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Adventist International Institute

of Advanced Studies

Theological Seminary

VERTICAL MOVEMENT / TEMPORAL TRANSITIONS

AND JUDGMENT IN DANIEL

A Paper

Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements of the Course

THST 663 Christian

Eschatology

by

Emmer Chacon

March 2007


 

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION.. 1

Definition and statement of the Problem.. 2

Purpose and significance of the research. 2

Delimitations of the Study. 2

Description of the methodology. 3

VERTICAL /TEMPORAL TRANSITIONS AND JUDGMENT IN DANIEL 2. 4

VERTICAL /TEMPORAL TRANSITIONS AND JUDGMENT IN DANIEL 7. 9

Daniel 7:9-14. 10

DANIEL 7:21-22. 15

VERTICAL /TEMPORAL TRANSITIONS AND JUDGMENT IN DANIEL 8. 19

The vision (Dan 8:3-12) 20

The Audition (Dan 8:12-14) 25

Links between Dan 8:14 and Lev 16. 26

Daniel 8:14 and NT Eschatology 28

The Day of Atonement as Judgment 30

VERTICAL /TEMPORAL TRANSITIONS AND JUDGMENT IN DANIEL 9. 33

Links between Daniel 8 and Daniel 9. 34

Objectives of the Seventy Weeks: Daniel 9:24: 36

VERTICAL /TEMPORAL TRANSITIONS AND JUDGMENT IN DANIEL 12. 39

CONCLUSIONS. 45

Summary. 45

Conclusions. 47

BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 50


 

INTRODUCTION

Movement in Scripture has been matter of study in recent times. The available literature evidences that movement in Scripture does happen in narrative, ritual, legal and prophetic texts. [1] This paper aims to explore, in some selected eschatological prophetic texts of the book of Daniel, vertical movement and its relations with transition from history to eternity as consequence of the eschatological judgment.

After a review in narrative, ritual and legal texts, Klingbeil suggests that movement in these genres might serve to five objectives:

1. It can change the focus of the story from one scene to the other, thus leading the reader as a guide.

2. Movement can be used to depict similar events inside a main character (which the reader cannot really perceive without being able to see the non-verbal communication of the person)

3. It makes a story real. Real names and places usually are part of a real story.

4. The interplay of specific references and non-specific references help the reader to think in abstract terms and learn a lesson from the story.

5. Space can connect different spheres of society. Thus, legal texts can be connected to religious contexts.[2]

These elements derived from narrative, ritual, legal and prophetic biblical literature will be tested in reference to the judgment related texts in apocalyptic texts in Daniel in order to find out if some of them apply or at least might help in providing some light into the understanding of theses passages.

Definition and statement of the Problem

How vertical movement behaves in the prophetic sections of Daniel and how this movement does relate to temporal transitions and judgment in these passages.

Purpose and significance of the research 

Judgment is a crucial topic in Daniel from the point of view of Seventh day Adventist exegesis.[3] Therefore, any attempt to advance further in its comprehension is welcome.

The study of vertical movement in prophetic texts might help to understand connections between earth and heavens in reference to the relationships of God and His people as well as with those who oppose to God”s purposes. The end-time oriented judgment and the temporal transitions that might happen in connection with it will be in scope.   

Delimitations of the Study

            This paper aims at the analysis of vertical movement and its connections with temporal transitions and judgment in the prophetic passages of the book of Daniel. Narrative passages are out of scope. Issues related to paternity of the book of Daniel and other related issues are not to be addressed. Any other issue might be approached as far as related to the topic of study.

Description of the methodology

The first step has to do with the identification and literary delimitation of the passages that deal with vertical movement in prophetic passages in Daniel.

Second, passages dealing with judgment must be identified, delimited, and compared with those that feature vertical movement and temporal transitions looking for possible intersections.

Third, the identified and delimited passages will be under analysis so the nuances of temporal transitions and vertical movement may be brought into evidence. Attention to literary structures will provide key exegetical hints.  

Fourth, the theological analysis will deal with those connections that might be identified between judgment and vertical movement.

The reader will find a sequential analysis of these aspects in Daniel 2, 7, 8, 9 and 12 and then a general summary and conclusions.    


 

VERTICAL /TEMPORAL TRANSITIONS AND JUDGMENT IN DANIEL 2

Daniel 2 features the prophetic frame for the whole book. The sequential parallels between Dan 2 and Daniel 7 and 8 shows the kind of relationship between these chapters as the other prophetic series in Daniel build their presentation on this same pattern.[4] This chapter features the King”s dream (2:1), Daniel gets the dream (2:19, 31-35) and the interpretation; and he gives the interpretation to the King (2:36-45). This sequence of dream/vision – interpretation will be present again in the next chapters and this sequence will provide some patterns.   

This paper does not deal with the historical aspect of Dan 2 neither with the details of the interpretation of Dan 2:1-35. The scope is in the section that contains Daniel”s interpretation (2:36-45) and particularly those verses which display the temporal and vertical transition, Dan 2:44-45.

44 And in the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that shall never be destroyed, nor shall the kingdom be left to another people. It shall break in pieces all these kingdoms and bring them to an end, and it shall stand forever,  45 just as you saw that a stone was cut from a mountain by no human hand, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold. A great God has made known to the king what shall be after this. The dream is certain, and its interpretation sure." [5]    

Daniel”s interpretation of the King”s dream, verses 36-43, portrays the earthly (horizontal) and chronological succession of the human kingdoms. Verse 44 implies a “vertical” (earth / heavens) and temporal transition from history (“in the days of those kings” to eternity (aY")m;l.[“l.,[6] “the eternity”) where God”s kingdom succeeds men”s kingdoms (which are just one as the image is only one[7]) in a once for all dramatic transition. There is not one single element in common between men”s kingdoms and God”s kingdom. 

A definitive transition as the one implied in Dan 2:44-45 requires some kind of previous evaluation that is not present in Dan 2. In Dan 2 the Aramaic root @Ws, “end” is used for the first time in the book.[8] God”s kingdom -the stone-[9] will bring men”s kingdoms to “and end.”[10]  Daniel 2 does not elaborate the procedure that causes this “vertical” and temporal transition and leaves this task for the next prophetic sections. Therefore, Daniel 2 is a kind of outline that serves as setting and backdrop for the rest of the prophetic sections in the book. 

Some elements are evident in this passage. There is a transition in the ultimate dominance from earth to heavens, from men to God, from history to eternity. Therefore, vertical and temporal transitions are implied. These transitions evidence connections between earth and heavens. There is intervention from the Heavens into the earthly/human issues. God is involved in History as part of His strategy for guiding history into eternity. This way, these transitions in the prophetic presentation shows the changes in the location of the focus in the text (earth/heaven) and provides connections between the human and the Divine sphere, which show the way as history and eternity, relate to each other. The analysis of the next key passages will show if they keep elaborating these elements and if they provide the identity and nature of the processes that give way for these transitions. The next prophetic series will follow this basic format: a temporal, horizontal sequential transition of human kingdoms on earth followed by a dramatic temporal, vertical and definitive transition from earthly dominance to heavenly dominance. The divine eternal kingdom, of heavenly origin, replaces the human earthly kingdoms definitively. The elaborations of the next chapters will add new characters and more details to the “drama.”

A look into the general structure of the book of Daniel will help to see this whole paper in the context of the internal flow of the book.[11] This structure shows that almost all the material for this paper is in a same level. Sections (A) Dan 2 – (A”) Dan 7, (A) Dan 8 – (A”) Dan 11:1-12:4 are all of them part of what Shea calls “Prophecies of the Kingdom.” All of them deal, somehow, with both the earthly and the heavenly kingdom. Dan 9 has to do with the King and the Messiah and is seen then as the summit of the entire book. Additionally, this structure evidences a horizontal progression as the different “levels” of the book move this way. Vertically, the book moves from the kingdom to the people, then to the king and finally to the Messiah. This flow is seen also internally in every subsection, as our analysis will show.

   


 


 

VERTICAL /TEMPORAL TRANSITIONS AND JUDGMENT IN DANIEL 7

Daniel 7 marks a shift in the content of the book as it opens the so-called prophetic apocalyptic eschatological section of the book. Additionally, at the end of this chapter, the Aramaic section of the book (2:4b-7:28) ends. This chapter has been seen as pivotal for the understanding of the whole book.[12] In harmony with Daniel 2 patterns, this chapter portrays a vision (Dan 7:2-14) and then an interpretation (Dan 7:15-27). Daniel 7 features movement and transitions in both the horizontal and the vertical realm. A cursory look into the general structure[13] of this chapter may help to visualize the distribution of movement in the text. After a chronological and circumstantial introduction (verse 1), the text features the vision of the “Beasts” (2-7). The scenario of this vision is the “great sea” (aB”(r: aM”îy:l.) which is a known Hebrew reference to the Mediterranean Sea.[14] Therefore, this vision features a horizontal realm, which speaks about the human kingdoms that will arise in temporal succession around the Mediterranean Sea from Daniel”s days up to the end of the days. Verse 8 introduces a new character, the little horn,[15] and verse nine introduces a new element that was not present verbatim in Dan 2 but that, here in Dan 7, is the process/event that gives way for the transition from the human/earthly/horizontal realm to the divine/heavenly/vertical realm. The next analysis will make it evident. Here in Dan 7 the little horn”s activities (7:11, 25) meet the activities of the judgment (7:9-14, 25-27).

The judgment scene displays elements that are clearly heavenly, as the next examination will show. Daniel 7 has three passages that refer verbatim to the judgment and these are Daniel 7:9-14; 7:21-22; 7:25 and they are the focus of this section. A closer examination of these texts will provide clues to understand the vertical and temporal transition in their relationship to the judgment scene as portrayed in Daniel 7.

Therefore, according to these preliminary observations, three main themes arise in Daniel 7. These are the temporal succession of the earthly kingdoms, the activities of the little horn and its attacks to the holy ones (these activities come to a climax in 7:25-27), and the Judgment motif, which is central[16] to Dan 7 and intercepts the activities of the little horn. However the last two are the most prominent in the chapter.

Daniel 7:9-14

9 As I looked, thrones were placed, and the Ancient of days took his seat; his clothing was white as snow, and the hair of his head like pure wool; his throne was fiery flames; its wheels were burning fire.  10 A stream of fire issued and came out from before him; a thousand thousands served him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; the court sat in judgment, and the books were opened.  11 I looked then because of the sound of the great words that the horn was speaking. And as I looked, the beast was killed, and its body destroyed and given over to be burned with fire.  12 As for the rest of the beasts, their dominion was taken away, but their lives were prolonged for a season and a time.  13 I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the Ancient of Days and was presented before him.  14 And to him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed.

