with various diseases and ailments that involve manipulation of the body even sometimes on a microbial level. Given this, it would not be out of the ordinary for demons to be capable of engaging in genetic manipulation with the sperm and egg at conception or epigenetics later in life. According to the CDC “Epigenetics is the study of how your behaviors and environment can cause changes that affect the way your genes work. Unlike genetic changes, epigenetic changes are reversible and do not change your DNA sequence, but they can change how your body reads a DNA sequence.”86 There is the possibility that gigantism found in the Nephilim / Rephaim is on a genetic or epigenetic level with some manipulation by those demons involved in the procreation or development. However it is that the Nephilim came to be what they were, there is one thing we must not forget: these things only happened by the allowance of God. Demons are not changing man’s genetic structure or even afflicting with disease at their own will or desire. Rather, they must respond to God’s will. The fate of the Nephilim Unfortunately, there are far too many who “pay attention to myths and endless genealogies, which give rise to mere speculation rather than furthering the stewardship from God which is by faith” (1 Tm 1:4, LSB). Scripture must be our authority when dealing with such topics. For this reason, I address “cleverly devised myths” (2 Pt 1:16, LSB) that are staunchly believed and preached as gospel-truth by various individuals to warn you to mark and avoid such teachings. We must compare these theories to Scripture and abandon all that does not adhere.87 86 “The character of Biblical demonology not only proves that it is what it claims to be, a revelation from God, but also, as such, demonstrates that it is true and thoroughly reliable as a criterion of appraisal. It furnishes the model of truth to test error. It constitutes the pattern of reality to try all imagination and unreality. In its light we see light, as well as darkness, crookedness, and unreality. It alone can furnish an infallible norm to differentiate between truth and falsity, fact and fancy. Measured by its sure and trustworthy standards, demonology, whether ethnic or rabbinic, is seen in its true light.” (Unger, 29) 87 J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 31 There is a mythical speculation on the role Nephilim play in the divine narrative and redemption history which has arisen. Essentially there are some that claim genetics are the endall-be-all of God’s redemptive plan. The Nephilim were thus an attempt by the “watchers” or fallen angels to “When a Christian shuns fellowship with other Christians, the devil smiles. When partake in or destroy the redemption of man through a he stops studying the Bible, the devil pure and perfect bloodline. Thus, Genesis 6:4 instead of laughs. When he stops praying, the devil Genesis 3:15 becomes the interpretive lens for the story shouts for joy.” of the Bible. This view takes advantage of the limited information we have on origin and history of the – Corrie Ten Boom demonic. The defense of this view relies almost solely on extra-biblical sources like the pseudepigraphal Book of Enoch,88 apocryphal writings from the second temple period, varied Biblical translations, and various writings of early church fathers. Here are a few translated quotes from some early church fathers89 which speculate on the current and future fate of the Nephilim: • The angels transgressed this appointment and were captivated by love of women. And they begat children, who are those who are called demons. Justin Martyr (c. 160), 1.190. • These angels, then, who have fallen from heaven, and haunt the air and the earth, and are no longer able to rise to heavenly things, and the souls of the giants, who are the demons who wander about the world, perform similar actions. Athenagoras (c. 175), 2.142. • Furthermore, we are instructed by our sacred books how from certain angels, who fell of their own free will, there sprang a more wicked demon brood, condemned of God along with the authors of their race.... Their great business is the ruin of mankind. So, from the start, spiritual wickedness sought our destruction. Accordingly, they inflict upon our bodies dis-eases and other grievous calamities. And by violent assaults, they hurry the soul into sud-den and extraordinary excesses. . . . By an influence equally obscure, demons and angels breathe into the soul, and rouse up its corruptions with furious passions and vile excesses. Tertullian (c. 197), 3.36. 