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Hebrew History

Dr. John Rinehart



The Patriarchal Period



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1.    Why do we need to study Hebrew history?

a.       Religious - As Christians, we have a religious interest in studying the Hebrews.

b.      Legal - The Hebrew people’s law code has been very influential for later lawmakers

c.       Literary value - of the wisdom Books (secularism recognizes the importance of them in literary development).

                                                              i.      Wisdom literature

                                                            ii.      The prophets  have been interesting literatures to study

                                                          iii.      Psalms

d.      History – The Jews played a major role in the development of the middle east.

2.    When does Israel’s history Begin?

a.       Personal / Theological – Call of Abraham 2100 B.C.

b.      National / Historical – Exodus 1446 B.C.

                                                              i.      #’s

                                                            ii.      Land

                                                          iii.      Legal System

c.       Liberal – 1250 B.C.

3.    Sources


a.       Old Testament – religious history

b.      Archeology / History – It is fascinating but must be secondary

4.    Geography of Israel

a.       4 Regions


                                                              i.      Coastal plain

1.      No good harbor

2.      Carmel Ridge

3.      Plane of Sharon

4.      Philistia

                                                            ii.      central mountains

1.      Galilee

2.      Samaria

3.      Judah

                                                          iii.      Jordan rift

                                                          iv.      Tran’s Jordan or eastern mountains

1.      Yarmuk – river

2.      Jabbok – river

3.      Arnon – river

4.      zared – river

b.      names for this area


                                                              i.      Palestine – land of the philistines

                                                            ii.      Canaan – the people who were there when Israel came

                                                          iii.      Israel – Going back to Jacob

                                                          iv.      Jews – specific to the tribal area of Judah

c.       Strategic location


                                                              i.      Caravan / soldier route – travel between Mesopotamia to Egypt or Egypt to Asia minor

                                                            ii.      Religion

1.      Judaism

2.      Christianity

3.      Islam

                                                          iii.      Oil

5.    7 periods of Israel’s History ***


a.     Patriarchal………………………. 2166 B.C.

b.     Egyptian Sojourn……………….. 1876 B.C.

c.      Wilderness / Conquest…………... 1446 B.C.

d.     Judges…………………………… 1390 B.C.

e.      United Monarchy ………………. 1050 B.C.

f.       Divided Monarchy………………... 930 B.C.

g.     Exile / Return…………………….. 586 B.C.


The Patriarchal Period

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1.    Ways we can place our faith on the accuracy of this Patriarchal record.

a.       Names – Secular writings use names similar to Genesis

b.      Customs – Do things that Abraham and his decedents do match their surrounding culture.

c.       Travel – Assumption that there was wide spread travel in those days. (that type of travel is not as common in every era of Palestine)

d.      Conditions – Conditions in Palestine and in Egypt

2.    How to provide evidence that Abraham was born in 2166 B.C.

a.     Date of the exodus I Kings 6:1*** (Remember this reference / he said so)

                                                             i.      480 years

b.     Length of the Exodus Exodus 12:40

                                                             i.      430 years before the exodus

c.      How many years before the Sojourn was Abraham born? Genesis 21:5; Genesis 25:26; Genesis 47:9

                                                             i.       1,200 years

How do we get fixed dates (By Dr. Berrey in Old Testament Survey)

                                                            ii.      Sothic cycle: 1,460 year cycle

1.      based on the stars

                                                          iii.      Assyrian eponym list

1.       they mention Israel kings in their history

Kings of Israel Eponym List ( how the Assyrians dated things)
Solomon 966
Ahab 853
Jehu 841
  Bur Sagale ( during his year their was a eclipse) june,15 763 BC

2.      966 BC (soloman’s temple)

+480 I Kings 6:1

1446 – exodus

+430 Exodus 12:40

1876 – Jacob’s migration


2006 – Jacob’s birth


2066 – Isaac’s birth


2166 – Abraham’s birth

3.      2166 BC – birth of Abraham

4.      1876 BC- Migration of Jacob to Egypt

5.      1446 BC – exodus from Egypt

6.      1010 BC David begins his reign

7.      966 BC 4th year of Solomon

8.      722 BC fall of Northern Kingdom

9.      586 BC Destruction of Jerusalem

How we get our dates from Dr. Rinehart

·        Our Chronology

o   Assyrian list

§  Eclipse – June 15 763 B.C.

·        Black obelisk – it gave a picture of a most likely a king of Israel (Jehu) and an Assyrian king.

o   Bible – kings – chronicles

Question for test how do we know the date of Abraham.