In Daniel 7:9-14 there is vertical movement as the focus of the text moves from the horizontal/earthly realm, the turbulence of the Beasts” vision (verses 2b-7) and the activities of the “little horn” (verse 8) to the vertical/heavenly realm and the majesty of the judgment scene (7:9-10). Verses 11-12 shifts back to the horizontal/earthly realm as the horn”s activities are again under focus for a while and then the focus goes back to the vertical/heavenly realm in verses 13-14. This movement shows connections between the two spheres as the horn”s activities impact on heaven”s activities and then the decisions of the heavenly court define an ending for the activities of the little horn. The writer is careful in giving the indication of all the movements in the attention of the seer by using participial forms of the verb “see,” (hz"x;).[17]

The little horn”s activities imply, firstly, issues related to the earthly kingdoms as it somehow shares the nature of these (Dan 7:8a, “came up among them;”) but, at the same time, is different from them as it has a different “behavior” (not so much elaborated here 7:8b, 11a), but it makes war against the “saints” and overpower them, (20b-21). Even this little horn “…shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and shall think to change the times and the law; and they shall be given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time” (verse 25). The kind of activities that these texts display in reference to the little horn implies both horizontal/temporal activities that have to do with the human kingdoms and the people of God.[18] Additionally, vertical activities are present that deal with the heavenly realm and imply God and His law and time are related to the law of God.  

This passage makes reference to the Ancient of Days presiding over the judicial scene.[19] This expression only happens here in Daniel 7:9, 13, 22. It clearly refers to God the Father.[20] The text abounds in its description of the Ancient of Days, His throne and his surroundings (7:9b-10a). Particularly the reference to fire in the throne, its wheels of fire[21] and the river of fire are meaningful in connection with the judicial theme of the scene.[22] Fire is often connected in the OT with “theophany (Exod 24:17; Deut 4:24; 9:3; 33:2; Ezek 1:13-14; 10:6-7) and divine judgment (Lev 10:2; Num 16:35; Ps 50:3-4; 97:3-5; Isa 30:27-28; Mal 3:2).”[23] The text says "... thrones were set in place,"[24] Probably these thrones are for the Ancient of Days, the Son of Man and others. This horizontal movement in the Heavens suggests a heavenly topography. The thrones were topographically moved and then set up for a judicial purpose.

The little horn is active on earth while the tribunal initiates its session in heavens (Dan 7:11-12). The activities of both of them are parallel and contemporary, at least for a while, before the execution of any sentence. Dan 7:26 portrays a decision from the heavenly court as an answer to the activities of the horn in 7:8, 11-12 and 25. This sentence requires the annihilation of the horn, as was previously required for the beasts.   

The books[25] were opened (7:10b), the idea of records in heavens is a deeply rooted concept in the OT, Judaism, and NT.[26] The text has already shown heavenly decisions related to the actions of the horn and the mention of the “books;”[27] all of this reveals that deeds on earth are recorded and brought into consideration in Heavens” courtroom. Therefore, these deeds are considered as evidence for the judicial decisions that are then taken. 

"One like a son of man." In the book of Daniel there is not much evidence with which to determine in a precise way who this majestic character is; the rest of the OT does not have not much evidence which might help in this way. In the NT, Jesus repeatedly used this title for himself and this evidence is useful for the purpose of identification.[28] In Matt 26:64[29] He uses the same vocabulary of Daniel 7:13 and in a clear judicial context thus both contexts are similar.[30] God”s persecuted people are set free to worship the Son of Man, Daniel 7:14.[31] The kingdom that passed by the hands of the nations and that the little horn tried to overtake, is received “De Jure” by the Son of Man for the days of eternity and then shared with the saints of the Most High One.

In this context, then, there is a parallelism between Michael (Dan 12:1) and the Son of Man as both characters are in passages that share contexts of oppression/liberation for God”s people and contain elements of judgment scenes. In reference to these characters, Ferch cautiously concludes in his 1979 monograph, that the Son of Man in Daniel is “an individual, eschatological, celestial being with messianic characteristics, distinct from the saints, yet maintaining an intimate relationship with them in the end-time (sic).”[32] In his monograph published in 1981, he says that “the closest parallel figure to the manlike figure of Daniel 7 is Michael (Dan 10:13, 21, 12:1).[33]  

DANIEL 7:21-22

21 As I looked, this horn made war with the saints and prevailed over them,  22 until the Ancient of Days came, and judgment was given for the saints of the Most High, and the time came when the saints possessed the kingdom.

The Aramaic of Dan 7:22 (!ynI+Ayl.[, yveÞyDIq;l. bhiêy> an"åydIw>) gives ground for either of two possible interpretations. "Then judgment was given for, concerning the holy ones” may be understood as: (1) "Judgment was given for the holy ones”, a judicial decision was given for, or in relation to the holy ones, or (2) the power to judge was given to the holy ones; namely, the holy ones are judging. The first option is more in harmony with the OT concept of God as the Judge who judges in favor of the just one, the orphan and the widow, (Deut 10:18) and holds the cause of the afflicted one (Psalms 140:12 [13 in Hebrew]). The first option is more appropriate to the context of Daniel 7, where the prominence is given to God as the Judge and to the judgment as a salvific event. The judgment will end with the affliction and the oppression that the little horn performs upon the holy ones. Then the holy ones will receive the kingdom.

 Daniel 7:25.

25 He shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and shall think to change the times and the law; and they shall be given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time.  26 But the court shall sit in judgment, and his dominion shall be taken away, to be consumed and destroyed to the end.  27 And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.”

Verses 25-27 are the climax of Dan 7. The judgment, 26, is central to the activities of the little horn and the heavenly judicial session. This aspect emphasizes that the little horn”s activities and the session of the heavenly judgment are contemporaneous at least for a time and intercept each one. Additionally, according to this passage, the Judgment precedes eternity (µl”[;, ´alam).[34] God”s kingdom will be eternal (Daniel 7:27, 14, 18).

The seer declares the charges against the horn, alternating between actions against God and actions against man. The horn has a mouth that “speaks great words” in blasphemy against the Most High, His law and the cultic time. These are actions that project into the vertical realm.

This first graphic[35] emphasizes the horizontal and vertical movements in Dan 7 as it displays the judgment scenes. The graphic displays the two levels of interaction (Heavens and earth) and then the arrows show the movements and transitions in both earth and heavens in connection with the judgment”s scenes and the verdicts as they are taken De Jure in the heavens.   

                                                   

   HEAVENLY          HEAVENLY

                                                        COURT                COURT

                                                        BEGINS               CONCLUDES

HEAVENS                                    7:9-10             7:13-14 

 

                                                                                       VERDICT 2

                                                                                        The kingdom to the

                                                                                        son of man

        Beasts   Fourth        Little

                      Beast         horn

         

         7:2-6      7:7            7:8                   VERDICT 1

       

         earth                                            The beasts are “DESTROYED” (7:11-12)

 

  HEAVENS                                      ( 3 )

                                            Dan. 7:9-10                                           Dan. 7:13-14

 

 

                                                   a                            B (*)

 

           

                              START                      CONCLUSION ( 5 )

 

 

                ( 2 )

 

 

     

                EARTH                                                                 ( 6 )

...................................................................................................................................

1  2  3  4                                      ( 4 )

                7 : 4 - 7

                ( 1 )

Judgment Scenes

The second graphic[36] shows how the two judgment scenes assemble and relate to one another. The horizontal and vertical movements and transitions emphasize in the transitions of power on earth and the vertical and temporal transitions, which imply events in the heavens.

            Daniel 7 portrays the heavenly judgment as the event that makes way for the transition from human/earthly/horizontal/temporal dominance to divine/heavenly/vertical/eternal dominance. The heavenly judgment, presided over by God himself, deals with deeds/actions performed on earth by earthly actors such as the little horn who makes war against the people of God. Now the identity and some aspects of the event are disclosed. The fact that deeds performed on earth are considered in the heavens is made clear here and sets a key element for the judgment procedure.

 


 

VERTICAL /TEMPORAL TRANSITIONS AND JUDGMENT IN DANIEL 8

This chapter keeps following the structures[37] found in chapter 2 and 7. First it contains a vision, (8:3-14) and then an explanation (8:15-26). The vision includes both horizontal (8:3-9) and vertical (8:10-14) scenes. These vertical elements are the focus of this section.

Daniel 8 is a key chapter with respect to its own features and its connections with the whole book (and even the New Testament). Some of these elements imply: (1) Theme: the redemption of God”s people. (2) The Son of God descends to explain the vision. (3) This chapter features the expression “the time of the end”[38] to identify the end of history, 8:17, (11:35, 12:4, 9). (4) Function of the words “understand”,[39] “Discern”[40]. (5) The symbolism of Daniel culminates in Dan 8:14 as the rest of the book is explicative material. (6) Daniel 8 is the topic explained in Daniel 8:15-12:13 and the foundation of the NT”s eschatology. (7) Daniel 8 is framed in the symbolism, vocabulary and typology of the Hebrew sanctuary and cult.[41]

The vision (Dan 8:3-12)   

The vision (Dan 8:3-12) covers again the rise, expansion and decay of the human empires around the Mediterranean Sea, following the pattern set by Dan 2 and previously followed by Dan 7. These scenes feature horizontal/temporal movements and transitions with an even more explicit vocabulary than that used by Dan 2 and 7. The chapter evidences an advance in the symbolism progression (crescendo) of the book of Daniel.

The ram and the he-goat: The ram is explicitly identified by the Angelus interpreter as the Empire of Media and Persia (Daniel 8:20). This ram is portrayed as charging westward, northward and southward; therefore it comes from the east (8:4). The he-goat is identified as the Empire of Greece (Daniel 8:21) and it is depicted as coming[42] “from the west across the face of the whole earth” (8:5). This expression emphasizes the earthly/horizontal movement. The he-goat is then described as having a prominent horn who is the first king (8:21) of this Empire, broken when he was “exceedingly great” (8:8),[43] and in its place came out four horns toward the four “winds of the heavens.”[44] They split the kingdom toward the four corners of the earth.

The next symbol in this prophecy is the “little horn.” This symbol, already present in Daniel 7, has been the motivation of a large discussion that will not be addressed in this paper. Rather, attention to the elements revealed by the text itself is the focus.

The first textual issue in reference to the “little horn” in Daniel 8 is its origin in verses 8 and 9. A look into the grammar of these verses will solve the problem. The English version of this text says:

8 Then the goat became exceedingly great, but when he was strong, the great horn was broken, and instead of it there came up four conspicuous horns toward the four winds of heaven.  9 Out of one of them came a little horn, which grew exceedingly great toward the south, toward the east, and toward the glorious land.

It is evident that the issue has to do with the antecedents of the pronoun “them” in the clause “out of one of them came a little horn.” A table will help to clarify the grammatical issue:[45]

8b / toward      the four[46]           winds          of  heaven
  masc            /       fem         /          masc
   
9a Out of one of them / came / a little horn,
  fem    /  masc /             /                   fem

            As “winds” is a feminine noun and heavens a masculine noun, then the pronouns follow this morphology and not only keep the gender concordance but give us the key to understand the text: The “little horn” came out from one of the winds of the heaven, not from one of the horns. The vocabulary of verse 9b confirms this conclusion. It says that the little horn “grew [ld;G"][47] exceedingly great toward the south, toward the east, and toward the glorious land [LXX: north]” The verb “came up” in Daniel 8:8a, used to refer to the four horns that came up of the one that was broken, refers to vertical growth (hl”[“, go up, ascend)[48]. The verb “came out” used in Daniel 8:9ª to speak of the little horn (yatsa´ ax;y:,) is used in Daniel to expresses a horizontal movement. This verb is used in reference to kings moving with their armies in campaign;[49] here it refers to a geopolitical expansion in conquest. The text says that the horn grew exceedingly great toward the south, toward the east, and toward the glorious land (north, LXX). This implies that this horn came from the west. Therefore, the horn is Rome in its two phases: pagan, imperial (horizontal geopolitical expansion, 8:9b) and Christian, papal (vertical religious expansion, 8:10-12). Why is not Rome portrayed as an animal? Probably the prophecy does not wish to use symbols that are not from the Hebrew sanctuary service. None of the animals used in the Levitical ritual fit with the character of Rome. The horn is present in the sanctuary and it is an OT symbol for power.

