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Chap 18_Acts

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Acts 18:1–4 (HCSB)Founding the Corinthian Church OOOOOOO 18 After this, he left Athens and went to Corinth, 2 where he found a Jewish man named Aquila, a native of Pontus, who had recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla because Claudius had ordered all the Jews to leave Rome. Paul came to them, 3 and being of the same occupation, stayed with them and worked, for they were tentmakers by trade. 4 He reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath and tried to persuade both Jews and Greeks.
.First-century Corinth was a city rich in both history and wealth due to its geographic advantages. It was a city of cultural diversity, a hub of Roman paganism, and a hotbed for immorality. It also hosted the biannual Isthmian games, which drew throngs from across Greece. ,,,,,Isthmian Games, in ancient Greece, a festival of athletic and musical competitions in honour of the sea god Poseidon, held in the spring of the second and fourth years of each Olympiad at his sanctuary on the Isthmus of Corinth. When Corinth was destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC, the Isthmian games continued, but were now administered by Sicyon. Corinth was rebuilt by Caesar in 44 BC. Corinth recovered ownership of the Games shortly thereafter, but they were then held in Corinth
Greece is very mountainous [80%] and Corinth is 65 miles up and downhill [ about from here to Conroe]
V1 We don’t know if Aquilla was a Christian when Paul first lived with him.. In those times, artisans or craftsmen did not compete against each other. They often had trade guilds, helped one another. The scripture implies that he stayed with them because they shared the same occupation. Scripture he found a Jewish man named Aquila, it does not use the term God fearing man as they called Gentiles who were in the synagogue, nor does it use the term “brother”. Therefore, Paul might have stayed with him a a helper in the tent making trade. It was common that tent makers also worked in leather which was a higher trade that tentmaker. Elsewhere in says that 2 Corinthians 11:7–9 (HCSB)7 Or did I commit a sin by humbling myself so that you might be exalted, because I preached the gospel of God to you free of charge? 8 I robbed other churches by taking pay from them to minister to you. 9 When I was present with you and in need, I did not burden anyone, for the brothers who came from Macedonia supplied my needs. I have kept myself, and will keep myself, from burdening you in any way.2 Corinthians 11:7–9 (HCSB) and in 1 Thessalonians 2:8–9 (HCSB) 8 We cared so much for you that we were pleased to share with you not only the gospel of God but also our own lives, because you had become dear to us. 9 For you remember our labor and hardship, brothers. Working night and day so that we would not burden any of you, we preached God’s gospel to you.
Later, it was obvious the both Priscilla and wife were believers- perhaps after hearing Paul in the synagogue. V26. After Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him home and explained the way of God to him more accurately.
. Pontus = A Roman province on the Black Sea along the northeast coast of Asia Minor, in modern Turkey
V2 recently come from Italy - latest expulsion
Scholars say Crestus was a specific person, many say it was about Hellenistic Jews who regarded Jesus as the Messiah, others say it was the expansion of Christianity in Rome---Expulsion of Jews also on The Jews on other occasions had been expelled from Rome—most recently during the reign of Tiberius cir. 19 CE,[ But this most likely was done in 49 CE when Augustus due to the Jewish problems about Chrestos [Christ]
The passage may suggest that in the mid-first century the Romans still viewed Christianity as a Jewish sect. Remember that we said that Christianity was not recognized as a an official religion, therefore it did not have to pay taxes.
Silvia Cappelletti describes Claudius's motivation as the need to control the population of Rome and prevent political meetings. (He "did not have an anti-Jewish policy.")[27] Donna Hurley explains that Suetonius includes the expulsion "among problems with foreign populations, not among religions"[28]
Louis Feldman states that most scholars assume that the disturbances were due to the spread of Christianity in Rome.[29] Dunn states that the disturbances Suetonius refers to were probably caused by the objections of Jewish community to preachings by early Christians; Dunn moreover perceives confusion in Suetonius which would weaken the historical value of the reference as a whole.[30] Lane states that the cause of the disturbance was likely the preachings of Hellenistic Jews in Rome and their insistence that Jesus was the Messiah, resulting in tensions with the Jews in Rome.[31]
In contrast, E.A. Judge states that Suetonius later introduces Christians "in a way that leaves no doubt that he is discussing them for the first time" (i.e. in Nero 16), bringing into doubt an interpretation that Suetonius is dealing with Christians in Claudius 25.[32]
Scholars are divided on the identity of "Chrestus" in the Suetonius reference. Some such as Craig A. Evans, John Meier and Craig S. Keener see it as a likely reference to Jesus.[33][34] Menahem Stern said Suetonius was definitely referring to Jesus Christ, because he would have added "a certain" to Chrestus, if he had meant some unknown agitator.
