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1.  diikneomai (diiknevomai , (1338)), to go through, penetrate (dia, through, ikneomai, to go), is used of the power of the Word of God, in Heb. 4:12, “piercing.”¶ In the Sept., Ex. 26:28.¶

2.   dierchomai (dievrcomai , (1330)), to go through, is translated “shall pierce through” in Luke 2:35. See Come, No. 5.

3.   ekkenteoµ (ejkkentevw , (1574)), primarily, to prick out (ek, out, kenteoµ, to prick), signifies to pierce, John 19:37; Rev. 1:7.¶

4.   nussoµ (nuvssw , (3572)), to pierce or pierce through, often of inflicting severe or deadly wounds, is used of the piercing of the side of Christ, John 19:34 (in some mss., Matt. 27:49).¶

5.         peripeiroµ (peripeivrw , (4044)), to put on a spit, hence, to pierce, is used metaphorically in 1 Tim. 6:10, of torturing one’s soul with many sorrows, “have pierced (themselves) through.”¶[1]


ekkenteŒoµ [to put out, pierce]

“To put out” (the eyes), “to pierce” with a lance or sword, “to kill.”

1. In the NT Jn. 19:37 is based on the obscure Hebrew of Zech. 12:10, which is interpreted as a prophecy or prefiguration of the completed reality of the death of Christ with the thrust of the spear into his side.

2. Rev. 1:7 relates the same OT verse to the expected return of Christ. Those who crucified him, both Jews and Gentiles, will see him when he comes and will be stricken by tardy remorse and fear of judgment. Closely related to Rev. 1:7 is Mt. 24:30. The pierced Lord is the one who comes with the sign of the Son of Man. At the parousia the cross that the world set up in secret will threaten the world openly as the victorious sign of the Lord who comes back to the world with power and great glory.[2]


5.         dierchomai (dievrcomai , (1330)), to come or go through (dia, through), e.g., Acts 9:38. See Depart, Go, Pass, Pierce, Travel, Walk.[3]


CUTTING the flesh for the dead, forbidden, Lev. 19:28; 21:5; Deut. 14:1; Jer. 16:6.[4]



1.  koptoµ (kovptw , (2875)) denotes to cut by a blow, e.g., branches, Matt. 21:8; Mark 11:8. See Bewail, Lament, Mourn, Wail.

2.   apokoptoµ (ajpokovptw , (609)), to cut off, or cut away (apo, from, and No. 1), is used (a) literally, of members of the body, Mark 9:43, 45; John 18:10, 26; of ropes, Acts 27:32; (b) metaphorically, in the Middle Voice, of cutting off oneself, to excommunicate, Gal. 5:12, of the Judaizing teachers, with a reference, no doubt, to circumcision.¶

3.   ekkoptoµ (ejkkovptw , (1581)), lit., to cut or strike out (ek, out or off, and No. 1), to cut down, is used (a) literally, Matt. 5:30 (in 3:10 and 7:19 and Luke 3:9, “hewn down”); 18:8; Luke 13:7, 9; (b) metaphorically, of cutting off from spiritual blessing, Rom. 11:22, 24; of depriving persons of an occasion for something, 2 Cor. 11:12. See Hew.¶

Note: In 1 Pet. 3:7 the best mss. have enkoptoµ, to hinder; some have ekkoptoµ.

4.   katakoptoµ (katakovptw , (2629)), lit., to cut down, cut in pieces (kata, down, intensive), Mark 5:5, of the demoniac.¶

5.   diaprio (diaprivw , (1282)) signifies to saw asunder (dia, asunder, prioµ, to saw), to divide by a saw (as in 1 Chron. 20:3, Sept.), hence, metaphorically, to be sawn through mentally, to be rent with vexation, to be cut to the heart, is used in Acts 5:33; 7:54.¶

6.   dichotomeoµ (dicotomevw , (1371)), lit., to cut into two parts (dicha, apart, temnoµ, to cut, tomeµ, a cutting), Matt. 24:51, to cut asunder, is used in Luke 12:46. Some take the reference to be to the mode of punishment by which criminals and captives were cut in two; others, on account of the fact that in these passages the delinquent is still surviving after the treatment, take the verb to denote to cut up by scourging, to scourge severely, the word being used figuratively.

As to Matt. 24:51, it has been remarked that the cutting asunder was an appropriate punishment for one who had lived a double life. In both passages the latter part of the sentence applies to retribution beyond this life.¶ In the Sept. the verb is used in Ex. 29:17 of the dividing of the ram as a whole burnt offering at the consecration of the priests.¶ The corresponding noun is found in Gen. 15:11, 17; Ex. 29:17; Lev. 1:8; Ezek. 24:4.¶

7.   suntemnoµ (suntevmnw , (4932)), lit., to cut together (sun, with, temnoµ, to cut; the simple verb temnoµ is not found in the N.T.), signifies to contract by cutting, to cut short; thus, to bring to an end or accomplish speedily; it is said of a prophecy or decree, Rom. 9:28 (twice), from the Sept. of Is. 10:23. See Short.¶

8.         aphaireoµ (ajfairevw , (851)), to take away, remove, is translated “cut off” in Mark 14:47, A.V., and Luke 22:50, and “smote off” in Matt. 26:51; R.V., “struck off” in each place. See Smite, Take.[5]



mark, an artificially inflicted sign on the body in the form of incision, tattoo, brand, or stamp. In the ot several kinds of distinguishing marks are mentioned. 1 The mark of Cain (Gen. 4:15), given as a protection, making the person of Cain inviolable. 2 The mark of the prophet (1 Kings 20:41), possibly an incision on the forehead. 3 Circumcision (Gen. 17:14; 1 Cor. 7:18), the most prominent mark identifying the Jew as belonging to God (cf. Isa. 44:5; 49:16). 4 The mark of a slave who did not wish to leave his master, whose earlobe was pierced by an awl (Exod. 21:6; Deut. 15:17).

In the nt only two instances can be mentioned. 5 The ‘marks of Jesus’ that Paul bore (Gal. 6:17); these could have been scars from his sufferings for Christ (Acts 14:19; 2 Cor. 11:23-27). Paul, who called himself a ‘slave of Jesus’ (Rom. 1:1), may also have had in mind the custom of branding a slave. 6 The ‘mark of the beast’ (Rev. 13:16-18; 14:9-11; 16:2). The number 666 is thought to conceal the emperor Nero’s name and the ‘mark’ of the official imperial seal, necessary to conduct business. Accepting this mark was apostasy, as true Christians were marked with God’s name upon their forehead (Rev. 3:12; 7:3; 14:1; 22:4; cf. Ezek. 9:4).[6]


[1].Vine, W. E., Vine’s Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, (Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell) 1981.

[2].Kittel, Gerhard, and Friedrich, Gerhard, Editors, The Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Abridged in One Volume, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company) 1985.

[3].Vine, W. E., Vine’s Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, (Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell) 1981.

[4].Swanson, James, Editor, New Nave’s Topical Bible, (Oak Harbor, Washington: Logos Research Systems, Inc.) 1994.

[5].Vine, W. E., Vine’s Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, (Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell) 1981.

[6].Achtemeier, Paul J., Th.D., Harper’s Bible Dictionary, (San Francisco: Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc.) 1985.

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