            In reference to the activities of the “little horn” the text (8:10-12) says that the horn grew up and reached several elements. Among them are enumerated (1) the “host of heaven”: (µyIm;V;h” ab;x]Ad[“). In thirteen out of seventeen usages of this expression in the OT, it refers to idolatry related to worship of celestial objects.[50] (2) The “army” (ab”c”), this expression requires more study in order to confirm if it refers to angels or to God”s people. (3) The stars (bk”AK): are they the heavenly angels (Job 38:7)?

           

 “the host of heavens”                          =                      “the host of stars”     (unto, even to)                                                              “cast down”          “exalted”                                                                               “earthward”     “the little horn”                                                             “trampled them”


First Vertical Action of the Little Horn (Dan 8:10)[51]

Then the texts says that the “little horn” grew up “even as great [ld;G"] as the Prince of the host;” these activities against the “Prince of the host” [ab”ÞC”h;-rf:)] refers here to the little horn”s usurpation (2 Thess 2:4-12) of those prerogatives which are uniquely inherent to the Prince of the Host.[52] Daniel 8:11b: [dymiêT”h;]; What does is the “continuous”? How was it taken away? “The place of his sanctuary was overthrown.” “The place”:[53] This “place”[54] was “overthrown.”[55] This vocabulary applies to activities that are proper to the Prince of Hosts, in connection with the heavenly Sanctuary the “truth.” All this vocabulary tells us that the “little horn” is not “little” any more, but has become “exceedingly great” and now invades vertical spheres as it usurps those prerogatives that formerly belonged to pagan deities; and then it goes further to confiscate privileges that belong only to the “Prince of Hosts.” Thus, Daniel 8 is further elaborating the little horn”s activities portrayed in Daniel 7 in a succinct way. This political religious power expands and conquers in both the horizontal (geopolitical) and the vertical (religious) sphere. It expands even to the point of usurping activities that only belong to the Prince of Hosts. This blasphemous power makes war against the people of God and oppresses them while dampening the advance of God’s purposes on earth misrepresenting Him.

C) Foundation place of the Prince”s sanctuary B) Tāmîd taken away                                                                            B”) Tāmîd put under the control      from the Prince                                                                                         of the little horn”s host A) Prince of the Host                                                                              A”) The truth           unto                                                         cast down                                  cast down       exalted himself                                                                                                                                practiced      the little horn                                                                                                      and                                                                                                                 to the earth      prospered


The Audition (Dan 8:12-14)  

Dan 8:13 marks a shift in the flow of the text as it changes the verb that introduces this section. The writer says:

13 Then I heard a holy one speaking, and another holy one said to the one who spoke, "For how long is the vision concerning the regular burnt offering, the transgression that makes desolate, and the giving over of the sanctuary and host to be trampled underfoot?"  14 And he said to me, "For 2,300 evenings and mornings. Then the sanctuary shall be restored to its rightful state."

            The prophet “heard” what follows. This is not a “vision” but an “audition.” In this passage, there is a (1) Dialogue, 8:13ª, (2) a Question, 8:13b and an (3) Answer, 8:14. Then the prophet says “When I, Daniel, had seen the vision…”. There is a change of vocabulary here. Until now the word found in the text referring to the prophetic vision is the word “hz"”x'”,”[56] but now it is the word “ha,r>m;.”[57] Evidently, there is a textual distinction between the vision (hazon) concerning the beasts and the vision (mare’h) concerning the evening and mornings (8:26, 9:23).

Various elements in reference to this text require attention. First, the “2,300 evenings and mornings;” this expression refers to prophetic time, namely literal years. The order “evening and morning” implies literal days. It is the same expression used in Gen 1, where it refers to literal days. If it were 2300 “half days” the numeral would be repeated for each noun. Second, the sanctuary would be “Restored to its rightful state” (Vindicated, Heb.  qD:Þc.nI “nitsdaq”, from the verbal root qd:c”, “tsadaq”). [58] Apparently, in this context, the best translation for this word is “vindicated”. The Great Controversy context is the great context of the passage. Then it has to do with liberation from an offense, from a debt.

Links between Dan 8:14 and Lev 16

How is there a bridge between Dan 8:14 and Lev 16? First, there is a similar cultic/ritual for both passages. In Lev 16:30, the verb “taher”, (rh”j”),[59] is used in reference to the purification of the people as consequence of the purification of the sanctuary. This purification has reference to cleansing from sin.  The root qd:c” and the root rh”j” are used in poetic synonymous parallelisms in passages as Job 4:17 y 15:14. 

Job 4:17, “Can mortal man be in the right [qd:c”] before God? Can a man be pure [rh”j”] before his Maker?”

Job 15:14, “What is man, that he can be pure [hK,zÒyI]? Or he who is born of a woman, that he can be righteous [qd:c”]?”

These texts show that the words used in Lev 16:30 for “pure, clean” and the word used in Dan 8:14 for “vindicated” are, to some extent, synonymous. Although it must be recognized that there is not absolute synonymy in any language,[60] these words express different aspects of the same issue: freedom from sin, either judicial freedom or moral freedom. They are two points, probably semantically distant, in a continuum of meaning.    

Both roots in these contexts portray the same event from two different perspectives: Lev 16:30 [taHer], portrays the event from the perspective of the history of Israel and human need: cleansing from sin, purity. Leviticus is horizontal, temporal, ritual, typological, and prefigurative. Daniel 8:14, portrays the event from the perspective of God’s purposes: His and His people’s vindication in the light of the Great Controversy sphere. The vocabulary of these two passages makes it clear, (Dan 8:14;[61] Lev 16:30[62]). He is the Righteous One and the One who justifies His people. This context is vertical, antitypical and cosmic.

The explanation given by the Angelus (Dan 8:15-27) deals with the horizontal vision related to the animals (8:15-23a) and quite briefly with the little horn (Dan 8:23b-25); then he turns to he evening-morning issue but does not explain it. The prophet is left only with what he heard: the event that will happen at the end of the evening-morning time period but the event that marks the beginning of this time period is not given. This will be a matter of the explanation given years later in Dan 9.

Daniel 2 implies a transitional event that Daniel 7 presents in judicial terms, and Daniel 8 portrays using the cultic imagery, vocabulary and themes of the sanctuary. Daniel 9 will advance in this progression. It is the same event; the dramatic event that gives way for the transition from history into eternity. This is a transition from a human, temporal, earthly realm into a divine, eternal, heavenly realm. Daniel 9 will provide more textual elements to identify the exact nature of this event. By now, this is an event that shares judicial and sanctuary related aspects; furthermore, it has to do with those who oppose God and God's.[63] This event finishes history and gives way to eternity. The vocabulary of Dan 7:27a speaks of vindication and exaltation for the “people of the saints of the Highest One”: “And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High.” 

Daniel 8:14 and NT Eschatology [64]

Daniel 8 is the culmination of the symbolism in the Book of Daniel. It is the last chapter in the book that features the sequence of vision-explanation. From Dan 8:15 onwards, the text (Dan 8:15-12:13) is devoted to the explanation of Daniel 8:14. Chapter nine will explain the time element for the commencement of the 2300 evening/mornings. Daniel 10 includes a theophany without new prophetic revelations and Daniel 11-12:4 is, so to say, a prophecy without symbols as a further explanation of the elements provided up to and inckuding Daniel 8. The next section of this paper will come back to this aspect.  Since chapter two, the book has been progressively increasing its level of detail and adding characters while expanding its explicitness. The details increase and the symbolism decreases as the book approaches to its end. 

Christ”s apocalyptic sermon (Mark 13:1-37; Matthew 24:1-51 [25:1-46]; Luke 21:5-38) works out the basis for the NT”s eschatology which draws from and elaborating Dan 9:27 and its context (as His direct allusion to this passage demonstrates it)[65] Later on, the book of Revelation, will expand Christ”s eschatological sermon found in Mark 13 and its parallels.[66]  

 DANIEL 8:14


  

 

 

 

The Day of Atonement as Judgment

            The Day of Atonement is seen in Seventh Day Adventist Theology as an OT type of the final judgment;[67] furthermore, it is seen as a multi step procedure[68] beginning with the Pre Advent Judgment[69] and continuing with the executive scenes at the beginning and end of the post advent millennium; and finally implying a revision during the millennium.

            The Day of Atonement as judgment answers questions about the condition of the covenantal relationship of the individual believer and that of the people with the God of the covenant. Consequently, the condition of the covenant itself is evaluated. The answers to these questions, answer questions about the justice and the righteousness of the way God has managed the problem of sin and His right to forgive the repented sinner and to condemn the rebel sinner. Once these answers have been issued, they will answer the challenges from the Devil against the People of God and God himself. These answers will be available to all creatures in the universe so that God may be cleared from any possible doubt in reference to the way as He has dealt with evil, sin, sinners and all related issues.

            In this view, the judgment is a twofold process.[70] In one aspect, it assures that all the wicked ones are condemned and then all injustice may be punished. This is an echo of the justice in the character of God as an answer to the claims of the law and of the right ones in Rev 6:9-11. Therefore, when a sin may not be transferred[71] and the sinner must be punished, this is justice in harmony with the character of God.

In reference to the second aspect, the judgment assures that every right son of God, every repentant sinner who wishes to take part in the covenant community, may be saved as an answer to the grace and mercy (ds,xñ,) of God (Exod 34:7). Therefore, when a sin may be transferred and the sinner may be forgiven, this is grace and mercy in harmony with the character of God. In addition, in this way the universe may have the assurance that all redeemed human beings are a safe acquisition for the universe and no one of them will represent a risk for the safety of the universe. The justice and mercy of God meet each another in the atonement, in the judgment, (Ps 85:10). Then judgment and salvation are just two faces of the same coin. Each one of them is needed to keep order and harmony in the universe. These considerations reveal the Great Controversy context of the judgment.

There are at least two aspects to take into account in resolving the sin problem in reference to the sinner. The first one has to do with the sin itself. The sin must be punished. This retribution may be executed in the sinner if the sinner does not transfer the sin and this implies the sinner bearing the consequences/punishment of the sin. This situation may imply annihilation. However, the sin may be transferred through the laying on of the hands to a substitute (when God allows this). The substitute will suffer the condemnation and its resultant blood will transfer the sin into the sanctuary. In this way, the sinner is free from the guilt and condemnation of sin. This aspect was resolved during the daily services in the Sanctuary.

The second aspect related to the resolution of the issue of both sin and the sinner, has to do with the relationship of the sinner with God, the covenant and the covenant community. The covenant was broken when the believer sinned. Now it must be made clear if the repented sinner is still in communion with the God and the community of the covenant. This aspect was resolved during the services of the Day of Atonement, but it has even more implications in a vertical dimension.


