38 ἁγιασμός [hagiasmos /hag·ee·as·mos/] n m. From 37 Chad See below 37); TDNT 1:113 Chad See below 1:113) TDNTA 14; GK 40; 10 occurrences; AV translates as “holiness” five times, and “sanctification” five times. 1 consecration, purification. 2 the effect of consecration. 2a sanctification of heart and life.
37 ἁγιάζω, ἀνασῴζω [hagiazo /hag·ee·ad·zo/] v. From 40; TDNT 1:111; TDNTA 14; GK 39 and 420; 29 occurrences; AV translates as “sanctify” 26 times, “hallow” twice, and “be holy” once. 1 to render or acknowledge, or to be venerable or hallow. 2 to separate from profane things and dedicate to God. 2a consecrate things to God. 2b dedicate people to God. 3 to purify. 3a to cleanse externally. 3b to purify by expiation: free from the guilt of sin. 3c to purify internally by renewing of the soul.
39 ἁγιάζω (hagiazō): vb.; ≡ DBLHebr 7727; Str 37; TDNT 1.111—1. LN 53.44 dedicate, to service and loyalty to God (1Co 1:2); 2. LN 88.26 make holy, sanctify, to cause one to have the quality of holiness (1Th 5:23); 3. LN 88.27 honor as holy, hallow, feel reverence, regard as holy (Mt 6:9)
While ἁγιάζω is developed from the noun ἅγιος, the noun ἁγιασμός derives from the verb ἁγιάζειν as a nomen actionis.1 Hence it signifies “sanctifying” rather than “sanctification,” as we learn from the corresponding constructions βαπτισμός, ἐνταφιασμός, ὀνειδισμός, παροργισμός, etc. It is, of course, conceivable that a nomen actionis like βασανισμός or πλεονασμός might acquire a passive meaning, but philological investigation must begin with the active.
In the LXX ἁγιασμός is rare and has no clear-cut Hebrew equivalent (Ju. 17:3: ἁγιασμῳ̂ ἡγίασα: הַקְדֵּשׁ הִקְדַּשְׁתִּי; Am. 2:11: εἰς ἁγιασμόν: לִנְזִרִים: Jer. 6:16; Ez. 22:8; 45:4; Sir. 7:31; 17:10; 2 Macc. 2:17; 14:36; 3 Macc. 2:18). So far as sound comparisons suggest, the LXX knows ἁγιασμός both as “sanctifying” (Ju. 17:3) and also as “sanctification” (Sir. 7:31; 3 Macc. 2:18), and there is a strong connection with the cultus.
In the NT ἁγιασμός occurs only in the Epistles, preponderantly in the field of Gentile Christianity. The term “sanctifying” fits it better than “sanctification,” in accordance with its construction. It must be remembered, however, that the operation of ἁγιασμός can be accomplished only by a holy person (cf. the verb ἁγιάζειν), so that in the case of self-sanctifying it is always assumed that it is accomplished on the basis of the state of sanctification attained in the atonement according to the standard of the statement in Revelation 22:11: ὁ ἅγιος ἁγιασθήτω ἔτι. In ἁγιασμός we thus have a process which has as its presupposition the religious process of atonement. ἁγιασμός is the will of God (1 Th. 4:3), and it consists again in purity of physical life, so that marital fellowship is fulfilled ἐν ἁγιασμῳ̂ καὶ τιμῃ̂ (4:4). The opposite of ἁγιασμός is ἀκαθαρσία (4:7), except that ἀκαθαρσία is a moral state which cannot possibly be linked with calling, (οὐ … ἐπὶ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ), whereas ἁγιασμός is the moral form in which it is worked out. The body is to be serviceable to δικαιοσύνη εἰς ἁγιασμόν (R. 6:19), so that ἁγιασμός is again the moral goal of purity (cf. R. 6:22: ἔχετε τὸν καρπὸν ὑμω̂ν εἰς ἁγιασμόν). In Christ is made possible δικαιοσύνη τε καὶ ἁγιασμός καὶ ἀπολύτρωσις (1 C. 1:30), and it is by Him or by the Spirit (2 Th. 2:13; 1 Pt. 1:2: ἐν ἁγιασμῳ̂ πνεύματος) that it comes into effect in Christians, so that the ἁγιασμός or sanctifying effected by the Spirit is the living form of the Christian state. In the phrase ἐν ἁγιασμῳ̂ πνεύματος the emphasis does not fall on the character of the Spirit described as πνευ̂μα ἅγιον, but on His operation, which consists in sanctification. Similarly, in the sequence ἐν πίστει καὶ ἀγάπῃ καὶ ἁγιασμῳ̂ (1 Tm. 2:15) what is expressed is not the state but the conduct of children, and in Hebrews again (12:14: διώκετε … τὸν ἁγιασμόν) ὁ ἁγιασμός is a moral goal. If atonement is the basis of the Christian life, ἁγιασμός is the moral form which develops out of it and without which there can be no vision of Christ. The term ἁγιασμός is always distinguished from ἅγιος and ἁγιάζειν by the emphasis on the moral element.
n n: noun or neuter
m m: masculine
v v: verb
TDNT Theological Dictionary of the New Testament
TDNTA Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Abridged in One Volume
AV Authorized Version
DBLHebr Swanson, A Dictionary of Biblical Languages With Semantic Domains: Hebrew (Old Testament)
Str Strong’s Lexicon
TDNT Kittel, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament
LN Louw-Nida Greek-English Lexicon
1 Bl.-Debr., § 109.
NT New Testament.