3.     What about Abraham?

a.     Call of Abraham  

Genesis 12:1-2

1 Now the LORD had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will shew thee: 2 And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing:

Genesis 11:31

31 And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran his son's son, and Sarai his daughter in law, his son Abram's wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there.

Hebrews 11:8- 12

8 By faith Abraham, when he was called to go out into a place which he should after receive for an inheritance, obeyed; and he went out, not knowing whither he went. 9 By faith he sojourned in the land of promise, as in a strange country, dwelling in tabernacles with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise: 10 For he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God. 11 Through faith also Sara herself received strength to conceive seed, and was delivered of a child when she was past age, because she judged him faithful who had promised. 12 Therefore sprang there even of one, and him as good as dead, so many as the stars of the sky in multitude, and as the sand which is by the sea shore innumerable.

                                                             i.      What did Abraham Leave?

1.      CountryUr (Sumer, Akkadian)

·         he left the cultured to go to the less cultures

2.      Family – Strong family ties

                                                           ii.      Why did Abraham leave?

1.      Spiritual hindrances

2.      Step of Faith

3.      It would move him from Mesopotamia to Canaan which would be a place to build faith.

4.       Separation

5.      How Old was Abraham When He Left?

·         Genesis 12:4 – He was 75 when he departed out of Iran

4 So Abram departed, as the LORD had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him: and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran.

                                                        iii.      What did God Promise God when he left?

1.      Seed -Great Nation

2.      Soil – Land

3.      Savior – Blessing to others (Messiah)

4.      Blessing (Great Name)

5.      Protection


b.     Abraham’s failures

                                                             i.      Abraham in Haran

Was he to stop there?

Yes NO
Acts 7:3 – no value judgment on him being there God Didn’t tell him to go to Haran (He stopped)
Abraham must have received 2 calls·         go to Haran·         Go to Canaan·           12:1 – he has not left his family
Abraham loved his family and wanted them to follow God. What happened to Tarah not long after arrival.

          This will be a question on the test.

                                                           ii.      Going to Egypt

1.      He had been told that Canaan was the land

2.      This decision results in …

·        pattern for himself and Isaac to doubt

·        the difficulty on his own marriage relationship

·        If Hagar was part of the wealth he received than that was bad.

·        Riches received may have continued to give problems (ie. separating from Lot)

                                                        iii.      Abraham and Lot

1.      Was Lot to be there at all?

2.      Abraham did not do the best job helping Lot make good decisions

·         eventually Lot’s 2 sons were thorns to the Israelites

                                                        iv.      Abraham and Hagar

1.      Not an act of faith – Act of Sight

2.      His Marriage was troubled

3.      Causes long term problems

·         Bad decedents caused problems

                                                           v.      Abraham at Gerar

1.      Lies about his wife

2.      Receives more money  

Regarding the errors (Every time Abraham lies about his wife he receives wealth. Why?)

1.      God was honoring the promise and providing for him in spite of the choices.

2.      What you do affects others

3.      He is remembered as a Man of Faith.

c.      Abraham’s Victories

                                                              i.      Rescue of Lot

1.      Lot was taken prisoner

2.      Abraham arms 318 men and goes after them

3.      He meets Melchizedek.

·         Is he a Christofany (Hebrews 7:2-3)

                                                                                                                                      i.      no, he was a king who followed God

                                                                                                                                    ii.      Hebrews 7:2-3 Levitical Vs. Melchizedek

1.      Levidical – tied to family lines

2.      Melchizedik – priesthood that has no line

3.      Solomon said he was wiser than all the kings of Jerusalem

·         Melchizedek – gives Abraham bread, wine, and blessing

·         Abraham – Gives Melchizedek tithes of all the spoils

Principles that transcend the law

                                                                                                                                      i.      Tithing

                                                                                                                                    ii.      Righteous remnant

                                                            ii.      Birth of Isaac

1.      Promise that had delayed fulfillment (25 years)

2.      Abraham tried to help God

·         Hagar and Ishmael

·         He suggested Eliezer (His chief of staff)

3.      Names / Signs given

·         Abram – high father

·         Abraham – father of many nations

·         Sarai –  Contentious

·         Sarah – Princess

·         Isaac – Laughter

·         Circumcision

                                                                                                                                      i.      Sign of Faith Romans (4:11)

                                                                                                                                    ii.      Purity (Deuteronomy 30:6)

                                                          iii.      Offering of Isaac (Genesis 22)