 

VERTICAL /TEMPORAL TRANSITIONS AND JUDGMENT IN DANIEL 9

After an introduction dealing with background information (9:1-3), the next section of the chapter has one of the most amazing prayers in the entire Bible (9:4-19); but this prayer will be left for another study. However, before leaving Daniel”s prayer aside, it is important to recognize that it deals with the confession of the people”s sin, Jerusalem”s restoration and the temple.

For the purposes of this paper, only Daniel 9:24-27, the prophetic explanation, is in focus. As seen in the structure[72] of the explanation given by the Angelus, the kernel of the presentation is in Dan 9:24 and then it is detailed in verses 25-27. Daniel 9 is included in a temporal - literary structure that provides some hints for its interpretation.

24 "Seventy weeks are decreed about your people and your holy city, to finish the transgression, to put an end to sin, and to atone for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal both vision and prophet, and to anoint a most holy place.  25 Know therefore and understand that from the going out of the word to restore and build Jerusalem to the coming of an anointed one, a prince, there shall be seven weeks. Then for sixty-two weeks it shall be built again with squares and moat, but in a troubled time.  26 And after the sixty-two weeks, an anointed one shall be cut off and shall have nothing. And the people of the prince who is to come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. Its end shall come with a flood, and to the end there shall be war. Desolations are decreed.  27 And he shall make a strong covenant with many for one week, and for half of the week he shall put an end to sacrifice and offering. And on the wing of abominations shall come one who makes desolate, until the decreed end is poured out on the desolator."

Dates of the chapters and distribution of the materials:[73]   

            Chapter                                   Date                            Content

Dan. 7:              1st of Belshazzar        -550 a. C         Vision and explanation.

            Dan.  8:             3rd of Belshazzar        -548 a. C         Vision and explanation.

            Dan.  9:             1st of Darius               -538 a. C         Explanation only.

            Dan. 10 -12       3rd of Cyrus               -536 a. C         Explanation only.

Links between Daniel 8 and Daniel 9

            Several links between Dan 8 and 9 provide evidence for their interpretation as a prophetic unity dealing with similar issues. [74]

The location of Daniel 9 in the book”s structure evidences a sequence: vision – explanation that ends in chapter 8. After Dan 8, there are no more prophetic visions, but only explanations. Then, Dan 8 is the apex of the book”s symbolism and Dan 9 provides the explanation of the time element that was not approached in the previous explanation of Dan 8:15-27.

The use of the word ma´ré[75] in contrast to hazon in  Daniel 8:26 and 9:23 as the angel identifies “the evening mornings” “vision” with the word ma”re and this becomes the theme of the Angelus” explanation according to 9:23. 

Other words are used in common in these two chapters as part of their presentations and explanations. One of these words is the verb “understand” and other semantically related words.[76] The verb “decree,” (“cut”) which is a Hapax Legomenon. It is common in the OT to used the semantic “to cut” when speaking about signing a covenant, but the word used here in Dan 9:24 is not the usual one. This might be a literary strategy for arresting the attention of the reader.  

The theme of the chapter includes the Prince[77] (8:11, 25; 9:25, 26); the sanctuary,[78] (8:11, 13, 14; 9:17, 26) and the sacrifice (8:8; 9:21, 27).[79]

The element of prophetic time, in Dan 8, was not explained. The Angelus does not provide the temporal starting point of the 2300 evening and mornings; only the point for its ending was given. This exclusion will be covered in Dan 9:24-27.

Hasel provides additional elements to link Dan 8:13-14 with 9:24-27. When cross checking Hasel and Shea, some additional elements arise. These two passages and their respective chapters share (1) a cultic perspective expressed through vocabulary: expiation (kpr), anointing (mšh), the Messiah and the cessation of the sacrifice and the offering. (2) A common Angel-interpreter, Gabriel who is introduced in Dan 8:16 and then comes again in Dan 9:21-23. (3) Both Dan 8:13-14 and Dan 9:24-27 are auditory revelations. (4) Conceptual link: Dan 8:13-14 climax is the vindication of the “qodesh qodashim” while the apex of Dan 9:24-27 is the anointing of the “qodesh qodashim.” This makes evident that Dan 8:13-14 refers to the ending time event of the 2300 time-period, while Dan 9:24-27 refers to the commencement of this period. The recognition and analysis of these links provide textual grounds for the interpretation of these two chapters as complementary to each other.    

Objectives of the Seventy Weeks: Daniel 9:24:

The text of Dan 9:24-27 is poetry as recognized by the BHS[80] and analyzed by Doukhan and Shea. [81] The text details six objectives or purposes for the time that has been set apart for the people of Israel and the holy city: three and three.

The People (Two-word clauses)[82]

1.      to finish the transgression: ([v;P,h; aLek;l.) The end of the transgression will bring the everlasting righteousness.

2.      to put an end to sin: (taJ”x; ~teÛh”l.W)

3.      to atone for iniquity: (!wO[“ rPek;l.W, Lev. 10:17).

The expressions kpr, msh and qodashim used here in Dan 9:24, happen together again only in Exodus 29:36-37. This later texts deals with the prescription for Aaron’s ordination and the inauguration of the Tabernacle. It must be remembered that the expression qodesh qodashim is used also in reference to other elements in the sanctuary,[83] but it never refers to persons. This text uses three words for sin: ([v;P,, taJ”x;, and !wO[“) these three words cover all the spectrum of pardonable sins according to the book of Leviticus.[84] The theme of this section is sin and forgiveness and these are negative phrases as they deal with the elimination of sin.

The Holy City (Three-word clauses)

1´.    to bring in everlasting righteousness (sdq) (~ymil”[o qd,c, aybih”l.W)

2´.    to seal both vision and prophet [85]. (aybin"w> !Azx” ~Tox.l;w>)

3´.    to anoint the holy of holies (~yvi(d"q") vd<qoï x:voßm.liw>)

These clauses emphasize the themes of the expiation of the iniquities, the anointing of the holy of holies and the ordination of the high priesthood. These three themes point to the inauguration of the heavenly sanctuary and the beginning of the heavenly high priesthood. This event brings the final expiation of the sins and the vindication of God”s people and God”s character, law and government. These objectives are cosmic in scope and deal with the Great Controversy context. The theme of these clauses is the City and the Sanctuary. These clauses deal with positive connotations.    

This analysis of Dan 9:24 shows that this text provides the time element that was left aside in Daniel 8: the point of beginning for the 2300 time-period of Dan 8:13-14.[86] This text displays the announcement of the inauguration of the Heavenly Sanctuary and the commencement of the high priestly ministry connected to it.


 

VERTICAL /TEMPORAL TRANSITIONS AND JUDGMENT IN DANIEL 12

Some observations on the structures present in Daniel 11-12 will help to visualize its content. Hardy has pointed out some of them: [87]  

Chiastic Structures: This approach shows that the attacks of the king of the North on the “prince of the covenant” (Dan 11:22) are at the central core of the entire section.

  1. Dan 10:1-21

B.     Dan 11:1-4

C.     Dan 11:5-15

D.    Dan 11:16-21

E.     Dan 11:22

D” Dan 11:23-28

C”  Dan 11:29-39

B”  Dan 11:40-45

A”  Dan 12:1-13

Linear Structure: This approach looks at the entire section of Dan 11:1-12:13 from a historicist[88] perspective and shows Dan 11:40-12:1-3 as the eschatological portion of the whole passage.

  1. Dan 11:1-2, The Persian Empire
  2. Daniel 11:3-15, The Greek Empire: Seleucids [north] and Ptolemies [south]     
  3. Daniel 11:16-20 Imperial Rome Arises
  4. Dan 11:21-30, The “new” Rome [north] and the State [south]
  5. Dan 11:31-39, The “new” Rome [north] and the truth
  6. Dan 11:40-45, The “new” Rome and the Last days” events
  7. Dan 12:1-3, Christ and the last days” events (Poetry)
  8. Dan 12:4-13, Summary and Epilogue 

This section in this paper will deal with Dan 12:1-3 as the portion that deals with those vertical activities that mark the transition between history and eternity. It is interesting that the text itself is marked and highlighted over the rest of the section by its poetic literary text type.

At that time shall arise Michael, the great prince who has charge of your people. And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never has been since there was a nation till that time. But at that time your people shall be delivered, everyone whose name shall be found written in the book.  2 And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.  3 And those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the sky above; and those who turn many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever.

Temporal transitions implying vertical movement:

The time is in focus (t[e), as it has been in focus since Dan 8:17.[89] Here in Daniel 12:1-3 the mention of the rising of Michael, the great tribulation, the book, the time, the liberation of God’s people and the special resurrection[90] confirms the eschatological context of the passage.[91] The judgment is in focus as the text states: “your people shall be delivered, everyone whose name shall be found written in the book:” This vocabulary makes it clear that a judicial inquiry is implied. The presence of the judgment elements keeps this passage in the pattern of Daniel 2, 7 and 8 by the presence of both horizontal and vertical scenes and the presence of the judgment that provides the transitional element that gives way from history into eternity. The text features a series of activities in which Michael is implied, linking him with God”s people and the judgment.[92]

Michael “Stands up”[93] (dm;[“)[94] this vocabulary usage is in thematic parallelism with Dan 7:13-14. It has military and judicial nuances. These nuances relate to the Michael activities in defense and deliverance of “the people”. It is interesting how Dan 9:24-27 speaks about the inauguration of the heavenly sanctuary and commencement of the heavenly high priestly ministry in connection with the seventy weeks, but here Dan 12:1 speaks about Michael”s arising. Therefore, these two texts are dealing with the initiation (Dan 9:24-27) and the finale (Dan 12:1) of the heavenly sanctuary ministry.[95]

Daniel 2 left implicit some kind of process or event that would prepare the way for the transition between human kingdoms” in history and God’s heavenly kingdom. Daniel 7 provided a judicial scene as an answer for what is implicit in Daniel 2. This heavenly courtroom features God the Father and the Son of Man in session which results in the kingdom of the earth being taken away from the “beasts” (human kingdoms) and the little horn is judged and sentenced. As result, the saints of the Most Holy One are set free and exalted as they share the kingdom with the Son of Man. This exaltation indeed implies vindication as they were previously under persecution and even were trampled down by the little horn; but now they share the kingdom forever.  

Daniel 8 provided a complementary perspective that portrays the implicit event of Daniel 2 in the light of the Levitical sanctuary and the Day of Atonement, as the connections with Lev 16 has shown. This connection explains the twofold nature of the event as a judgment and ritual event.

The context of the Great Controversy is present in Daniel 7 as well as in Daniel 8, 9 and 11 to 12. The judgment resolves not only issues related to God’s people but also to the human race in general and, particularly with the “beasts” and the “little horn”. The results impact completely the earthly realm as God’s kingdom will take over the whole earth (Dan 2:35, 44-45). Therefore, this text has both a cosmic and an eschatological-apocalyptic focus.    

The text of Daniel 12:1 speaks about the “time of trouble”[96] (hr"êc” t[eä) “such as never has been since there was a nation till that time”, the superlative intensity of the troubles is in anticipation of the deliverance. This theme and its emphasis are in harmony with the OT prophetic tradition.[97] The text of Jeremiah 30:7 provides similar wording, context, emphasis and results as Dan 12:1:[98]

Alas! That day is so great there is none like it; it is a time of distress for Jacob; yet he shall be saved out of it.