Best summary = In 19 AD, under the reign of the emperor Tiberius, the Jews were expelled from Rome. Ancient sources provide several different reasoning behind this expulsion. According to Josephus it was due to the due to the defrauding of an aristocratic Roman woman Fulvia, who had been attracted to Judaism. Fulvia was deceived into making a large financial contribution to the temple in Jerusalem. However, this contribution was said to never have reached the temple. However, the followers of Isis were expelled along with the Jews in 19 AD, so it is unclear whether this reason it true or not since the followers of Isis had no part in the fraud.
Historians prefer to believe Josephus’s account. However, they are unsure how long this expulsion lasted. Records indicate that by 41 a.d.,there were large numbers of Jews in Rome by 41 AD,  so the expulsion had to be resolved before then and Jews started to return to Rome. In 49 AD, the Jews were expelled again, this time by the emperor Claudius. According to Suetonius, the Jews were expelled due to disturbances they caused in response to the rise of Christianity. Acts 18:2 confirms the existence of the expulsion, however it does tell us why the Jews were expelled. .....This expulsion ended five years later at the beginning of Emperor Nero's reign in 54 AD, and the Jews were allowed to return to Rome.
…V4 reasoned in the synagogue - both Jews and Greeks. Hellinized Jews . Those who had not fully converted to Judaism. But these were not Christian Jews necessarily.
OOOOOOO Acts 18:5–8 (HCSB) 5 When Silas and Timothy came down from Macedonia, Paul was occupied with preaching the message and solemnly testified to the Jews that Jesus is the Messiah. 6 But when they resisted and blasphemed, he shook his robe and told them, “Your blood is on your own heads! I am innocent. From now on I will go to the Gentiles.” 7 So he left there and went to the house of a man named Titius Justus, a worshiper of God, whose house was next door to the synagogue. 8 Crispus, the leader of the synagogue, believed the Lord, along with his whole household. Many of the Corinthians, when they heard, believed and were baptized. Not having been in Athens with Paul, Silas and
But Paul continues teaching and some in the synagofue not only reject the message, but actually blasphemed. This might have been saying Jesus was of satan as earlier Jews said?? But Paul says your judgement is on your head.
V6 Paul is exasperated with their obstinate refusal to believe. But I think that this may have been a case of John 12:40 (HCSB) John 12:40 (HCSB)40 He has blinded their eyes and hardened heir hearts, so that they would not see with their eyes or understand with their hearts, and be converted, and I would heal them. 40 He has blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts, so that they would not see with their eyes or understand with their hearts, and be converted, and I would heal them.
Paul abandons the synagogue and even changes his residence, but in a real poke in the eyes - moves next door to the synagogue and lives in sin with a Gentile believer. Titius Justus was a thoroughly Roman name and may have had some type of royalty the way his full name is used and no mention of trade or origin. Also the fact that he is not hesitant or afraid of being next door to a synagogue. Surely he was aware of Paul’s problem, yet it didn/t bother him.
But many convertys continued to come into the kingdlom, even the leader of the synagogue along with his family.
The Jews were looked upon as troublemakers in Rome and were exiled twice, and the the new Jewish sect was regarded as troublemakers within Judaism. This dual action of pushing out the Jewish Christian sect strengthened it and made it a distinct belief- outside of the center of Judaism, So it was progressing where teaching would not be from rabbi’s and the OT, but the message of the new kingdom There were so many conflicts going on - new belief that was so powerful and contagious it was uprooting the culture, caused schisms within each synagogue where they taught, involvement with the Romans who could see the disruption of the Jews. All of this gave more PR to the Christians and Paul. What is going on?
But Paul keeps on chiugging along. He is without money, without good reputation within Judaism, out rith refjuection from the elite hiearchy of Jews in Jerusalem, without family resources, But he has God on his side.