1.      Purpose: test Abraham

2.      Isaac would have been between 10 and 20

3.      3 day journey

4.      How did this story typify Christ?

Carrying the wood Carrying the cross
innocent sacrifice Christ was innocent
willing sacrifice Christ was willing
The father’s only son God’s only Son
God provided the lamb God provided the lamb
3 Day journey 3 days in the ground
2 Thieves 2 went with them
Others watching (waiting) Disciples
Land of Meriah Same general area
Resurrection for told Resurrection promised

Abraham Marries Kutaria

a.       Sarah dies and has 6 more sons


  1. Stays in the Land of Promise
    1. Isaac receives his wife without leaving the land

                                                              i.      Receives his wife from Herron

  1. How did Abraham influence Isaac?
    1. Wealth Genesis 25:5 – Isaac received everything from his father.
    2. Wife
    3. Covenant Blessing Genesis 26:2-5 – covenant
    4. Faith for a son
    5. Teaches him to lie  Genesis 26:6-7
  2. Characterizes of his life
    1. Genesis 25:11 – Lahairoi is where Hagar flea to
    2. He lived to be 180 years old
    3. Favoritism in his Family between his sons


 (Genesis 25:24-34)

1.    He was a Twin to Esau

Jacob Esau
Smooth Harry
Man at home Man in the field
Loved by his mother Loved by his Father
Cleaver Dunce

      Esau did not see what was valuable in the long term.

      Jacob did

  1. Events that effect their relationship

    1. Birthright – Every family had a birthright ***

                                                              i.      Major share of the property

                                                            ii.      Family headship

    1. Blessing – Not every person had a promise to pass down. ***                                                               i.      Spiritual prophetic item
Isaac Rebecca Esau Jacob
Favored Esau Told Jacob to lie to his fatherFailed in her role as a wife and motherFailed to trust God to bring to pass what he had said Sought after temporal things  Lied to his father

  1. Jacobs long trip
    1. Reasons for leaving                                                               i.      His brother is mad at him

                                                            ii.      He needs a good wife

                                                          iii.      His father tells him to go

                                                          iv.      God gives approval in a dream

    1. Age of leaving – 77
    2. Distance – 500 miles

                                                              i.      From Beersheba to Haren

    1. Vision                                                               i.      Latter – picture of fellowship with God

                                                            ii.      Angels – picture of communication and Blessing.

                                                          iii.      He was given the same promise as his father

1.      He was also given the promise of protection

2.      Jacob promises to tithe to the Lord

    1. Arrival                                                               i.      Jacob learns the lesson about trickery
    2. His wives                                                               i.      11 sons in 7 years

1.      leah

a.       ruban

b.      simian

c.       levi

d.      Judah

e.       Isaccar

f.       Zebulan

2.      Bilhah

a.       Dan

b.      nathali

3.      Zilpha

a.       Gad

b.      Asher

4.      Rachel

a.       Joseph

b.      Benjamin

Years à 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Leah Ruben SimeonLevi Judah Issachar Zebulun  
Zilpah         GadAsher  
Rachel             Joseph
Bilhah Dan Naphtali      

    1. time in Haran                                                               i.      20 years
    2. He wrestles with God at Penial                                                               i.      He has a limp

                                                            ii.      New name

    1. At bethel (Chapter 35)                                                               i.      Reassurance of the Covenant

                                                            ii.      he gets rid of the false Gods

                                                          iii.      Death of Isaac


(Genesis 27-50)

  1. Characteristics of Joseph
    1. His brothers don’t like him                                                               i.      He was his fathers favorite

                                                            ii.      He had dreams that made them look bad.

                                                          iii.      He gave an evil report

    1. Results

                                                              i.      Conspiracy to murder him

                                                            ii.      Decided to sell him

                                                          iii.      Deceive their father

1.      just as Jacob deceived his father he was deceived

    1. 3 positions in Egypt **                                                               i.      Slave

                                                            ii.      Prisoner

                                                          iii.      Ruler

    1. Joseph did not become bitter                                                               i.      He got victory over bitterness before he came to power where he could avenge himself.

                                                            ii.      He looked out for others

    1. He was trustworthy  
    2. Statistics about him**                                                               i.      Became ruler at 30

                                                            ii.      sold as a slave at 17

                                                          iii.      Spent 13 years in prison

                                                          iv.      He was 39 when he saw is father

                                                            v.      He got a wife – Asenath

    1. God uses him to help his brothers                                                               i.      He spoke harshly to them

                                                            ii.      He called them spies

                                                          iii.      enquires about family conditions

                                                          iv.      Throws them in jail for 3 days

                                                            v.      keep Simeon for 1 years

                                                          vi.      he puts the money back in the pouches

                                                        vii.      requires them to bring back Benjamin

                                                      viii.      they are set in birth order

                                                          ix.      He sends them home with the cup in Benjamin’s bag

    1. Reactions of his brothers                                                               i.      Fear

                                                            ii.      Remembering

                                                          iii.      repentance

  1. Joseph had faith in God to deliver him out of Egypt
    1. lived to be 110 #. trusts that God would take his people out. “Take my bones with you.”