88 It should be noted that the Book of Enoch is pseudepigraphal because, as best can be told, it was not written in the time of Enoch nor by Enoch. It was instead written between the 4 th and 2nd century B.C. by an unknown author with some portions being added even later. The writing capitalized on the term “Son of Man” seen in Daniel 7 and attributed this to a Messiah figure which, at the end of the book, is said to be Enoch. By Jesus’s day, just a century or two after the story’s origin, the work had become very popular in Judaism. The Jewish people were looking for this “Son of Man” to return. Jesus’ co-opting of the term “Son of Man” for himself not only drew on Ezekiel’s usage as a prophet, Daniel’s usage as a Messiah, but the popular usage in the fictional work of the Book of Enoch. Everyone would’ve been aware of Jesus’ claims based on his coopting of the title. The one they were truly desiring after was not the character in this fictional work, but it was God himself in the flesh. We must note: Jesus’ usage of “Son of Man” no more gives weight to the accuracy of the Book of Enoch than Paul’s usage of “Jesus is Lord” gives credence to the Roman Caesar’s Lordship (because of the coopted phrase “Caesar is Lord”). The Book of Enoch remains a fictitious work and should not inform the Spirit-indwelled believer as to theological truth, outside of an informing of what some in the early centuries of B.C. and early centuries of A.D. believed on issues of demonology, angelogy, and eschatology. A good modern comparison to the Book of Enoch is Dan Brown’s The Davinci Code which made fantastical claims about Jesus, which are still in some people’s understanding of history. The Davinci Code has been shown to be false, yet it preys on the minds of people who read between lines and find the truth does not tickle their ears. 89 All quotes are taken from The Ante-Nicene Fathers, ed. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 32 • From the seed [of the fallen angels and women], giants are said to have been born. By them, arts were made known in the earth. They taught the dyeing of wool and everything that is done. When they died, men erected images to them. Yet, because they were of an evil seed, the Almighty did not approve of their being brought back from death when they had died. For that reason, they wander and they now subvert many bodies. And it is these whom you [pagans] presently worship and pray to as gods. Comtnodianus (c. 240), 4.203. • In my opinion, it is certain wicked demons (so to speak, of the race of Titans or giants) who have been guilty of impiety towards the true God and towards the angels in heaven. They have fallen from it, and they haunt the denser parts of bodies. Origen (c. 248), 4.538. • “Among angels, some are angels of God, and others are angels of the devil. But among demons, there is no such distinction. For they are all said to be wicked.” Origen (c. 248), 4.648, 649. However, those who were born from [the relations of angels with women]—because they were neither angels nor men, but had a mixed nature—were not admitted into Hades [when they died]. Similarly, their fathers had not been admitted into heaven, either. Thus there came to be two kinds of demons: one of heaven, the other of the earth. The latter are the wicked spirits, who are the authors of all the evils that are done. This same devil is their prince. . .. However, grammarians say that the reason they are called demons . . . is because they are skilled and acquainted with matters. For the grammarians think they are gods. In truth, the demons are acquainted with some future events, but not with all. For He has not permitted them to know entirely the counsel of God . . . . Lactantius (c. 304-313), 7.64; extended discussion: 4.328-4.334 • The view espoused in these quotes is that the “watchers” or fallen angels are those who are presently in Tartarus in “chains of darkness, being kept for judgment” (2 Pt 2:4, LSB) because of their sexual desires and actions with human women. These same watchers are those whom will be released by Abaddon and appear as locust-men (Rv 9:11). The demons which roam the earth now, would then be a combination between fallen angels (those who did not engage in sexual relations with the daughters of man) and the disembodied spirit of the Nephilim.90 The argument goes that the Nephilim are jealous of man and are thus seeking to inhabit bodies,91 hoping to themselves partake in or ruin the redemptive plan of God. The Biblical side of this argument is limited to the semantics of the Hebrew language. As shown above, Moses is the only Biblical author who uses the term Nephilim. He then transitions 90 How is it that the spirit of the Nephilim post-death is able to roam the earth yet the spirit of a fully-human individual either goes to Hades or Abraham’s Bosom? There is a theological issue called dichotomy versus trichotomy which essentially argues whether man is made up of two parts (body & soul / spirit) or three parts (body, soul, & spirit). Those who hold to this view of the Nephilim have to hold to trichotomy of a person and consequently argue that the demonic procreation caused Nephilim to have spirit but no soul. Thus instead of their spirit departing with their soul to the afterlife, their spirit wanders. As you can tell, it’s a complicated argument. This author holds to dichotomy and thus has no category to allow for the belief of the spirits of Nephilim being roaming spirits. 