Due to their rejection in the earliest days of Corinth play is fed up and left to focus on the Gentiles in Corinth.
OOOOOOO Acts 18:9–11 (HCSB) 9 Then the Lord said to Paul in a night vision, “Don’t be afraid, but keep on speaking and don’t be silent. 10 For I am with you, and no one will lay a hand on you to hurt you, because I have many people in this city.” 11 And he stayed there a year and six months, teaching the word of God among them.
In the midst of these attacks, Paul has a night vision. “ “Don’t be afraid, but keep on speaking and don’t be silent. Don’t restrain, don’t hold back, don’t be fearful. Jesus told him that he is his protector and there are a lot of allies within the city.
With this encouragement Paul stayed at least 18 mos in Corinth. Which became one of main Christian churches in Europe.
OOOOOOO Acts 18:12–17 (HCSB) 12 While Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, the Jews made a united attack against Paul and brought him to the judge’s bench. 13 “This man,” they said, “persuades people to worship God contrary to the law!”
14 As Paul was about to open his mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, “If it were a matter of a crime or of moral evil, it would be reasonable for me to put up with you Jews. 15 But if these are questions about words, names, and your own law, see to it yourselves. I don’t want to be a judge of such things.” 16 So he drove them from the judge’s bench. 17 Then they all seized Sosthenes, the leader of the synagogue, and beat him in front of the judge’s bench. But none of these things concerned Gallio.
The proconsul system was in place from 27 b.c to 15 a.d. then abanded and came bac in 44 a.d. and continued. these were 2 year terms, and Gallos’s began on 51 a.d.(c. 4 B.C.E.—65 C.E.)
He was born in Spain and adopted, but his biological father was Lucius Annaeus Seneca. His brother was Lucius Annaeus Seneca, the younger. His brother was a famous Roman philosopher Seneca was a Stoic who adopted and argued largely from within the framework he inherited from his Stoic predecessors. He was Rome’s leading intellectual figure in the mid-1st century ce and was virtual ruler with his friends of the Roman world between 54 and 62A. In 65 Seneca’s enemies denounced him as having been a party to a conspiracy to murder Nero, and he was ordered to commit suicide.
These brothers were kicked out of Spain because Seneca had an affair with the sister of Emperor Caligula. Then Nero’s mother recalled both of them in 49 a.d. so that Seneca could be Nero’s tutor.
So Seneca junior dedicated to books to Gallio, his charming, humble brother.
letter was found in Delphi Greece from the Emperor Claudius addressed to “his good friend Gallio , proconsul of Achai”. Corinth was the city within the region of Achia.This letter was very important since it nailed down the date of Gallio’s rule and so Paul’s stay in Corinth was fall of 50 a.d, until spring of 52.
Back to Gallio was a fair man. Paul was pulled before the judges bench. This was probalbly to the “judgmenent seat”- this was proabably the cermonial rostum on the eastern end of the Corinthian forum. The Jews accused him of worshipping God contrary to law. This was obviously the wrong accusation to bring before Gallio. Recall that the law about “religio illicita” Christianity was not an officially recognized religion - but Judaism was.
As Paul starts to defend himself, Gallio interrupts. He says if this was ab out a crime or moral issue, he would listen. But this is an internal Jewish problem - you Jews are to handle it. In effect, Gallio was acting as judge and grand jury. This was not worthy to go to trial or discuss. And he drove the Jews away. Maybe by his lictor’s who carried the bundle of sticks and would beat people for causing disturbance, etc. His private riot police. Remember the Taliban and their religious enforcers.
They are publicly humiliated and tossed out . With that they attack the synagogue leader Sosthenes. Is this a different name for lthe leader Crispus? I think that Crispus may have had his leadership of the syanagoe taken away as he and his household became Christians.
I think tthat they beat up their new leader because maybe it was him who came up with the failed ploy to accuse Paul of breaking their law.
What this incident did was that it allowed Paul to continue to teach. He as being deported, nor was their a restraining order, or a bond placed against Paul. This also set a Roman precedent. Paul was a Jewish problem and not Rome’s problem. This being a major city, with connections to Rome thru Seneca was creating a situration wheere it was officially hands off Paul [ it’s not in our bailiwick.