Jacobs Charge to his Son’s *** (Genesis 49)

  1. Reuben – Oldest (unstable as water)
  2. Judah – he would have the scepter
  3. Simeon / Levi – would be divided


1.      Importance of the Exodus

a.       The mightiest act of God among his people in the Old Testament

                                                              i.      2 million Jews

                                                            ii.      people of promise à Nation of fulfillment

b.      Battle Ground **

People try to prove it as myth or fact

                                                              i.      ultimately there are many people who don’t want to follow the Bible

                                                            ii.      Watered down view to try to make it fit with secular history .

2.      Chronology

a.       How long was the sojourn? **

Conservative Liberal
Long – 430yrs. Evidence:            Exodus 12:40 – 430 years*            Genesis 15:13 – 400 years             afflicted            Acts 7:3-7 – 400 yearsIncreasing affliction Population             Entrance to Egypt ~ 2,000                         Numbers 1:46 – 600,000 men Short 215yrs.Evidence:            (1)Exodus 12:40 – Septuagint (430 = Abraham in Canaan and Egypt )            Genesis 15:13 – 4 generation                         (2)400 = 4 generations of 100 years but we know that a generation is about 40-15 so it is 200)            Exodus 6:16-200            Levi à Kohath à Amram à Moses (this cannot take 400 years)            Numbers 3:27-28 –Kohath’s 4 sons would have had to have thousands\ of children            I Chronicles 7:22 – 11 generations             (3)* Galatians 3:17       Genesis 46:42 – looks like Abraham à exodus is 430 years      (4) Church fathers split on this view.      Josephus waffles between the two

b.      when was the Exodus?

Conservative – Early (1446) Date of the Exodus Liberal – Late (1250BC)
Great no problem I Kings 6:1Exodus 480 years before the temple 480 = 12 (40 year Generations) A real generation is about 25 or “A long time”
1446 à 40 years wandering à1406 entered the land Judges 11:26 At about 1100 BC. Jephtah says they had been in the land 300 years 1.      2 Conquests 2.      Jepthah was being a diplomat not a historian

  Length of Judges period(all years available -410)  
  Years of Judging  
  Years of oppressing  
  Years of Resting  

                                                              i.      Historical considerations

1.      ex 1 – 2 cities were built (python and ramses)

2.      Exodus 2:15-25 – moses was in midian for 40 years 1504-1450 – do you have a 40 year reiging phero

                                                            ii.      Archeological considerations

1.      Jericho – karthenkenian & karstad J

a.       both sides use this for evidence

2.      3 more

a.       lachish

b.      debir

c.       hazor

d.      these were destroyed in the 13 century

e.       difficulties

                                                                                                                                      i.      biblical data does not say that lachish and debir were burnt to the ground

3.      Location of the Egyptian capital

a.       needed to be in lower Egypt so Moses has close access

4.      Armarna tables

a.       they mention abiru


1.      Moses in his time period

a.       born in 1526 BC.

b.      18th Dynasty in Egyptian history

                                                              i.      Thutmose I – baby killer in river

                                                            ii.      Thutmose III – the pharaoh of Moses’ exile

                                                          iii.      Amenhotep II – the pharaoh of the exodus

                                                          iv.      Late daters put the exodus in Raamses II as the exodus guy

2.      Moses in Egypt (with the pharaoh)

a.       why did God have his people in Egypt ********************

                                                              i.      to build them into a nation

1.      the Egyptians would not marry them

2.      to incubate his people from the Canaanites

3.      Judah and taymar (reference that)

                                                            ii.      to prepare a picture of salvation

                                                          iii.      To give Israel a vivid picture of God’s power

                                                          iv.      Because there was a famine coming

                                                            v.      Give the Canaanites time to repent Genesis 15:16

b.      List of faithful women God used to preserve Moses life

                                                              i.      his mom – Jockabed

                                                            ii.      Mirium (his sister)