91 There are some who argue that the spirit of giants indwelling individuals is an explanation for “superhuman strength” demonstrated by some demon-possessed individuals. This argument seems weak and assumes that fallen angels are incapable of increasing the strength of these individuals. It also neglects the superhuman strength that occurs in the natural realm when adrenaline is introduced (e.g. a mother lifting a car off her child). J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 33 to using Rephaim in reference to the same group. The Biblical authors, post-Moses, continue to utilize the term Rephaim to refer to the giants and their offspring. The word Rephaim (‫רפ ִָׂאים‬,ְּ giant) bears the same root as the word for departed spirits (‫)רפ ִָׂאים‬. ְּ This issue requires the reader to determine who is in view in various passages. Are the giants related to the shades or departed spirits?92 Are they the same entities? Is the word used in various ways? See the passages listed below: • • • • • • • • Job 26:5-6, LSB (emphasis added)- “The departed spirits tremble under the waters and their inhabitants. Naked is Sheol before Him, and Abaddon has no covering.” Psalm 88:10-12, LSB (emphasis added) - Will You do wonders for the dead? Will the departed spirits rise and praise You? Selah. Will Your lovingkindness be recounted in the grave, Your faithfulness in Abaddon? Will Your wonders be known in the darkness? And Your righteousness in the land of forgetfulness? Proverbs 2:18-19, CSB (emphasis added) – “for her house sinks down to death and her ways to the land of the departed spirits. None return who go to her; none reach the paths of life..” Proverbs 9:18, CSB (emphasis added) – “But he doesn’t know that the departed spirits are there, that her guests are in the depths of Sheol.” Proverbs 21:16, CSB (emphasis added) – “The person who strays from the way of prudence will come to rest in the assembly of the departed spirits.” Isaiah 14:9-11, CSB (emphasis added) – “Sheol below is eager to greet your coming, stirring up the spirits of the departed for you—all the rulers of the earth—making all the kings of the nations rise from their thrones. They all respond to you, saying, ‘You too have become as weak as we are; you have become like us! Your splendor has been brought down to Sheol, along with the music of your harps. Maggots are spread out under you, and worms cover you.’” Isaiah 26:14, CSB (emphasis added) – “The dead do not live; departed spirits do not rise up. Indeed, you have punished and destroyed them; you have wiped out all memory of them.” Isaiah 26:19, CSB (emphasis added) – “Your dead will live; their bodies will rise. Awake and sing, you who dwell in the dust! For you will be covered with the morning dew, and the earth will bring out the departed spirits.” In some of the passages it is possible that a demonic force or the spirit of the Nephilim / Rephaim could be in view, however the classic interpretation that these are the dead in Sheol seems most probable given both the immediate and surrounding context of the passages. Outside of the mentioned semantic argument, there seems little in Scripture that would support the argument we are examining. Could it be that those we call demons are both fallen angels and the spirits of the Nephilim? Perhaps, however this seems unlikely and has little support from the Bible. Rather, those fighting alongside Satan are referred to as “his angels” (Rv 12:7). To separate out the works of the evil one’s minions as though each term (“spirit,” “demon,” etc.) references different groups or entities engages in a hermeneutic that is not then consistently applied throughout Scripture. Furthermore, those who follow this line of thinking often end up claiming that the 92 For a discussion on this issue see Heiser, Demons, 10-12. J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 34 Nephilim are presently living among us even in “human hybrids” like Bigfoot and the Yeti. This same view has led to an adoption of a theory involving a pre-Adamite race of people. According to the pre-Adamite view of demons God created a group of people like humans under the watchful care of the unfallen Satan. Satan then rebelled and the people sided with him. God wiped out the people, whose spirits linger even today as demons,93 and Satan fell. This would be why the earth is seemingly in chaos at the opening of Genesis (Gn 1:2)94 as Satan had just rebelled and the people had just been wiped out. Though some outside of this variant view put Satan’s rebellion in the same place (between Gn 1:1 and 1:2),95 there is no evidence of a pre-Adamite people from Scripture. The theory seems to bear more resemblance to the Greek creation myths than the Bible, as Zeus on multiple occasions creates and then destroys his creatures. This conclusion would be consistent with the theology which flows from the preadamite view as the adherents tend to put more weight on terms and times found in the works of pagans than they do in the clear teachings of Scripture.96 These teachings of man are then