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  305      hb'G:

 (gaµbah) be high, exalted.  


305a          hbo'G:

 (gaµboµah) high, exalted.

305b          hb'GO

 (goµbah).height, exaltation.

305c          tWhb]G¾

 (gabhuÆt) haughtiness (Isa 2:11, 17, only).

The root gaµbah and its derivatives are used ninety-four times in the ot. The verb appears in the Qal twenty-four times, meaning basically “to be high or lofty” and in the Hiphil ten times, meaning “to make high, to exalt.” gaµboµah appears forty-one times, the noun goµbah seventeen times, and the noun gabhuÆt twice. The root is used only three times in the Pentateuch (Gen 7:19; Deut 3:5; 28:52), but by contrast in the prophets cf. Isa, fourteen times; Jer, seven times; Ezk, twenty-two times.

As the root is used in its basic sense it describes the height of persons, objects, places, and natural phenomena. Thus, the verb gaµbah signifies the growing of a tree (Ezk 17:24; 31:5, 10, 14); the stem of a vine (Ezk 19:11); the heavens in respect to the earth (Ps 103:11; Job 35:5). Saul is described as being “taller” than any of his people (I Sam 10:23). It describes the high wall Manasseh built around Jerusalem (II Chr 33:14). It may mean “to fly high” as an eagle (Jer 49:16; Ob 4).

Similarly the adjective gaµboµah describes a high mountain(s) (Gen 7:19; Isa 30:25; 40:9; 57:7; Jer 3:6; Ezk 17:22; 40:2; Ps 104:18); high hills (I Kgs 14:23; II Kgs 17:10; Jer 2:20; 17:2); the high gates of Babylon (Jer 51:58); high battlements (Zeph 1:16); high towers (Isa 2:15); the high gallows intended for Mordecai (Est 5:14; 7:9); the horns in Daniel’s vision (Dan 8:3). Similar documentation could be made for the use of the noun goµbah.

In several places the word is used in a very positive sense both with respect to man as a quality of life worthy of possession and as descriptive of God himself. In the former category compare God’s word to Job, "Deck yourself with majesty (gaµ<oÆn) and dignity (goµbah) (40:10; cf. 36:7) and II Chr 17:6, “Jehoshaphat’s heart was lifted up (“encouraged”) in the ways of the Lord.” Secondly, God’s position is said to be “on high” (Ps 113:5; Job 22:12) and his ways are “higher” than those of mankind (Isa 55:9).

The usual nuance behind the words under discussion is pride or haughtiness. Of interest is the negative usage of this word in connection with some part of the human body. For example, pride is linked with the heart in: Ezk 28:2, 5, 17; Ps 131:1; Prov 18:12; II Chr 26:16; 32:25 (all with the verb); Prov 16:5; II Chr 32:26 (with adjective and noun). Isaiah 2:11; 5:15 and Ps 101:5 connect pride with the eyes. Proverbs 16:18 and Eccl 7:8 tie pride with man’s spirit, and Ps 10:4 with man’s “nose”/countenance. On a few occasions individuals are said to be guilty specifically of this sin of pride: Uzziah (II Chr 26:16); Hezekiah (II Chr 32:25–26); the prince of Tyre (Ezk 28:2, 17). Conversely, Isaiah speaks of the suffering servant who will be exalted (ruÆm), lifted up (naµsŒa<) and be very high (gaµbah) (52:13).

In the LXX the word is translated as hupsos or hupseµlos, but never as hubris.

Bibliography: TDOT, II, pp. 356–60. THAT, I, pp. 394–97.

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