                                                          iii.      pharaohs daughter

                                                          iv.      the midwives

                                                            v.      his own wife zipora (Exodus 4:24)

c.       his education

                                                              i.      His mom – 5 years

                                                            ii.      pharaohs palace – leadership skills

                                                          iii.      Desert with Jethro

                                                          iv.      God trained him for 80 years but his service was 40 years

3.      Moses in exile

a.       Why did he go

                                                              i.      He identified with God’s people

                                                            ii.      he killed the Egyptian

                                                          iii.      he fled when he found how everyone herd

b.      important actions in his life

                                                              i.      Lived with the High Priest of midian. reuel. jethro

1.      he finds his wife

2.      he works watching his sheep

3.      called to service

a.       using the burning bush

b.      Reverence to that place (putting of your shoes)

c.       excuses by Moses

                                                                                                                                      i.      Who am I? – God promises to be with him

                                                                                                                                    ii.      Who will I say sent me? – I am that I am

                                                                                                                                  iii.      They won’t believe me – God give shim a sign

                                                                                                                                  iv.      I am not a good speaker – I made your mouth

                                                                                                                                    v.      Send someone else Lord

4.      mosses in the exodus

a.       Moses tells God’s people what God had done and they believe

b.      3 challenges with pharaoh

                                                              i.      simple request to let the people go

1.      pharaoh was ignorant of who God was and denies the request.

2.      Pharaoh persecutes God’s people

a.       The people get angry with Moses

                                                            ii.      demonstration of God’s signs

1.      Pharaoh’s men can do the same.

                                                          iii.      Pelages in order ************************************

a.       1. Water Turned to Blood

b.      2. The Plague of Frogs

c.       3. The Plague of Lice

d.      4. The Plague of Flies

e.       5. The Plague of Murrain

f.       6. The Plague of Boils

g.      7. The Plague of Hail

h.      8. The Plague of Locusts

i.        9. The Plague of Darkness

j.        10. Death of the Firstborn

2.      Which ones were imamate as best we can tell

a.       1,2

b.      3-10 they could not imitate

3.      Which pelage was Israel spared from

a.       flies – 4

b.      and the rest of them

4.      the pelages

5.      List the Compromises *********

a.       Exodus 8:25 – sacrifice in the land

b.      Exodus 8:28 – stay close

c.       Exodus 10:8-11 - just the men can Go

d.      Exodus 10:24 – leave the herds

c.       Exodus 9 – there were some Egyptians who feared the Lord

d.      Info about the plagues

                                                              i.      how long? 1- 9 months

e.       Exodus miracles

                                                              i.      3 big miracles

1.      parting the water

2.      cloud of cover

3.      closing of the water on the Egyptians

                                                            ii.      Song of Moses  (praising God for what he has done)

Wilderness wandering  - be able to put the event with the place *****

1.      trip to sini (15)

a.       Marah - they complain about no water

                                                              i.      bitter water made sweet

b.      Elim – there was water (12 wales)

c.       Sin - arrive at the wilderness of Sin

                                                              i.      2 miracles 1.    no food

1.      – God gives Qual

2.      – God gives manna

a.       manna – immediate food

b.      manna – test of faith (day by day)

c.       manna – test of obedience

d.      Rephidim

                                                              i.      water comes out of a rock

                                                            ii.      battle against amalic (Moses )

                                                          iii.      jethro recommends a theocratic government

1.      Qualifications for the leaders

a.       Men that fear God

b.      Men who are able

c.       men of truth

d.      men who hated covetiousness

2.      Sinai – katish barnea

a.       they planed on staying there one year

b.      Covenant God makes with the people

                                                              i.      Redemption from the Egyptian bondage

                                                            ii.      They were to became

1.      holy nation

2.      peculiar treasure

3.      kingdom of priest

                                                          iii.      the people ratify what God had said to them.

c.       The giving of the Law – guidelines of how to live

                                                              i.      Quote the 10 Commandments

 1. "I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me."

2. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the Earth beneath, or that is in the water under the Earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me; and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love Me, and keep My Commandments.

3. Thou shalt not take the Name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His Name in vain.

4. Remember the Sabbath Day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: for in six days the LORD made heaven and Earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath Day, and hallowed it.

5. Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.

6. Thou shalt not kill.

7. Thou shalt not commit adultery.

8. Thou shalt not steal.

9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.

10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbour's.