read back into the Scriptures. One example of this faulty hermeneutic is the final fate of the Nephilim. Whereas Scripture speaks to the end of the descendants of the Nephilim and does not refocus on them. These pursuers of myth make the Nephilim central to the Scriptures. Jesus said “And as it was in the days of Noah, so it will be also in the days of the Son of Man” (Lk 17:26, NKJV). If the Nephilim are the central problem with the days of Noah; if the primary reason for the flood is centered on the procreation event; then one must conclude that Jesus is saying that a “second incursion” will occur in “the end times.” The Nephilim will return and we will see giants again. This understanding of the passage is eisegesis (reading your beliefs into the text). Jesus in the following verses explains to his disciples how the days of the Son of Man will be like the days of Noah: 27 They ate, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, and the flood came and destroyed them all. 28 93 Demons would then, in this view, be made up of (1) fallen angels, (2) the pre-Adamite race, and (3) the Nephilim. As you may be able to tell, once one starts over-differentiating between the titles and terms attributed to demons in Scripture, there is no end to it. Rather there becomes thousands of categories of demons. Once we diverge from Scripture, where do we stop? 94 The watery depths are often considered to be chaotic in Near Eastern Mythology. With the Spirit of God brooding over it, some interpret the Scriptures as telling the reader that there was Chaos between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2 that God was calming. 95 Despite some orthodox Christians claiming Satan’s rebellion occurred in between those two verses, it seems unlikely given God’s words over his creation: “It was very good.” As Erickson points out, “it must have occurred between the time when God completed the creatin and pronounced it all ‘very good,’ and the temptation and fall of the humans (Gen. 3).” (Erickson, 416). Grudem likewise says “sometime between the events of Genesis 1:31 and Genesis 3:1, there must have been a rebellion in the angelic world with many angels turning against God and becoming evil” (Grudem, 412). (See also Zuber, 273). To view the rebellion as occurring between Gn 1:1 and 1:2 is to put more weight on near eastern mythology’s impact on Judaism than on the narrative of the first few chapters of Genesis. 96 There is a great appeal to Greek mythology in this theory. The adherents present an argument for the “golden age” of heroes found in Greek Mythology, as well as the Titans being bound in Tartarus, being informative to our understanding of Scripture. There is a possibility these myths were passed down orally and are a twisting of true events even as we know that there are some angels chained in Tartarus awaiting judgement (Jd 6), however we should never use the myths as our basis for belief. As Unger reminds us “drawing parallels from Greek mythology on a point where Biblical revelation is silent, or extremely reticent, is exceedingly perilous” (Unger, 45). J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 35 Likewise as it was also in the days of Lot: They ate, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they built; 29 but on the day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven and destroyed them all. 30 Even so will it be in the day when the Son of Man is revealed. 31 In that day, he who is on the housetop, and his goods are in the house, let him not come down to take them away. And likewise the one who is in the field, let him not turn back. 32 Remember Lot’s wife. 33 Whoever seeks to save his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life will preserve it. 34 I tell you, in that night there will be two men in one bed: the one will be taken and the other will be left. 35 Two women will be grinding together: the one will be taken and the other left. 36 Two men will be in the field: the one will be taken and the other left.” Luke 17:27-36, NKJV The primary way in which that day of Noah will be like the future day of the Lord is in the attitude and hearts of the general population. Man will care more for his pleasure and belongings than he will for the coming of the Lord. The same attitude will be in the world when Jesus returns. There is no mention of the Nephilim in this passage. The Nephilim are not the center of Christian theology, nor does Genesis 6 provide a key to the rest of Scripture. We must not put more weight into the musings of man than the word of God and we must not “pay attention to myths.” (1 Tm 1:4). We must rather go forth, proclaiming the gospel of Jesus Christ. Mark and avoid these views that diverge from the clear teachings of Scripture. How The Nephilim Fit Into the Gospel How are we to understand the Nephilim through a gospel-centered lens? Genesis 3:15 helps us answer this question: “And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, And you shall bruise His heel.” (NKJV) Typology is a study that