Dan 12:1 relates the time of Michael’s arising and the people’s deliverance. The same fact which shows this is a time of reward (12:2, 3) emphasizes again the eschatological nature of the text.

 At that time shall arise Michael, the great prince who has charge of your people. And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never has been since there was a nation till that time. But at that time your people shall be delivered, everyone whose name shall be found written in the book.

The last part of the verse says “But at that time your people shall be delivered, everyone whose name shall be found written in the book.” Three elements here in Dan 12:1 are present in common with the judicial scene of Daniel 7: (1) God’s people (Dan 7:25), (2) their deliverance (Dan 7:18, 27a) and (3) the book(s) (Dan 7:10). However, here a clause adds the contents already present in Daniel 7 and 8. The Hebrew text says “all those who might be found[99] written in the book.” God’s people are included as the object of the heavenly judicial inquiry, but in contrast with the “beasts” and the “little horn” they are delivered. This clause provides a glimpse into the internal procedures of the heavenly judgment. The vocabulary of this clause implies a search, an investigation where some names are found and probably some others might not be found. This is another way to look into the scene of Dan 7:9-14; the same event that was displayed in Dan 8:14 and was implicit in Dan 2.  

This eschatological context and the themes of judgment, everlasting reward and deliverance point to the transition from history into eternity. Then this passage of Dan 12:1-3 is in harmony with Daniel 2, 7, 8 and 9 in pointing to the heavenly judgment as the event that brings to its definitive end the history of the human earthly kingdoms and causes the definitive transition from the horizontal, human and temporal realm into the vertical, divine and eternal kingdom of God.    


 

CONCLUSIONS

This paper surveyed selected passages in Daniel such as 2:44-45, 7:9-14, 21-22, 25; 8:13-14, 9:24-27 and 12:1-3. In their respective contexts, these passages share some structures, patterns and themes. These elements relate to vertical and temporal transition from a human - earthly - horizontal - temporal realm into a divine - heavenly - vertical - eternal realm. They relate to a heavenly event that impacts on earth and brings history to its end in order to give way to eternity.

Summary

            Daniel 2 briefly displays a confrontation between heavens and earth as God will take away the kingdoms of this earth and will establish His eternal kingdom in a dramatic transition at the end of the history. Two main characters are present in this chapter, the kingdoms of the earth represented by a single image and God”s kingdom represented by a rock. Daniel 2 does not provide details about the timing or nature of the process that will accomplish this transition. Daniel 2 displays a basic symbolism and a pattern of prophetic dream, with an eschatological revelation and its respective explanation. The prophetic dream features a horizontal section dealing with the kingdoms of the earth and a vertical section with the intervention of God’s kingdom.

Daniel 7 advances in reference to Dan 2. This chapter shows an increasing abundance of symbolism, while it keeps the same patterns: a prophetic vision that provides eschatological revelation and its explanation. The vision displays a horizontal section dealing with the kingdoms of the earth and a vertical section dealing with the scene of the heavenly courtroom and God and the Son of Man in session. New elements are included, such as the little horn as a power that opposes God and His people on earth. The judgment in Dan 7 supplies the event/process that makes possible the transition from history into eternity, taking away the kingdoms of the earth and giving way for the establishment of God”s kingdom. Daniel 7 provides additional elements, such as the judgment of the “beasts” (earthly kingdoms) and the “little horn.” The vindication and exaltation of God’s people is also added.

Daniel 8 keeps increasing the level of symbolism and displays the same pattern of vision – explanation, with the vision featuring a horizontal section dealing with earthly kingdoms and powers and a vertical section with scenes disclosing the activities of the “little horn” and the “vindication” of the heavenly sanctuary. This chapter provides another perspective to the nature of the transitional event. This chapter works out the event from the perspective of the Levitical sanctuary and its services, particularly the Day of Atonement. This elaboration is done in the perspective of the Great Controversy theme, from a cosmic perspective. Vindication is the main emphasis in this chapter, as the pains of the persecuted people of God are greatly detailed. The activities of the “little horn” are also further detailed in both the horizontal and vertical spheres.

Daniel 9 begins to decrease the levels of symbolism as it provides revelation in literal language for the Empires. The pattern changes in the sense that there is not a vision or dream with eschatological revelation, but only, an explanation of elements related to the time of the commencement for the time-period of the 2300 evening mornings of Dan 8:14. In fact, there are no more prophetic visions in Daniel. Dan 8:15-12:13 is a long explanation of issues related to what was revealed up to Dan 8:14.

Daniel 12:1-3, the last passage analyzed, is part of a long explanatory section that runs from Dan 11:2 up to Dan 12:13. There is a small amount of symbolism in the whole section; in fact, the abundance of literal elements makes the interpretation of the passage very difficult. Dan 11:2-30 is mainly horizontally oriented, while in 11:31-40a horizontal and vertical elements seem to be more or less mixed. Dan 40b-45 intensifies the vertical aspects in the activities of the earthly political-religious powers that oppose God and His people. This long explanation centers on the attacks against the Prince of the Covenant and ends in the eschatological scenario (11:40b-12:3). Dan 12:1-3 deals with the activities of Michael in the end of the time.       

Conclusions

Daniel provides an apocalyptic glimpse into the backstage of history and into the fulfillment of God’s purposes on the earth and the cosmos. God will subject the kingdoms and individuals of this earth, including His people, to His judgment. This judgment implies a previous investigation. A process of search that analyzes the evidence consigned to the heavenly records, the “book(s)”; This is a process that finds the names of those who will be delivered but sentences those who will be cast into non-existence. The heavenly records keep a registry, at least, of the deeds performed on earth.

Comparing the findings with the protocol give by Klingbeil about vertical movement in Scripture, this paper has found that (1) The vertical movements in the text serves to indicate the change of focus from one scene to the other and from one sphere to the other, guiding the reader through the flow of the text and the events. (2) Movement was used to depict changes in the behavior and nature of some of the characters, such as the “little horn” which would not otherwise be possible to be perceived. (3) Movement in eschatological prophecy helps the reader to perceive the reality of heavens and its activities. (4) Movement makes the abstract aspects portrayed by the text more understandable (as for example the heavenly judgment and its sentences). (5) Vertical movement in the eschatological prophetic texts makes evident strong connections between the heavens and the earth so that it clearly displays the events that connect them and the impact of activities in each sphere over the other.

Deism has no room in eschatological prophecy as it shows the intimate connection between heavens and earth, God and events on earth and particularly with His people. God is intensively concerned and constantly involved in the earthly events as He guides earthly history into eternity in harmony with His character and His eternal design. Over the confusion of the human ordeal, God is in control. He takes care of His people and watches over humanity so no injustice, and no mercy is passed unnoticed. The judgment will bring universal balance and harmony. It is just matter of time.

Judgment teaches the eternal impact of every single thought, word, deed and/or omission. The cosmic balance of justice and mercy is secure as God promises to bring every single deed into account and to give to every single creature what he or she “deserves” according to their deeds. In this respect, eschatological prophecy leaves no room for ethical relativism as it teaches the individual responsibility in reference to God’s concrete and revealed laws and principles in both the horizontal and vertical realm. Namely, there is individual ethical responsibility toward both God and the neighbor and this responsibility has eternal connotations and consequences. Additionally, Scripture provides clear access to God’s revealed absolutes so there is no excuse. Both the believer and the non-believer are responsible before God. Eschatological-apocalyptic prophecy implies an ethical imperative as it emphasizes the worth of individual and collective behavior from the perspective of eternity. This ethical imperative has to do with the present time as heaven keeps a registry of the activities of individuals and collectives.

The end of the matter; all has been heard. Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the whole duty of man. 14 For God will bring every deed into judgment, with every secret thing, whether good or evil.

Ecclesiastes 12:13-14.                 

     


 

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Doukhan, Jacques “The Seventy Weeks of Daniel 9: An Exegetical Study”, in Arnold Wallenkampf, editor. The Sanctuary and the Atonement Biblical, Historical and Theological Studies. Washington, D. C.: Review and Herald, 1981, 251 - 276

Elliger, K. and W. Rudolph, Eds.  Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. 5th ed.  Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1997.

Ferch, Arthur J. "The Judgement Scene in Daniel 7" in Arnold Wallenkampf, editor. The Sanctuary and the Atonement Biblical, Historical and Theological Studies. Washington, D. C.: Review and Herald, 1981, 157 - 176.

Ferch, Arthur J. The Son of Man in Daniel Seven, Berrien Springs, MI.: Andrews University Press, 1979.

Goldingay, John E., Daniel, Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 30; Dallas, Texas: Word Books, 1998.

Hagner, Donald A., Matthew 14-28; Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 33b; Dallas, Texas: Word Books, 1998.

Hardy, Frank Wilton. “An Historicist Perspective on Daniel 11,” (Master of Arts Thesis, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, 1983.  

Hasel, Gerhard F. “Divine Judgment”, in Handbook of Seventh-Day Adventist Theology, edited by George W. Reid. Hagerstown, MD.: Review and Herald, 2000, 815-856.

Hasel, Gerhard F. “Studies in Biblical Atonement I: Continual Sacrifice, Defilement//cleansing and Sanctuary” in Arnold Wallenkampf, editor. The Sanctuary and the Atonement Biblical, Historical and Theological Studies. Washington, D. C.: Review and Herald, 1981, 87-114.

__________. “Studies in Biblical Atonement II: The Day of Atonement” in Arnold Wallenkampf, editor. The Sanctuary and the Atonement Biblical, Historical and Theological Studies. Washington, D. C.: Review and Herald, 1981, 115-133.

__________. “The Little Horn, the Saints, and the Sanctuary in Daniel 8”, Arnold Wallenkampf, editor. The Sanctuary and the Atonement Biblical, Historical and Theological Studies. Washington, D. C.: Review and Herald, 1981, 177 - 227.

Heppenstall, Edward. “Subjective and Objective Aspects of the Atonement” in Arnold Wallenkampf, editor. The Sanctuary and the Atonement Biblical, Historical and Theological Studies. Washington, D. C.: Review and Herald, 1981, 667-693.

Horn, Siegfried H. and Lynn H. Wood, The chronology of Ezra 7; Washington, DC: Review and Herald, 1970. 

Klingbeil, Gerald. ““Up, down, in, out, through and back.” Space and Movement in Old Testament Narrative, ritual and legal Texts and their Application for the Study of Mark 1:1-3:12.” Estudios Bíblicos 60.3 (2002), 283-309.

Leatherman, Donn W. “Adventist Interpretation of Daniel 10-12: A Diagnosis and Prescription,” Journal of the Theological Adventist Society 7 (Spring 1996) 1:120-140.

Longman III, Tremper. Daniel, The NIV Application Commentary, vol. 27. Grand Rapids, MI.: Zondervan, 1999.

Maxwell, C. Mervin. “The Investigative Judgment: Its Early Development” in Arnold Wallenkampf, editor. The Sanctuary and the Atonement Biblical, Historical and Theological Studies. Washington, D. C.: Review and Herald, 1981, 545-581.

Maxwell, C. Mervyn. God Cares: the message of Daniel for you and your family. vol. 1; Boise, Idaho: Pacific Press, 1981.