                                                            ii.      Civil law – guidelines for how to deal with others

                                                          iii.      Ceremonial law – fulfilled in Christ

1.      distinction between the Law and the righteous standard of the Law.

d.      The giving of the tabernacle – guidelines how to worship

3.      Wilderness wandering

4.      kadish barnea à Jordan river

Ten Commandments

1.      can be divided in 2 parts

a.       Matt 22:

b.      the beginning of our relationship with God

c.       our relationship with man

2.      Listed out

Man’s relationship to God

a.       Thou shalt have no other God’s before me.

b.      thou shalt not make any graven image (worship)

                                                              i.            4 something that your are not to do – don’t make an image

                                                            ii.             – don’t bow down to them

                                                          iii.            – don’t serve them

c.       thou shalt not take the name of the Lord of God in Vain

                                                              i.            swearing

                                                            ii.            saying that something is God’s will when it is not

                                                          iii.            living a life that does not corospond with david’s name

d.      the Sabbath

                                                              i.            work 6 days and rest on the 7th

                                                            ii.            rest & devotion

Man’s relationship to man

e.       Honor  thy father and mother  - respect for authority

f.       Thou shalt not kill (murder)

g.      thou shalt not commit adultery

                                                              i.            respect for marriage

h.      thou shalt not steal

                                                              i.            respect for property

i.        thou shalt not bear false whiteness

                                                              i.            truthfulness

j.        thou shalt not covet

                                                              i.            these things begin in the heart

Events between Sina and Kadish barnea 11 - 12

1.      People complain

2.      70 elders

3.      provision of quail

4.      Miriam’s insabornation and punishment with leprosy

Kadish Barnea ch 13-14

1.      12 spies were sent

The spies were not to decide if but how.

2.      refused to go in the land

Wilderness Wandering 15-19

1.      15 -  God gives guidelines for when they get there

2.      16 – rebellion of korah

a.       Dathan and Abiram also

3.      17 –  blooming of Aaron’s rod

4.      18 – llivitic priesthood

5.      19 – more laws

The wondering ends between 19 – 20

Wondering between kadish barnaa and the Jordan

1.      20:20-21 – myram dies

2.      2-13 – moses strkes the rock

3.      14-20 – denied passage by edom

4.      20:23-29 – dath of aayron

5.      21: 5-9 – brass serpent

6.      21-35 – victories in sihom and Og

They then are waiting to cross

22- baalam

16 – census

Death of Moses

Conquest period

1.      Joshua’s leadership

a.       Joshua 1

                                                              i.      3 promises (3-5)

1.      land wherever they go (property)

2.      no one can stop them (power)

3.      God’s presence (presence)

                                                            ii.      3 commands (5-9)

1.      Be strong and courageous

2.      obey all the law

3.      meditate on the law

b.      Joshua ?

                                                              i.      2 spies go in

                                                            ii.      Rahab hides the spies

2.      Crossing Jordan

a.       it was at flood stage

b.      led by priests caring the ark

c.       They leave monuments to remember this.

d.      Chapter 5 *******************

                                                              i.      Gilgal –

1.      renewing of circumcision

2.      Passover again  (40 years since Egypt)

3.      They ate of the furit of the land that year

                                                            ii.      battle plam

1.      Centeral cambain

a.       Jericho

b.      Ai

c.       Gibeonites

2.      southern campaign

3.      North campaign

3.      the campaign

a.        ammorite legue

                                                              i.      5 cities that attacked gibonites.

                                                            ii.      God sends hail

                                                          iii.      The sun stood still

4.      Chapter 12 – destroyed 31 kings

a.       took about 7 years

b.      know the 12 trebes on a map **********

c.       Kedish, shekem, ramon, Golan – cities of refuge *** map

5.      Alter Ed ****

a.       Chapter 22

                                                              i.      Eastern trives felt distance.

                                                            ii.      12 tribes had the tabernacle at shilo

                                                          iii.      Worship system gave them unity and avoided idolatry

b.      3 feasts every  year that all the men would travel to the tabernacle so they could conduct the religious system

                                                              i.      Passover

                                                            ii.      pentacost

                                                          iii.      tabernacles

                                                          iv.      (515) 961-0601

I was Gone

Joshua 23-24 (his farewell address to the people)

Admonitions about apostatizing

            Protections (5-12)

                        Drive out all the enemies of the land              trust what God has done

                        Do all that is written in the law                      obedience

                        Have nothing to do with other gods               separation

                        Cleave to the Lord and love him                    cleave and love God

            Results (13-16)





Challenge to serve the Lord

            He starts with Joseph

            Remember God’s protection and power v. 12

            Only serve Him

            You must get rid of the idols


            Failure through compromises

Why does Israel fail to claim the promises?