observes like-characteristics in individuals or symbols that serve as a shadow of other individuals or symbols. As the Nephilim and their descendants serve as a type and shadow of the Serpent, so the faithful servants of YHWH serve as a type and shadow of the seed of Eve. Just as the seed of Eve would crush the head of the Serpent, so David crushed and decapitated the head of Goliath. Just as Jesus will destroy Satan, so David’s mighty men hunted and destroyed the giants. The story and fate of the giants provides for us a taste of what Jesus did on the cross and will do in judgement, crushing the head of the serpent. No matter what comes next, we know who wins the day. “Soon the battle will be over. It will not be long now before the day will come when Satan will no longer trouble us. There will be no more domination, temptation, accusation, or confrontation. Our warfare will be over and our commander, Jesus Christ, will call us away from the battlefield to receive the victor's crown.” – Thomas Watson The usage of serpent/dragon as imagery of the Devil The Devil is described as both a serpent and a dragon in Scripture. But not every reference to serpents is a negative one, which requires the Christian to examine the reasons why J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 36 Satan is labeled as that “great dragon” and “serpent of old” (Rv 12:9). After all, Christians must be “shrewd as serpents” (Mt 10:16) and Jesus is compared to the bronze serpent (Nm 21; Jn 3:14). Below is a list of every word used to describe serpents and dragons in Scripture. Those clear references to the devil are bolded. I would recommend attempting to read each word out loud a few times. In so doing, you will likely hear why each word was created to refer to snakes/dragons.97 ‫( נָׂחָׂ ׁש‬nahash) – Serpent (Gn 3:1-2, 4, 13, 14; Ex 4:3, 7:15; Nm 21:6-7, 9; Dt 8:15; 2 Kgs 18:4; Jb 26:13; Ps 58:4; 140:3; Prv 23:32; 30:19; Ecc 10:8, 11; Is 14:29; 27:1; 65:25; Jr 8:17; 46:22; Am 5:19; 9:3; Mic 7:17 ). ‫( תַ נִ ין‬tanniyn) – serpent, monster, sea monster, sea creature (Gn 1:21; Ex 7:9-10, 12; Dt 32:33; Jb 7:12; Ps 74:13; 91:13; 148:7; Is 27:1; 51:9; Jr 51:34; Ez 29:3; 32:2 ). ‫( שָׂ ָׂרף‬saraph) – serpent, poisonous, seraphim, snake (Nm 21:6, 8; Dt 8:15; Is 6:2, 6; 114:29; 30:6). ‫( – אֶ פְּ עֶה‬efeh) – snake, viper (Jb 20:16; Is 30:6; 59:5) ‫( לִ וְּ יָׂתָׂ ן‬livyathan) – Leviathan (Jb 3:8; 41:1; Ps 74:14; 104:26; Is 27:1) ‫( ֶֶּ֫פתֶ ן‬pethen) – cobra, horned viper (Dt 32:33; Jb 20:14, 16; Ps 58:4; 91:13;Is 11:8) ‫( ֶּ֫ ֶצפַע‬tsefa) – viper, poisonous snake (Is 14:29) ‫( צִ פְּ עֹ נִ י‬tsifoni) – viper, poisonous viper, snake (Pr 23:32; Is 11:8; 59:5; Jr 8:17) ‫( עַכְּ ׁשּוב‬akhshuv) – viper, poisonous snake, horned viper or adder (Ps 140:3) ‫( ֶַּ֫רהַ ב‬rahab) – Rahab, proud, a mythical monster (Jb 9:13; 26:12; Ps 40:4; 87:4;89:10; Is 30:7; 51:9) ‫( ְּׁשפִ יפֹ ן‬shephiphon) – viper, horned viper (Gn 49:17) ἀσπίς (aspis) – viper, asp (Rm 3:13) ἔχιδνα (echidna) – viper, snake (Mt 3:7; 12:34; 23:33; Lk 3:7; Acts 28:3) ὄφις (ophis) – serpent, snake (Mt 7:10; 10:16; 23:33; Mk 16:18; Lk 10:19; 11:11; Jn 3:14; 1 Cor 10:9; 2 Cor 11:3; Rv 9:19; 12:9, 14-15; 20:2) Δράκων (drakon) – dragon (Rv 12:3-4, 7, 9, 13, 16-17; 13:2, 4, 11; 16:13; 20:2) ἑρπετόν (herpeton) – reptile, bird (Acts 10:12; 11:6; Rm 1:23; Jm 3:7) The issue of angelic regional rule “12 Then he said to me, ‘Do not be afraid, Daniel, for from the first day that you gave your heart to understand this and to humble yourself before your God, your words were heard, and I have come in response to your words.13 But the prince of the kingdom of Persia was standing against me for twenty-one days; then behold, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me. Now I had been left there with the kings of Persia.14 Now I have come to give you an understanding of what will happen to your people in the last days, for the vision pertains to the days yet future.’” Daniel 10:12-14, LSB 97 In one of the greatest literary works to date, The Aeneid, Virgil relays a moment in his story when the priest Laocoon who has spoken out against the plan to bring the Trojan horse into the city is killed by two serpents sent by way of the sea. As you read the Latin aloud, it creates a “Sssssssssss” sound much in the same way some of these Hebrew and Greek terms for serpents do. J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 37 The angelic messenger dispatched to Daniel arrived three weeks after he was sent (Dn 10:2). The reason? “The prince of the kingdom of Persia” opposed him and halted his movements until Michael came to help. Both Michael and the entity over Persia are referred to as “prince” which is a term commonly used for human rulers throughout the OT. However, given the identity of the messenger the implication is that both Michael and the prince of Persia are of the same kind: angelic beings. Further evidence of this is that Michael bears clear identification elsewhere in Scripture as an archangel (Jd 1:9; Rv 12:7-9), being “one of the chief