OOOOOOO Acts 18:18–23 (HCSB) The Return Trip to Antioch 18 So Paul, having stayed on for many days, said good-bye to the brothers and sailed away to Syria. Priscilla and Aquila were with him. He shaved his head at Cenchreae because he had taken a vow. 19 When they reached Ephesus he left them there, but he himself entered the synagogue and engaged in discussion with the Jews. 20 And though they asked him to stay for a longer time, he declined, 21 but he said good-bye and stated, “I’ll come back to you again, if God wills.” Then he set sail from Ephesus.
22 On landing at Caesarea, he went up and greeted the church and went down to Antioch. 23 And after spending some time there, he set out, traveling through one place after another in the Galatian territory and Phrygia, strengthening all the disciples.
Paul leave in his own accord. His work is finished and he returns to Syria [ Ephesis].
…Now he is accompanied by Priscilla and Aquila. Note the word order= the wife is before her huscand. In other locations prominent or wealthy women were attracted the faith. Priscilla may have come from wealth or an important family or important connections.
Cenchreae is the main port for Coritn. The temples of Artemis [ most popular god in the Mediterran area [Artemis is the Greek goddess of the hunt, the wilderness, wild animals, the Moon, and chastity. The goddess Diana is her Roman equivalent. Artemis is the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister of Apollo. She was the patron and protector of young children and women]
, Aphrodite [love and beauty - on e of 12 Olympian gods],
Asclepius [ a demigod with mortal mother= healing, medicine, doctors] and Posedion.
In the summer, it was easier to sail to Caesarea than from here to Seleucia in Antioch.
V18 shaved his head Numbers 6:1–18 (HCSB) The Nazirite Vow What Is a Nazir? The nazir (nazirite) is a person who decided to take upon him or herself a vow to live a strict and holy lifestyle. Chief among the nazirite laws is that the nazir is not allowed to drink wine, cut one’s hair, or come into close contact with the dead. The nazir would end her or his term by bringing a sin offering to the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, during that era. Numbers 6:1–18 HCSB)The Nazirite Vow 6 The Lord instructed Moses: 2 “Speak to the Israelites and tell them: When a man or woman makes a special vow, a Nazirite vow, to consecrate himself to the Lord, 3 he is to abstain from wine and beer. He must not drink vinegar made from wine or from beer. He must not drink any grape juice or eat fresh grapes or raisins. 4 He is not to eat anything produced by the grapevine, from seeds to skin, during his vow. 5 “You must not cut his hair throughout the time of his vow of consecration. He must be holy until the time is completed during which he consecrates himself to the Lord; he is to let the hair of his head grow long. 6 He must not go near a dead body during the time he consecrates himself to the Lord. 7 He is not to defile himself for his father or mother, or his brother or sister, when they die, because the hair consecrated to his God is on his head. 8 He is holy to the Lord during the time of consecration.
9 “If someone suddenly dies near him, defiling his consecrated head of hair, he must shave his head on the day of his purification; he is to shave it on the seventh day. 10 On the eighth day he is to bring two turtledoves or two young pigeons to the priest at the entrance to the tent of meeting. 11 The priest is to offer one as a sin offering and the other as a burnt offering to make atonement on behalf of the Nazirite, since he sinned because of the corpse. On that day he must consecrate his head again. 12 He is to rededicate his time of consecration to the Lord and to bring a year-old male lamb as a restitution offering. But do not count the previous period, because his consecrated hair became defiled.
13 “This is the law of the Nazirite: On the day his time of consecration is completed, he must be brought to the entrance to the tent of meeting. 14 He is to present an offering to the Lord of one unblemished year-old male lamb as a burnt offering, one unblemished year-old female lamb as a sin offering, one unblemished ram as a fellowship offering, 15 along with their grain offerings and drink offerings, and a basket of unleavened cakes made from fine flour mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers coated with oil. 16 “The priest is to present these before the Lord and sacrifice the Nazirite’s sin offering and burnt offering. 17 He will also offer the ram as a fellowship sacrifice to the Lord, together with the basket of unleavened bread. Then the priest will offer the accompanying grain offering and drink offering.
18 “The Nazirite is to shave his consecrated head at the entrance to the tent of meeting, take the hair from his head, and put it on the fire under the fellowship sacrifice.
We don’t know what this special vow was.
What a difference, Paul was not railroaded out of town. He stayed there 18 mos and left when it was time.