They sought peaceful coexistence  (especially in the valleys because the were fortified in the villages

Political compatibility

Includes treaties and marriages

Went into idolatry


Loss of unity

Sensual /practical Appeal of Baal worship

6 main oppressors


Moabite oppression







Oppression (punishment

Cry to God for deliverance

God delivers

Delivers them by a judge

3 main aspects of a judge

            Military leaders

            Executive work (civil)

            Judicial work

Chronology and outline

In between 1446 and 966

480 years

            Included also:

                        40        David

                        40        Saul

                        4          Solomon

                        40        wilderness

                        7          conquest

                        10?      Joshua’s generation



            Addition of:




410 years

There needs to be overlaps in the Judges and Eli and Samuel

Judges 3:30, 4:1; 10:7


1-3:4                Introduction

3-16                 Oppression

17-31               Appendices                 These happen chronologically at the front

                                    Micah and the Danites

                                                Issue of land:  given land near the philistines, go to Galilee

                                                Joshua 19:47, 6:25

                                                Happened when Rahab was alive

                                                Main issue:  religion

                                    Sin of Gibeah

                                                Judges 20:28; high priest, Phineas; Num 25:7

                                                Happened not long after the conquest

                                                Main issue:  morals



            Shusham Rishathaim

The children inter married and served Baal and Asherah

Oppressed 8 years

 Othniel  (Caleb’s nephew)



Oppressed 18 years

Ehud (of Benjamin, left-handed)



            Jabin, king of Hazor

He had 900 chariots of iron

Deborah  (a prophetess), Barak (general)

Barak would not go unless he knew the Lord would go with him

Sisera (enemy general) would be killed by a women


            Aided by the Amalekites

They took what the Israelites were working for


How many people come                                 32,000

How many leave                                             22,000

How many drink the water the right way       300

How many enemy soldiers were there            135,000

Used pitchers, torches, and trumpets

Story of Abimelech

            Dies by a woman’s millstone

Short judges (probably during the time period)




            5th oppression

Jephthah (an illegitimate son, rejected by his brethren)

Been in the land 300 years

He made an awful vow (he had to keep his vow)

He Didn’t

            In 11:31 the and can be translated or

            No priest would officiate a human sacrifice

            Other examples of ladies serving in and around the temple

            He is in the hall of faith

            Lament could mean speak with

He Did

            The burnt sacrifice means a burnt sacrifice

            Because he was a heathen he might would have done this

            View of his character - killing 452 Ephraimites

            A clear simple reading of the text would leave you with that


The Book of Judges – Failure through Compromise

--- Why does Israel fail to claim the promises of Yahweh? 

  1. Israel Disobeyed God in not driving out the Canaanites.  (Judges 1)

  Rather than drive the enemy out they sought…

a)      Peaceful Coexistence – valleys where the enemy was strongest

b)      Political Compatibility – treaties & intermarriage

  1. Israel went off into blatant Idolatry.  (Judges 2:7)

a)      This caused Israel’s UNITY to be lost.

b)      This idolatry was both Sensual & Practical

Six Main Oppressors:

1.)    Mesopotamian

2.)    Moabite

3.)    Canaanite

4.)    Midianite

5.)    Ammonite

6.)    Philistine

Plot/Cycle of Judges:

·         Sin

·         Oppression

·         Cry out to God

·         Deliverance

The Three Main Aspects of a Judge’s Office

1)      Military Leader

2)      Civil Leader

3)      Judicial Leader

(Deuteronomy 16:18) – This verse shows that the office of Judge was not new.  What made these guys so different was particularly the large Military aspect of their job. 

--- Chronology of the Book of Judges ---

From looking at the dates of the Judges we see 480 yrs. When there is really only yrs allowed for this time period. 

(Judges 3:30) 


The Key to the Chronological Problem:  There is overlapping in Judges as well as simultaneous oppressions.  Also, there are places sprinkled throughout Israel that were doing right. 

Outline of the Book of Judges –

The outline is not chronological.

Introduction: Judges 1-3:4

(Judges 3-16) – Oppressions

(Judges 17-29) – Appendices

The Appendices actually happen before the oppressions if you look at in chronological order.  (Joshua 19:47) records the same event of Micah and the Danites.  (Joshua 6:25) – tells us that Rahab was still alive at the time of the writing the book of Joshua.  This shows that the incident of Micah & the Danites took place while Rahab was still alive in Israel. 