princes” (Dn 10:13, CSB). Daniel was living in exile in the pagan land of Persia. This begs the question about the moniker (“prince of…Persia”) given to the demonic entity the angelic messenger encounters. He is associated with the region in which Daniel is stationed and halts the messenger sent from heaven. Are angelic entities, good and evil alike, stationed over regions in the corporeal world? Outside of Scripture passages like Daniel 10, there is not much as far as direct Biblical arguments for demonic and angelic entities ruling over regions on the earth. One argument in favor of regional rule is made from the translational efforts of the Greek Septuagint (LXX). Below is the Hebrew versus the Greek Septuagint for the verse Deuteronomy 32:8. In Hebrew the phrase “children of Israel” (‫ )בְּ נֵ ֵ֥י י ְִּש ָׂר ֵ ָֽאל‬is used while in Greek “angels of God” (ἀγγέλων θεοῦ) is used for the basis of God’s establishing of national borders. Deuteronomy 32:8: • ‫( בְּ הַ נְּ ֵחֵ֤ל עֶלְּ יֹון ּגֹו ִ֔ ִים בְּ הַ פְּ ִר ֖ידֹו בְּ נֵ ֵ֣י אָׂ ָׂ ָ֑דם יַצֵ ב ּגְּ בֹֻלֵ֣ ת ע ִִַ֔מים לְּ ִמ ְּספַ ֖ר ְּבנֵ֥י יִ ְּש ָר ֵֽאל׃‬Hebrew, emphasis added) • ὅτε διεμέριζεν ὁ ὕψιστος ἔθνη, ὡς διέσπειρεν υἱοὺς Ἀδάμ, ἔστησεν ὅρια ἐθνῶν κατὰ ἀριθμὸν ἀγγέλων θεοῦ. (Greek Septuagint Translation, emphasis added) • “When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of man, He set the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel.” (NASB, emphasis added) The argument in favor of regional rule is bolstered by intertestamental Jewish writings within the apocrypha (Sirach 17:17), pseudepigraphal writings (Jubilees 15:31-32), and the writings of many early church fathers. Tradition and the understanding of man is not authoritative, but it does provide secondary support for this interpretation of “God has His heavenly kingdom and Deuteronomy 32:8 and Daniel 10. Following are quotes Satan has his kingdom (Matthew 12:26). from various church fathers: We either follow God in Christ Jesus or we follow the prince of the power of the air (Ephesians 2:2). We either gather with the kingdom of God or we scatter with the kingdom of Satan (Matthew 12:30). We either operate under the Spirit of Christ or we operate under the spirit of the Antichrist (1 John 4:3).” • "’He set the boundaries of the nations after the number of the angels of God.’ However, the people who believe in God are not now under the power of angels, but under the Lord's [rule].’For His people Jacob were made the portion of the Lord.’ Irenaeus (c. 180), 1.434. • “Regiments of angels are distributed over the nations and cities.” Clement of Alexandria (c. 195), 2.517. • “By an ancient and divine order, the angels are distributed among the nations.” Clement of Alexandria (c. 195), 2.524. J.C. Andrews – Stephen Bancarz and Josh Peck The Evil One and His Angels 38 • “In the Holy Scriptures, we find that there are princes over individual nations. For example, in Daniel we read that there was a prince of the kingdom of Persia and another prince of the kingdom of Greece. By the nature of the passage, these princes are clearly shown not to be human beings. Rather, they are certain [spiritual] powers. Also, in the prophecies of Ezekiel, the prince of Tyre is unmistakably shown to be a type of spiritual power.” Origen (c. 225), 4.335. • “Moreover, other nations are called a part of the angels. This is because ‘when the Most High divided the nations and dispersed the sons of Adam, He fixed the boundaries of the nations according to the number of the angels of God.’” Origen (c. 225), 4.241. • “Our prophet of God and His genuine servant Moses, in his song in the Book of Deuteronomy, makes a statement regarding the portioning out of the earth in the following terms: ‘When the Most High divided the nations, when He dispersed the sons of Adam, he set the boundaries of the people according to the number of the angels of God. And the Lord's portion was His people, Jacob.’" Origen (c. 248), 4.555. • “To every nation is sent an angel, as the Law says: ‘He determined them by the number of the angels of God,’ until the number of the saints should be filled up. They do not overstep their boundaries, because in the end they shall come with the Antichrist.” Vutorinus (c. 280), 7.352; see also 5.500, 5.627 Despite these things, there remains little evidence in Scripture to make the claim authoritatively. Thus the Christian should be cautious in how dogmatically they approach such a topic.98 We know that Michael is that “great prince who stands guard over the sons of” Israel (Dn 12:1, NASB) and that he engaged with various demonic rulers in warfare yet we lack more details. Despite not knowing how it is that angelic warfare works, we do know there is warfare occurring around us. There are spiritual battles which we cannot see, yet through it all God is faithful and is a fortress in which we may hide. He is our rock and we hide under the shadow of His wings. Amen. Satan Is Not Always The Satan “But God was angry because he was going, so the angel of Yahweh