__________. God Cares: the message of Revelation for you and your family, vol 2. Boise, Idaho: Pacific Press, 1981.

Nam, Daegeuk. “The “throne of God” motif in the Hebrew Bible,” ThD Dissertation, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, 1989.

Olafsson, Gudmundur. “The Use of NS” in the Pentateuch and its Contribution to the Concept of Forgiveness,” PhD Dissertation, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, 1992.

Owusu-Antwi, Brempong. The Chronology of Daniel 9:24-27. Berrien Springs, MI.: Adventist Theological Society, 1995.

Paulien, Jon K. “The End of Historicism? Reflections on the Adventist Approach to Biblical Apocalyptic-Part One,” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 14 (Fall 2003) 2:15-43.

__________. “The End of Historicism? Reflections on the Adventist Approach to Biblical Apocalyptic-Part Two,” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 17 (Spring 2006), 180-208.

__________. “The Hermeneutic of Biblical Apocalyptic,” in Understanding Scripture: An Adventist Approach. George W. Reid, Editor. Silver Spring, MD.: Biblical Research Institute, 2005, 245-270.

Pfandl, Gerhard. “Daniel”s "Time of the End",” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 7 (Spring 1996) 1:141-158.

Rodríguez, Ángel Manuel “Daniel 8 y 9, El Santuario y su Purificación,” Ministerio Adventista, (Sep-Oct, 1994), 19-25.

__________. “Significance of the Cultic Language of Daniel 8:9-14,” in Symposium on Daniel Washington D.C.: Biblical Research Institute, 1986, 526-549.

__________. “The Heavenly Books of Life and of Human Deeds,” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 13 (Spring 2002) 1:10-26.

Rodríguez, Ángel Manuel. “Transfer of Sin in Leviticus” in 70 Weeks, Leviticus, Nature of Prophecy, Washington, D.C.: Biblical Research Institute, 1986, 169-197.

Seventh-Day Adventists Answer Questions on Doctrine, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1957.

Shea, William H. "Unity of Daniel", In Holbrook, Frank B. Symposium on Daniel, Hagerstown, MA.: Review and Herald, 1986.

__________. “Poetic Relationships of the Time Periods in Dan 9:25” in Arnold Wallenkampf, editor. The Sanctuary and the Atonement Biblical, Historical and Theological Studies. Washington, D. C.: Review and Herald, 1981, 277-282.

__________. “Spatial Dimensions in the Vision of Daniel 8,” in Symposium on Daniel. Frank B. Holbrook, edit. Washington D.C.: Biblical Research Institute, 1986, 497-526.

__________. “Supplementary Evidence in Support of 457 B.C. as the Starting Date for the 2300 Day-Years of Daniel 8:14” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 12 (Spring 2001) 1:89-96.

__________. “The Investigative Judgment of Judah, Ezekiel 1-10” in Wallemkampf, Arnold V. The Sanctuary and the Atonement Washington: Review and Herald, 1981, 283-291.

__________. “The Unity of Daniel,” in Symposium on Daniel. Frank B. Holbrook, edit. Washington D.C.: Biblical Research Institute, 1986, 165-255.

__________. “Theological Importance of the Preadvent Judgment” in 70 Weeks, Leviticus, Nature of Prophecy.  Daniel & Revelation Committee Series. Vol. 3  Frank B. Holbrook, Editor. Washington, D.C.: Biblical Research Institute, General Conference of Seventh Day Adventist 1986,  323-332.

__________. Selected Studies in Prophetic Interpretation, Lincoln, Nebraska, General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventists, 1982. 

__________. The Judgment in Daniel, Berrien Springs, MI.: Andrews University Press, 1980.

Stele, Arthur A. “Resurrection in Daniel 12 and its Contribution to the Theology of the Book of Daniel,” PhD Dissertation, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, 1996.

Treiyer, Alberto. “The Day of Atonement as Related to the Contamination and Purification of the Sanctuary” in 70 Weeks, Leviticus, Nature of Prophecy, Washington, D.C.: Biblical Research Institute, 1986, 198-258.

Vetne, Reimar. “A Definition and Short History of Historicism as a Method for Interpreting Daniel and Revelation,” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 14 (Fall 2003) 2:1-14.

Waltke, Bruce K. and O”Connor, M. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1990.


----

[1] For an introduction to movement in the OT, see Gerald Klingbeil, ““Up, down, in, out, through and back.” Space and Movement in Old Testament Narrative, ritual and legal Texts and their Application for the Study of Mark 1:1-3:12.” Estudios Bíblicos 60.3 (2002), 283-292. For vertical movement and links in OT prophetic literature, see Arthur J. Ferch, "The Judgement Scene in Daniel 7", in Wallemkampf, Arnold V. The Sanctuary and the Atonement, (Washington: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1981), 157-176. William H. Shea. “Spatial Dimensions in the Vision of Daniel 8,” in Symposium on Daniel (Washington D.C.: Biblical Research Institute, 1986), 497-526.  

[2] Klingbeil, ““Up, down, in, out, through and back.” Space and Movement in Old Testament Narrative, ritual and legal Texts and their Application for the Study of Mark 1:1-3:12,” 291-292.

[3] William H. Shea, The Judgment in Daniel (Berrien Springs, MI.: Andrews University Press, 1980). Arthur J. Ferch, "The Judgement Scene in Daniel 7" in Wallemkampf, Arnold V. The Sanctuary and the Atonement (Washington: Review and Herald, 1981), 157 - 176. Gerhard F. Hasel, “The Little Horn, the Saints, and the Sanctuary in Daniel 8”, The Sanctuary and the Atonement, (Washington: Review and Herald, 1981), 177 - 227. Jacques Doukhan, “The Seventy Weeks of Daniel 9: An Exegetical Study”, in The Sanctuary and the Atonement, 251 - 276. 

[4] Douglas Bennett, “The Stone Kingdom of Daniel 2” in Symposium on Daniel (Washington D.C.: Biblical Research Institute, 1986), 345-346.

[5] Unless otherwise indicated, all English biblical texts come from the English Standard Version (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books/Good News Publishers, July 2001).

[6] All Hebrew texts come from Elliger, K. and W. Rudolph, Eds.  Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. (5th ed.  Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1997). Morphological and statistical information related to the Hebrew text comes from BibleWorks (Biblical Database Software for Microsoft Windows. Version 6.0.12y. BibleWorks, L.L.C. Hermeneutika Computer Bible Research Software Bigfork, MT, 2003).

[7] In reference to the oneness of the earthly kingdom, Rev 11:15 speaks of “the kingdom of the world” that “has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall reign forever and ever.” The word for kingdom -basilei,a- is in singular in this verse; therefore this verse is seen the kingdom of this world as one and only one. This text portrays Christ assuming the kingdom of this world “De Jure.”

[8] See the other usages in Dan 2:44; 4:8, 19, 30; 6:27; 7:26, 28.

[9] In reference to the “stone” and its messianic identification, see Douglas Bennett, “The Stone Kingdom of Daniel 2,” 361-377.

[10] The chapter”s eschatological focus is set early in the text as Daniel says to the King that the prophecy is related to the events “in the last days” Dan 2:28 (aY"+m;Ay tyrIåx]a;B.). This Aramaic expression is literally equivalent to the Hebrew expression ~ymi_Y"h; tyrIåx]a;B.. The “later days” - aY"+m;Ay tyrIåx]a;- “generally refers to that period of time which is future and may involve a period either brief or long: (1) the close of the 430 years of sojourn (Gen 1:13, 16) when Israel would posses Canaan (Gen 49:1); (2) the of 40 years of wandering in the wilderness (Deut 8:16); (3) some period of tribulation and exile (Deut 4:30; Hos 3:5); (4) the close of a period of history (Deut 31:29); (5) the end result of a course of action (Prov 14:12; 23:32; Isa 47:7). This term, when referred to in Bible prophecy, is used to apply to: (1) the end of the power of Greece (Dan 8:23); (2) the close of the 1260 and 2300 days (Dan 10:14; 8:19); (3) the ingathering of the Gentiles at the close of the age (Isa 2:2; Micah 4:1); (4) the battle of Gog and Magog prior to the establishment of the Messianic kingdom (Ezek 38:6, 7, 16); (5) the great day of the final judgment (Jer 23:20; 30:24); (6) the final end of the “wicked” (Ps 37:38).” In texts such as Dan 2:28 (Aramaic aY"+m;Ay tyrIåx]a;B.), and Dan 10:14 (Heb ~ymi_Y"h; tyrIåx]a;B.), the expression “represents a technical term for the end of the world,” Douglas Bennett, “The Stone Kingdom of Daniel 2,” 349, 350, see 347-351.

[11] Whilliam H. Shea, "Unity of Daniel" in Holbrook, Frank B. Ed. Symposium on Daniel, (Hagerstown, Maryland: Pacific Press, 1986), 248.

[12] Tremper Longman III, Daniel, (Grand Rapids, MI.: Zondervan, 1999), 176-179. Arthur J. Ferch, "The Judgement Scene in Daniel 7" in Wallemkampf, Arnold V. The Sanctuary and the Atonement (Washington: Review and Herald, 1981), 157.

[13] For structural aspects of Daniel 7, see discussion and bibliography in John E. Goldingay, Daniel, (Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 30; Dallas, Texas: Word Books, 1998). William H. Shea, Selected Studies in Prophetic Interpretation, (Lincoln, Nebraska, General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventists, 1982), 94-115. It is interesting to note that the text shifts from prose to poetry as it moves; the opening of the judgment scene is in poetry (7:9-10), the closing of the scene is in poetry (7:13-14) as well as the angelus explanation in 7:23-27. All these structural and literary considerations reveal the centrality of Dan 7:9-10.    

[14] See “~y"” in Francis Brown, S. R. Driver, and Charles Briggs. BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, (Oxford: Clarendon, 1979), 411.

[15] Horns in Daniel refer to Kingdoms or individual kings. See Tremper Longman III, Daniel, 189, 203.

[16] See W. H. Shea, "Unity of Daniel", In Holbrook, Frank B. Symposium on Daniel, (Hagerstown, MA.: Review and Herald, 1986), 178.

  1. The three beasts, 7:4-6.

B.     The Fourth Beast, 7:7

C.     The Horn speaks, 7.

D.     The Judgment, 9-10

C´.  The Horn speaks, 11ª

B´. The Fourth Beast, 11b.

A´.  The three beasts, 12.

[17] Dan 7:2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11 (2x), 13, 21. Ara.: hz"x;, “behold in dream or vision (oft. pt. in periphrast. conj.), acc. pers., Dan 4:20, acc. rei 2:41. 2:41. 2:43 4:17, abs. 2:34 7:4. 7:7. 7:9. 7:11. 7:11. 7:21, + Wla] 2:31 4:7. 4:10, Wra] 7:2. 7:6. 7:13; c. obj. cl. 2:8. 2:45; behold a dream, acc. ~l,xe, 2:26 4:2. 6. 15 7:1.” Francis Brown et al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 1092.

[18] They are portrayed in this chapter as “the saints,” Dan 7:21, “the saints of the Most High,” 7:25, “the people of the saints of the Most High,” 7:27. 