Now he consecrates himself to a special mission. This a major step in importance. Look at the qualifications for achieving the consecration and the other sacrifices.
Also one who is in this condition is going to be publically recognised as one on a Nazarite quest
He arrives and begins to teach in the synagogue. In this instance they asked him to stay , but he declined.
When he leaves he says he will return if god wills. This “god wills” is mentioned. Why is it identified in Scripture. Does Paul know something or knows that the HS has some specific plan. Then he goes to Caesarea and visits the church in Jersalem then goe over 300 miles back north to Antioch. Then goes He leaves Syria and goes into regions of Turkey [Galatia and Phyrogia] lookes like another 100 miles or more.
He is covering a lot of ground
And then back to Ephesus.
OOOOOOO Acts 18:24–28 (HCSB)The Eloquent Apollos 24 A Jew named Apollos, a native Alexandrian, an eloquent man who was powerful in the use of the Scriptures, arrived in Ephesus. 25 This man had been instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in spirit, he spoke and taught the things about Jesus accurately, although he knew only John’s baptism. 26 He began to speak boldly in the synagogue. After Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him home and explained the way of God to him more accurately. 27 When he wanted to cross over to Achaia, the brothers wrote to the disciples urging them to welcome him. After he arrived, he greatly helped those who had believed through grace. 28 For he vigorously refuted the Jews in public, demonstrating through the Scriptures that Jesus is the Messiah.
...Alexandrian, this man was most likely trained in rhetoric. Alexandira had the largest Jewish pop out side of Syria-Palestine. The Jewish worked very hard to be acceptable to the schools of Greek learning. But many of the Greeks in that area looked down on the Jews [1/3 pop] and Egyptians [1/3 pop]. The clash of cultures eventually led to a massacre of entire Jewish community in 38 a.d.
The Roman emperor Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists.[1] In 38 CE, Caligula sent Herod Agrippa to Alexandria unannounced to check on Flaccus.[2] According to Philo, the visit was met with jeers from the Greek population who saw Agrippa as the king of the Jews.[3] Flaccus tried to placate both the Greek population and Caligula by having statues of the emperor placed in Jewish synagogues.[4] As a result, riots broke out in the city.[why?][5] Caligula responded by removing Flaccus from his position and executing him.[6]
Riots again erupted in Alexandria in 40 CE between Jews and Greeks.[7] Jews were accused of not honouring the emperor.[7] Disputes occurred in the city of Jamnia.[8] Jews were angered by the erection of a clay altar and destroyed it.[8] In response, Caligula ordered the erection of a statue of himself in the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem,[9] a demand in conflict with Jewish monotheism.[10] In this context, Philo wrote that Caligula "regarded the Jews with most especial suspicion, as if they were the only persons who cherished wishes opposed to his".[10]
The sole source is Philo of Alexandria, himself a Jew, who witnessed the riots and afterwards led the Jewish delegation to Caligula, and requested the re-establishment of legal Jewish residence in Alexandria.[
The Great Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world. The Library was part of a larger research institution called the Mouseion, which was dedicated to the Muses, the nine goddesses of the arts.[10] The idea of a universal library in Alexandria may
Alexandria came to be regarded as the capital of knowledge and learning, in part because of the Great Library....The Library quickly acquired many papyrus scrolls, owing largely to the Ptolemaic kings' aggressive and well-funded policies for procuring texts. It is unknown precisely how many such scrolls were housed at any given time, but estimates range from 40,000 to 400,000 at its height.
the Library actually declined gradually over the course of several centuries. This decline began with the purging of intellectuals from Alexandria in 145 BC during the reign of Ptolemy VIII
Its membership appears to have ceased by the 260s AD. Between 270 and 275 ADPhyscon,
So Apollus was a great speaker and knew the OT, but didn’t or hadn’t heard oif the baptism by the Spirit. Priscill and wife taught him . He also wanted to go to Greece possibly to convert his intellectual peers
He was affective and gave vigorous and refbuttal to the Jews and did this publicly. Between him and Paul there were no backroom deals or compromise. They both went mano a mano with the Jews. No backing down. Remember these werre outsideders coming in to debate and convert into communities steeped in centuries of traditon and taught in scriptures. No easy task and impossible for faint hearted. Only HS could have overcome such odds.
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