took his stand in the way as an adversary against him. Now he was riding on his donkey, and his two young men were with him…And the angel of Yahweh said to him, ‘Why have you struck your donkey these three times? Behold, I have come out as an adversary because your way was contrary to me.’” Numbers 22:22, 32, LSB (emphasis added) Why does God call himself an adversary (‫שָׂ ָׂטֵ֣ן‬, satan) to Balaam (Nm 22:32)? Why is the angel of Yahweh, often thought to be a pre-incarnate Christ, acting as an adversary (‫שָׂ ָׂטֵ֣ן‬, satan) to Balaam (Nm 22:22)? As mentioned above, the evil one is not given a name in the same way that modern individuals are given names. Some theologians argue that none of the names or titles given to him are truly his name; rather we only know him by titles and functions. Satan is no different because the Hebrew word satan existed prior to its usage with the definite article in 98 For a brief discussion on angelic rule see Heiser, Demons, 23-24. J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 39 reference to the evil one (“the Satan”).99 Thus there are characters and individuals, including God and the angel of God, who can be satans or adversaries/accusers.100 Yet there are clear times when the definite article is used that the celestial entity whom we call “Satan” is referenced (1 Chr 21:1; Zech 3:1-2). There are some scholars who argue that not every time the definite article is used is the evil entity in mind. One difficult and debated passage involving this issue is found in Job 1-2. There is a question about the identity of “The Satan” in this passage given (1) The adversary’s ability to be in the courts of heaven, (2) God is the one who initiates the conversation about Job (Jb 1:8) not the adversary, (3) the adversary is not rebuked by God or demonstrated to be crafty in the passage, and (4) some have claimed that the adversary’s question on Job’s faithfulness in relation to his blessings is a legitimate one. Extensively visiting all four points is beyond the scope of this brief article. Instead, the purpose is to acknowledge there are some questions as to the true identity of the accuser found in Job 1-2. If the identity of the accuser in Job changes, does our theology of The Satan change with it? The major contribution of Job 1-2 to our theology of Satan is to see Satan’s servile nature to God. The book of Job shows that The Satan is unable to touch the servants of God without God’s permission. In the vain of “connecting the dots,” we recognize that if this theological belief is limited to Job 1-2, then we are standing on dangerous ground if The Satan in Job 1-2 is not the evil entity titled The Satan. Fortunately, this is not a problem. The servile nature of Satan and his demons exists throughout the Scriptures. In the Old Testament we see God sending “an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem” (Jdg 9:23, NASB) to bring about their deaths, “an evil spirit…to torment” Saul (1 Sm 1614, CSB), and “a lying spirit” into the mouths of the prophets to cause Ahab’s death (1 Kgs 22).101 In the New “Nothing sets a person so much Testament we see demons fall “down before” Jesus (Mk 3:11, out of the devil's reach as CSB) and Jesus’s ability to command demons (Mk 5:1-20). All of humility.” these examples give us a taste of how the demons, of which The Satan is one, must receive permission to act and abide by the – Jonathan Edwards command of God at all times.102 Though this author believes Job 1-2 is a depiction of that evil entity we call Satan, if it is not our theology remains the same. 99 It should be noted that the evil one became so connected with the title The Satan that the New Testament authors transliterate the Hebrew title into a proper-noun Satan in the Greek to refer to him. 100 David: 1 Sm 29:4; The Sons of Zeruiah: 2 Sm 19:22; The enemies of Solomon: 1 Kgs 5:4; 11:14, 23, 25; Accusers against David’s enemies: Ps 109:6. 101 Perhaps the issue of culpability comes to your mind. If a prophet were to speak a word which did not come to pass he was proved to be a false prophet and thus deserved to die (Dt 18:20-22). Yet what do we do with the 400 prophets before Ahab who God had put a lying spirit in (1 Kgs 22)? Would these individuals be culpable and thus deserving of death for speaking a word that God gave them by proxy? Yes. They were culpable because they were false prophets prior to this instance. They had already opened themselves up to the demonic through disobedience and paganism via Baal worship. This left them wide open to demonic influence and even possession, if they were not true believers in Yahweh (see Can A Christian Be Demon-Possessed? In FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS). This is further confirmed by Micaiah’s response to Ahab in describing seeing the exchange between God and the spirits occur (1 Kgs 22:19-23). Micaiah, being righteous, was able to discern the spirits. The 400 prophets were clearly not able to discern and thus were culpable for their participation in lying, saying