[19] Ara.: ÷ymi/y qyTi[“ “´attik  yomin” (Dan 7:9, 13, 22).

[20] See Deut 20:1; 1 Chron 5:18; 20:1; Prov 30:27; Amos 5:3; Psalms 9:7; 29:10; 90:2; Isaiah 9:6 and Arthur J. Ferch, "The Judgement Scene in Daniel 7," 163-164. See Daegeuk Nam, “The “throne of God” motif in the Hebrew Bible,” (ThD Dissertation, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, 1989), 421-422.

[21] The wheels in connection to the throne is a clear allusion to Ezekiel”s vision, see Ezek 1:16, 19 (2x), 20 (2x), 21 (2x); 3:13; 10:2, 6, 9 (2x), 12 (2x), 13 (2x), 16 (2x), 19; 11:22. Look particularly Ezek 10:6 where the wheels are mentioned in connection to fire. The judicial character of Ezek 1-10 in connection with the presence of the throne is clear. See William H. Shea, “The Investigative Judgment of Judah, Ezekiel 1-10” in Wallemkampf, Arnold V. The Sanctuary and the Atonement (Washington: Review and Herald, 1981), 283-291.

[22] For other OT parallels to the judgment see William H. Shea, Selected Studies in Prophetic Interpretation, 1-24.

[23] Nam, “The “throne of God” motif in the Hebrew Bible,” 422-423.

[24] On the issues about the identification of these thrones see, Nam, “The “throne of God” motif in the Hebrew Bible,” 417-421.

[25] In reference to the books in heavens, see Ángel Manuel Rodríguez, “The Heavenly Books of Life and of Human Deeds,” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 13 (Spring 2002) 1:10-26.

[26] See Philippians 4:3; Rev 3:5; 20:12; 21:27; Psalms 69:28; 56:8; Malachi 3:16; Exod 32:32; Daniel 12:1.

[27] !yrIïp.si, this Aramaic word is only used here in Daniel. Daniel 12:1 makes reference to the same concept of a book of “records” but this time using the Hebrew equivalent rp,se.

[28] Matt. 16:13, 28; 24:30; 26:64; Mark 8:31; 9:12; 13:26; 14:62; Luke 9:22; 12:10; 21:27; 22:48; 24:7; John 1:51; 3:14; 6:62; 8:28; 9:35; 12:34; Acts 7:56.

[29] The reference is taken from the LXX and not from the MT, see Barbara et Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger. Novum Testamentum Graece. (27th ed.; Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993), 79.

[30] Donald A. Hagner, Matthew 14-28 (Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 33b; Dallas, Texas: Word Books, 1998), .

[31]  Dan 7:14 xl;P., “to serve, worship, revere, minister for, pay reverence to 1a) (P”al) 1a1) to pay reverence to 1a2) to serve,” Francis Brown, S. R. Driver, and Charles Briggs. BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, (Oxford: Clarendon, 1979), 1108.

[32] Arthur Ferch, The Son of Man in Daniel Seven, (Berrien Springs, MI.: Andrews University Press, 1979), 192.

[33] Ferch, "The Judgement Scene in Daniel 7," 165.

[34] ~l;[“, `alam (Aramaic) “perpetuity in the future: Å[ tWkl.m; Dn 3:33 7:27, cf. 4:31 7:14; Å[ as adv. for ever 4:31; am”l.[†”-d[; aY"m;l.[†” ~l;[“-d[;w> 7:18; pl. Å[l. for ever 2:4; 2:44; 2:44 3:9 5:10 6:7; 6:22; 6:27; antiquity, am”l.[†” tm”Ay-!mi Ezr 4:15; 4:19; of limitless time both past and future: Å[-d[;w> ¾[-!mi Dn 2:20”, Driver at al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon, 1106.  

[35]  W. H. Shea, "Unity of Daniel", 178. Ibid., “Spatial Dimensions in the Vision of Daniel 8,” in Symposium on Daniel (Washington DC, Biblical Research Institute, 1986), 500-502.

[36] Explanation of the graphic:

( 1 ) Transitions of power.

( 2 ) The Seer moves his attention, horizontal/vertical movements and scenes.

( 3 ) The reign of the Son of Man, announced.

( 4 ) “Destruction” of the Beast. Dan. 7:11, 12.

( 5 ) The reign of the Son of Man (jure)

( 6 ) The holy ones receive the kingdom, (jure). 

( * ) Transition from History into Eternity.

Note: ( 3 ) to ( 6 ) and ( * ), are the judgment results.

[37] The next structure is adapted from Hasel, Gerhard F. “The Little Horn, the Saints, and the Sanctuary in Daniel 8”, The Sanctuary and the Atonement, (Washington: Review and Herald, 1981), 180-182. It is important to note that the vision includes an audition. 

A.     Introduction, 8:1-2.

B.     The vision/audition, 8:3-14

1.      La Vision,

a.       The animals, 8:3-8 (Horizontal)

b.      The Horn, 8:9-12 (Horizontal / Vertical)

2.      The Audition, the evening/mornings, 8:13-14

C.     Interpretation of the Vision / Audition, 8:15-26.

D.     Conclusion, 8:27

[38] Gerhard Pfandl, “Daniel”s "Time of the End",” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 7 (Spring 1996) 1:141-158.

[39] hn"yBi, Dan 1:20; 8:15; 9:22; 10:1.

[40] !yBi, Dan. 1:4, 17; 8:5 (2x), 16 (2x), 21, 23, 27; 9:2, 22, 23 (2x); 10:1, 11, 12, 14; 11:30, 33, 37, 45; 12:8, 10;  Daniel 8:15, 16, 17, 27; 9:22, 23, 26; 10:1; 12:3, 8, 10;  Matthew 24:15. This last connection with the NT will be analyzed later on this paper.

[41] Condensed from Ángel Manuel Rodríguez, “Daniel 8 y 9, El Santuario y su Purificación, Ministerio Adventista,” (Sep-Oct, 1994), 19-25.

[42] literally coming, the Hebrew verb used is aAB, “come in, come, go in, go ,” see Driver at al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon, 99.

[43] It is clear that the text do refers to Alexander the Great. Longman, Daniel, 206.

[44] Cassander (East), Lisimacus (West), Seleucus (North) and Ptolemy (South). Finally the debris of the Empire, ended in the hands of two of them Seleucus (North) and Ptolemy (South), as the same prophecy will reflect it in Dan 11. See C. Merwyn Maxwell, God Cares, (Boise, Idaho: Pacific Press, 1981), 156-158.

[45] Hasel, “The Little Horn, the Saints, and the Sanctuary in Daniel 8”, 182-186.

[46] Words underlined are masculine in the Hebrew text and words strikethrough, are feminine.

[47] ld;G":grow up, become great,” see Driver at al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon, 99. 

[48] Brown et al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 750.

[49] Deut 20:1; 1 Chron 5:18; 20:1; Proverbs 30:27; Amos 5:3; Joshua 14:11; 2 Samuel 11:1.

[50] Zephaniah 1:5; Daniel 8:10; Jeremiah 33:22; 19:13, 8:2; Isaiah 34:4; 2 Chron 33:3,5; 18:18; 2 Kings 23:4,5; 21:3,5; 17:16; 1 Kings 22:19; Deut 17:3; 4:19; Gen 2:1. The references in bold, are those that refer to the celestial bodies as God”s creation; the other references speak about them as object of idolatry.   

[51] This first graphic and the next one are taken from William H. Shea, “Spatial Dimensions in the Vision of Daniel 8,” 510-519.

[52] Joshua 5:14; Daniel 12:1-3; 9:25; Judas 9; 1 Thess 4:16. In reference to the identification of the Prince of Hosts with Michael and with Christ, see Seventh-Day Adventists Answer Questions on Doctrine, (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1957), 71-88.

[53] [!Akïm.], “fixed or established place, foundation”. Brown et al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 467.

[54] Place, foundation: Heb.: !Akm”, this word is often used in connection with the place where God abides or He is worshiped (Exod 15:17, 1 Kgs 8:13, 39, 43, 49; 2 Chron 6:2, 30, 33, 39; Ezra 2:68; Psalms 33:14; Isa. 4:5; 18:4) or acts and the foundation of His actions (89:15; 97:2). See Brown et al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 467.

[55] [%l;v;] “throw, fling, cast.” Daniel 8:12: ...” it will throw truth to the ground” Brown et al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 1021.

[56] !Azx”; “revelation, vision”, Dan. 1:17; 8:1, 2 (2x), 13, 15, 17, 26; 9:21, 24; 10:14; 11:14. Brown et al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 302.

[57] “Sight, appearance, vision”, Dan. 1:4, 13 (2x), 15; 8:15, 16, 26, 27; 9:23; 10:1, 6, 7 (2x), 6, 18. Brown et al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 909.

[58] This root has 522 usages in the OT, 44 verbal forms and 482 as a noun. The semantic range is wide: purify, vindicate, justify, etc. For research on the history semantic range, semasiology [science of meanings or sense development (of words); the explanation of the development and changes of the meanings of words] and cognates of this root, see Daniel Ausberger Jr “Good News of Daniel 8:14”. (Master of Arts Thesis, Andrews University, School of Graduated Studies. July 1980). See also Brown et al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 843. Angel Manuel Rodríguez, “Significance of the Cultic Language of Daniel 8:9-14,” in Symposium on Daniel, 527-549. Richard M. Davidson, “The Meaning of Nisdaq in Daniel 8:14,” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 7 (Spring 1996) 1:107-119.

[59] See Brown et al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 372.

[60] Summary from Susan Anne Groom, Linguistic Analysis of Biblical Hebrew (Carlisle, U.K.-Waynesboro, Ga.: Paternoster Press, 2003), 109-111.

[61] The vocabulary of Dan 8:14 in reference to the “evening and morning (rq,Boê br,[,) Both words are nouns, masculine and singular. The word used for “Sanctuary” in Dan 8:11-12 is  “Qodesh” (vd,qO, noun masculine singular), but now in Dan 8:14 the word used for sanctuary is “miqdash” (vD”q.mi) translated in the OT as “Sanctuary,” 69x; holy place, 3x; sanctified place 1x. As Dan 9:24-27 uses the same term for sanctuary as Dan 8:14, Hasel suggests that this change in the vocabulary is intentional and must be understood in the light of the cosmic context of Daniel 8:13-14 and its connections with Dan 9:24-27. Vindicated: (qD;Þc.nI , verb niphal perfect 3ª singular, hapax legomenon). See Hasel, Hasel, “The Little Horn, the Saints, and the Sanctuary in Daniel 8”, 201-202.

[62] Vocabulary in Leviticus 16:30: Expiation: Hebrew “caphar”,  rp;k”, Clean: Hebrew “taHer”,  rhej”,  Sin: Hebrew: ha”J”x;.

[63] See Shea, Selected Studies in Prophetic Interpretation, 123-127.

[64] Mervyn Maxwell, God Cares, (1993) 13 – 47.

[65] Mark 13:14; Matthew 24:15; Luke 21:20. See Barbara et Kurt Aland et al, Novum Testamentum Graece, 134.

[66] This aspect is beyond the limits of this paper but see in that respect the introduction in C. Mervyn Maxwell, God Cares: the message of Revelation for you and your family, vol 2. (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press, 1981).

[67] For antecedents to this judgment in the Bible see, William H Shea, “Biblical Parallels for the Investigative Judgment” in Selected Studies on Prophetic Interpretation, (General Conference of the Seventh Day Adventist, 1982), 1-24. See also C. Mervin Maxwell, “The Investigative Judgment: Its Early Development” The Sanctuary and the Atonement, Arnold V. Wallenkampf, Editor, 545-581. Edward Heppenstall, “Subjective and Objective Aspects of the Atonement” in Op. Cit., 667-693.

[68] See Gerhard F. Hasel, “Divine Judgment”, in Handbook of Seventh-Day Adventist Theology, 815-856, especially 833-844 for this aspect.   

[69] William H. Shea, “Theological Importance of the Preadvent Judgment” in 70 Weeks, Leviticus, Nature of Prophecy (Daniel & Revelation Committee Series. Vol. 3; Washington, D.C.: Biblical Research Institute, General Conference of Seventh Day Adventist 1986),  323-332. Ivan T. Blazen, “Justification and Judgment”, Op. Cit, 339-388.   

[70] Gerhard Hasel, “Divine Judgment”, in Handbook of Seventh-day Adventist Theology, 815ss.

[71] In reference to sin”s transference and atonement see Gudmundur Olafsson, “The Use of NS” in the Pentateuch and its Contribution to the Concept of Forgiveness” (PhD Diss., Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, 1992), 79-307. Gerhard Hasel, “Studies in Biblical Atonement I: Continual Sacrifice, Defilement//cleansing and Sanctuary” in The Sanctuary and the Atonement: Biblical, Historical, and Theological Studies (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1981), 87-114, _________, “Studies in Biblical Atonement II: The Day of Atonement” Op cit, 115-133.

[72] Daniel 9 Outline:

a.       Historical Background, 1-2ª

b.      Daniel”s research, 2b-c.

c.       Daniel”s prayer, 3-19.

d.      God”s answer, 20-27

-          Time, 20-21ª.

-          The Angelus, 21b-e - 22.

-          The Seventy Weeks, 23-27.

. Introduction, 23.

. Presentation, 24.

. Explication, 25-27

[73] William H. Shea, “The Relationship Between The prophecies of Daniel 8 and Daniel 9”, in The Sanctuary and The Atonement, 230.

[74] This is a brief summary of Shea, “The Relationship Between The prophecies of Daniel 8 and Daniel 9”, 228 - 250.

[75] Daniel 1:4, 13, 15; 8:15, 16, 26, 27; 9:23, 10:1, 6, 18. In the book of Daniel the word ma”re refers to something that is seen with the naked eye whereas hazon refers to a prophetic vision that is only attained through revelation and is not attainable through the naked eye. See Brown et al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 909, 303. 

[76] Daniel 1:4, 13, 15, 17; 8:5, 16, 17, 23, 27; 9:2, 22, 23; 10:1, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18; 11:30, 33, 37; 12: 8; 10; Matthew 24:15.

[77] In reference to the Prince, the Prince of the Covenant and the death of the Messiah in Daniel 9, see Brempong Owusu-Antwi, The Chronology of Daniel 9:24-27 (Berrien Springs, MI.: Adventist Theological Society, 1995), 305-325. It is interesting that Owunsu-Antwi goes to NT evidence in order to complete his identification of these characters in the text.

[78] In reference to the OT evidence of the heavenly sanctuary and its activities, see Niels-Erik Andreasen, “The Heavenly Sanctuary in the Old Testament,” in The Sanctuary and the Atonement, 67-86.

[79] See Angel M. Rodriguez, “Transfer of Sin in Leviticus” in 70 Weeks, Leviticus, Nature of Prophecy (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Research Institute, 1986), 169-197. Alberto Treiyer, “The Day of Atonement as Related to the Contamination and Purification of the Sanctuary” Op cit, 198-258.

[80] K. Elliger  and W. Rudolph, Eds. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (5th ed.  Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1997), 1404-1405.

[81] Jacques Doukhan, “The Seventy Weeks of Daniel 9: An Exegetical Study” in The Sanctuary and The Atonement, 258-269. Shea, William H. “Poetic Relationships of the Time Periods in Dan 9:25,” Op Cit., 277-282.

[82] These three clauses are infinitive clauses of purpose; each one elaborated with an infinitive construct verb that defines the purpose and a noun. These clauses might be translated with a construction as “in order to…” The second group of clauses features the same syntax construction. See Bruce K. Waltke and M. O’Connor, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1990), 606-607.

[83] Some of the references are Exod 29:37; 30:10, 29, 36; 40:10; Lev 2:3, 10; 6:10, 18, 22; 7:1, 6; 10:12, 17; 14:13; 24:9; 27:29; Num 18:9; 1 Chron 23:13; Ezek 43:12; 45:3; 48:12; Dan. 9:24. Once these texts are analyzed, it is evident that almost every single furniture, ritual and element in the Levitical sanctuary and its ceremonies is called ´qodesh qodashim´ therefore the whole sanctuary and all what it means is covered by this expression but never is applied to a person.  

[84] Lev 1-15, works with the expiation and transference of guilty, which is generated by these three kinds of sins, from the people to the sanctuary and then Lev 16 deals with the evacuation of the guilty of all these sins. These three words, [transgression, [v;P,, sin, taJ”x;, and iniquity, !wO[“] are used together in Lev 16:16 in conjunction with the verb “to expiate”, (kpr, rP,Ki). The Levitical connections of Dan 9:24-27 are clear. See Hasel, “Studies in Biblical Atonement I: Continual Sacrifice, Defilement//cleansing and Sanctuary,” 87-114, _________, “Studies in Biblical Atonement II: The Day of Atonement,” 115-133. See Brown et al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 833, 310, 731 and 498; respectively for each word.

[85] The word nabiy” (aybin"), is used 317 times in the OT, and it always refers to the prophet, never to the prophecy itself as content.

[86] For the Decree of Ezra 7 as the order “the going out of the word to restore and build Jerusalem” (Dan 9:25a) see Maxwell, God Cares, vol. I, 207-210. And for the year -457 b. C as the date of this decree see Siegfried H. Horn and Lynn H. Wood, The chronology of Ezra 7 (Washington, DC: Review and Herald, 1970) and Owusu-Antwi, The Chronology of Daniel 9:24-27, 79-280, 281-302; Juarez Rodrigues de Oliveira, Chronological Studies Related to Daniel 8:14 and 9:24-27 (Engenheiro Coelho, SP, Brazil: Imprenta Universitária Adventista, 2004), 3-30, 129-132, 136-139; William H. Shea, “Supplementary Evidence in Support of 457 B.C. as the Starting Date for the 2300 Day-Years of Daniel 8:14” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 12 (Spring 2001) 1:89-96.

[87] Summarized and adapted from Frank Wilton Hardy, “An Historicist Perspective on Daniel 11,” (Master of Arts Thesis, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, 1983), 104-187.

[88] It is important that even though Historicism as method of prophetic interpretation seems to be evident in Reformed interpretative history and the Seventh-day Adventist exegetical tradition, this methodology is in need of systematic foundation and methodological elaboration. In this respect see Reimar Vetne, “A Definition and Short History of Historicism as a Method for Interpreting Daniel and Revelation,” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 14 (Fall 2003) 2:1-14; Jon Paulien, “The End of Historicism? Reflections on the Adventist Approach to Biblical Apocalyptic-Part One,” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 14 (Fall 2003) 2:15-43. ________, “The End of Historicism? Reflections on the Adventist Approach to Biblical Apocalyptic-Part Two,” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 17 (Spring 2006), 180-208. Donn W. Leatherman, “Adventist Interpretation of Daniel 10-12: A Diagnosis and Prescription,” Journal of the Theological Adventist Society 7 (Spring 1996) 1:120-140. Jon K. Paulien, “The Hermeneutic of Biblical Apocalyptic,” in Understanding Scripture: An Adventist Approach (Silver Spring, MD.: Biblical Research Institute, 2005), 245-270.

[89]  Dan. 8:17; 9:21, 25; 11:6, 13, 14, 24, 35, 40; 12:1 (4x), 4, 9, 11 (thus 7 times in Dan 12, or 43.75%) The first reference (8:17) and the previous (11:35, 40) and posterior references (12:4, 9) are to (#qE+ t[eä) the time of the end.

[90] See Arthur A. Stele, “Resurrection in Daniel 12 and its Contribution to the Theology of the Book of Daniel,” (PhD Dissertation, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, 1996), 79-214.

[91] See Lewis O Anderson Jr. “The Michael Figure in the Book of Daniel,” (ThD Dissertation, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan, 1997), 258-285.

[92] Summarized from Anderson Jr. “The Michael Figure in the Book of Daniel,” 262-278.

            [93] See Matthew 26:64; Acts 7:55, 56; Ephesians 1:20-23; Hebrews 1:3, 13; 4:16; 10:12-13. Walter F. Specht, “Christ”s Session, Enthronement, and Me­diatorial, and Intercessory Ministry” in The Sanctuary and The Atonement, 326-361.

[94] Dan. 1:4, 5, 19; 2:2; 8:3, 4, 6, ,7, 15, 17, 18 (2x), 22 (2x), 23, 25; 10:11 (3x), 13, 16, 17; 11:1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14 (2x), 15 (2x), 16 (2x), 20, 21, 25, 31; 12:1 (2x), 5, 13. Particularly those from chapter 8 onwards, refer to powers and kingdoms that accede to power and rulership. Dan 11:31 does not adjust to this usage. 

[95] It is interesting that according to the Talmud in Kodashim, Menahoth 110a, Michael ministers at the heavenly sanctuary. Seventh-Day Adventists Answer Questions on Doctrine, (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1957), 78.

[96] The same expression is found also in Judges 10:14; Neh 9:27; Psalms 37:39; Isa 33:2; Jer 14:8; 15:11; 30:7. The expression “times of troubles” in Psalms 9:9[10]; 10:1, and the expression “day of trouble” in 2 Kgs 19:3; Psalms 20:1; 50:15; 77:2[3]; Prov 24:10; 25:19; Isa 37:3; Jer 16:19; Obad 12, 14; Nah 1:7 and Zeph 1:15. The expression “time of trouble becomes a technical expression that is used even in the intertestamental period literature and in the New Testament, see 1 Macc 9:27; Ascension of Moses 8:1; Mark 13:19; Matt 24:21; Rev 16:18. Anderson Jr. “The Michael Figure in the Book of Daniel,” 273-274.

[97] Isa 24-27, Jer 25:30-33, Ezek 38, Joel 3, Zech 12:1-3, 14.

[98] Anderson Jr. “The Michael Figure in the Book of Daniel,” 273-274.

[99] (ac”m”), “attain to, find, find a thing sought,” Brown et al, BDB-GESENIUS Hebrew-Aramaic and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 594. This root is used abundantly in the OT, being found at least 457 times in the whole OT; Four times in the book of Daniel, 1:19, 20, 11:19, 12:1. Verses 1:19-20 imply a previous process of search and 11:19 could imply it. In a judicial context, the usage of this word gives an interesting hint about the process of investigation. In Neh 13:1 and Ester 6:2, the same verb is found in reference to persons as is used in Dan 12:1. At least in Neh 13:1, it seems to present a search.   

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