the words given to them by demons were the words of God. Though God sent the demons for that purpose, the words were not God’s words. We must always be discerning the spirits before us. A failure to do so will result in nothing but harm for us. 102 Zuber, 272. J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 40 This issue is important because of the potential implications of which people may try to convince you. Following are some other examples of titles used for The Satan being used of other individuals. Satan is not always The Satan. And like the title satan, we can see an instance in the New Testament when the title devil is used of an individual: “Jesus answered them, ‘Did I Myself not choose you, the twelve, and yet one of you is a devil?’” (Jn 6:70, LSB). This of course was in reference to Judas. The term is likewise used in the plural in 1 Timothy 3:11, 2 Timothy 3:3, and Titus 2:3 to refer to “slanderers.” One should note how Judas and these slanderers are ultimately called these titles because they are like their “father the devil…want[ing] to carry out [their] father’s desires” (Jn 8:44, CSB). Bibliography: The usage of the following resources is not a wholesale promotion of each author or resource. There are some authors on this list which are good on the topic they address in this work, however are unhelpful or wrong on other topics. Be cautious and read every book with discernment, comparing everything to Scripture. Abarim Publications. Lucifer. Abarim Publications. 8/24/2021. Alexander, T. Desmond and David W. Baker, eds. Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch: A Compendium Of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship. Intervarsity Press: Downers Grove, Illinois, 2003. Bancarz, Steven and Josh Peck. The Second Coming of the New Age: The Hidden Dangers of Alternative Spirituality in Contemporary America and its Churches. Defender Publishing: Crane, MO, 2018. Batten, Don, David Catchpoole, Jonathan Sarfati, and Carl Wieland. The Creation Answers Book. Creation Book Publishers: Powder Springs, Georgia, 2019. Enns, Peter and Tremper Longman III, eds. Dictionary of the Old Testament: Wisdom, Poetry & Writings: A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarsip. Intervarsity Press Academic: Downers Grove, Illinois, 2008. Erickson, Millard J. Christian Theology, 3rd Ed. Baker Academic: Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2013. Garland, David E. and Tremper Longman III, Ed. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary 1: Genesis ~ Leviticus, Revised Edition. Zondervan: Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2008. Grudem, Wayne. Systematic Theology: An Introduction To Biblical Doctrine. Zondervan: Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2000. Ham, Ken, Ed. The New Answers Book 1: Over 25 Questions On Creation/Evolution and the Bible. Master Books: Green Forest, AR, 2006. Harper, Douglas. Lucifer. Online Etymology Dictionary. 2022. Heiser, Michael S. Angels: What the Bible Really Says About God’s Heavenly Host. Lexham Press: Bellingham, Washington, 2018. Heiser, Michael S. Demons: What the Bible Really Says About the Powers of Darkness. Lexham Press: Bellingham, Washington, 2020. Hodge, Bodie. Satan and the Origin of Evil. July, 29, 2010. Koch, Kurt E.. Demonology Past And Present: Identifying and Overcoming Demonic Strongholds. Kregel Publications: Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1973. Koch, Kurt E. Occult Practices and Beliefs: A Biblical Examination from A to Z. Kregel Publications: Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1971. MacArthur, John and Richard Mayhue. Biblical Doctrine: A Systematic Summary of Bible Truth. Crossway: Wheaton, Illinois, 2017. Martin, Walter. The Kingdom of the Cults, 6th Ed. Bethany House: Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2019. Packer, J.I. Concise Theology: A Guide To Historic Christian Beliefs. Tyndale House Publishers: Carol Stream, Illinois, 1993. J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 41 Phillips, Rob. The Apologist’s Tool Kit: Resources To Help You Defend the Christian Faith, 3rd Edition. Rob Phillips: 2016. Phillips, Rob. What Every Christian Should Know About Satan: Biblical Names and Titles That Reveal His Nature, Activities, and Destiny. High Street Press: Jefferson City, MO, 2021. Ridenour, Fritz. So What’s The Difference? A Look At 20 Worldviews, Faiths and Religions and How They Compare to Christianity. Regal: Ventura, California, 2001. Sproul, R.C. Everyone’s A Theologian: An Introduction to Systematic Theology. Reformation Trust Publishing: Sanford, Florida, 2014. Unger, Merrill F. Biblical Demonology: A Study of the Spiritual Forces Behind the Present World Unrest. Scripture Press Publications, Inc.: Wheaton, Illinois, 1952. Zuber, Kevin D. The Essential Scriptures: A Handbook of the Biblical Texts for Key Doctrines. Moody Publishers: Chicago, Illinois, 2021. J.C. Andrews The Evil One and His Angels 42
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