Micah & the Danites (Judges 17-20)

  • In Judges 20:28, Phineas was the high priest. (Numbers 25:27) tells us that Phineas was alive back in the time of Moses. 
  • In the case of Micah & the Danites, the main issue is religion.
  • In the case of Gibeah, the main issue is morals

Six Major Oppressions


1)      The Mesopotamian Oppression (Judges 3) Chushanrishathaim  - was the king

a.       Israel intermarried.

b.      Israel was involved in idolatry

c.       Judge Othniel was the first Deliverer to arrive on the scene in Judges.

d.      Othniel was Caleb’s nephew

2)      The Moabite Oppression (Judges 3)

a.       under king Eglon – 18 yrs.

b.      Judge Ehud of Benjamin [left-handed]

Judge Shamgar (Judges 3:31)  

c.       slew 600 Philistines with an ox goad

3)      The Canaanite Oppression (Judges 4) [20 yrs.]

a.       King Jabin

b.      Jabin had 900 chariots of iron

c.       Deliverer #4 – Deborah a Prophetess, along with Barak the General

d.      Sisera, Jabin’s general is slain by “Jaal and the Nail”

4)      The Midianite Oppression (Judges 7)

a.       Midianites aided by the Amalekites

b.      They would continually rob the Israelites of their crops etc. 

c.       Deliverer #5 – Gideon

d.      When Gideon called an army: 32,000

e.       How many left when asked if they were fearful: 22,000

f.       How many drank the water correctly: 300

g.      How many enemy combatants were there: 135,000

h.      In battle they used pitcher, torches, and trumpets

               2 Minor Judges in chapter 10  [#6 – Tolah,  #7 Jair]

5)      The Ammonite Oppression (along with the Philistines; Judges 11)

a.       Deliverer #8 – Jephthah [illegitimate son who had originally been rejected.]

b.      Jephthah made a rash vow.   (to say he did not offer her:  in 11:31 the “and” could be translated “or”.   Also, no priest could officiate a human sacrifice.  3rd Jephthah is in the hall of faith.  4th we are not comfortable with this.)   To say he did offer her:  the word “burnt offering” is exactly that.  Hannah said she would offer Samuel as a sacrifice not a “burnt sacrifice”.  2nd Jephthah was a heathen, son of a harlot not a real Yahweh worshiper.  3rd a simple reading of the text would lead one to conclude that he did in fact kill his daughter. 

c.       Judges 12:6, 42,000 Ephraimites are killed due to their rebellion against Jephthah.

d.      After Jephthah you had the Judges: Ibzan, Elan, Abdon – had 40 sons.  

6)      The Philistine Oppression

a.       Was the longest and most severe oppression.

b.      Samson was the Deliverer.

i.          he had a special birth – was announced by an angel

ii.                  he was to be a Nazarite. (Numb. 6:3-8) 

n  He could not have wine.

n  He could have no hair cut

n  He could not come into contact with any unclean thing.

iii.                He had a lust for ungodly women. 

iv.                (Judges 14 – Samson touches a dead lion & he drank wine at the feast with the Philistines. 

v.                  (Judges 14:19) – kills 30 men at once to pay his riddle bet.

vi.                (Judges 15:5) – he set the foxes on fire & destroyed the  Philistines crops,

vii.              (vs 15) – he kills 1,000 Philistines with the jawbone of a donkey.

viii.            (Judges 16:3) – he carries a city gate 20 miles. 

ix.                (Judges 16:29-30) – he slew 30,000 Philistines in his own death.  (more than in his lifetime) 

This is my notes again___________________

1.      5th oppression (Amonite)

a.       Ibzan

b.      Elan

c.       Ablon

2.      6th oppression (Philistine)

a.       Deliverer  - Samson

                                                              i.      Special birth – announced by an angel

                                                            ii.      Nazerite vow – Numbers 6:3-8

1.      no wine

2.      no hair cuts

3.      no unclean contacts

                                                          iii.      He lusted ungodly women

                                                          iv.      5 miracles

1.      kills people to pay off his riddle bet

2.      Catches 300 foxes / slaughter of people

3.      kills 1,000 philistines with a jawbone

4.       carries a city gate 20 miles

5.      When God gave his strength back to kill a bunch of people

3.      Ruth (Fits  between oppression 4 and 5)

Samuel – the bridge between the judges and the monarchy

1.      Early Life

a.       Levite

b.      Mom – Hannah Dad – Elkin

                                                                          i.      Goes to the tabernacle to pray for kids

                                                                        ii.      Serves with Eli in the Tabernicle at about 5

                                                                      iii.      Eli had wicked sons

1.      he didn’t correct them

c.       The ark is lost at aphek

                                                                          i.      1st battle - 4,000 men lost

                                                                        ii.      2nd battle – 30,000 men died, ark lost, Eli’s sons are dead

2.      Ministry as the sole leader – Ch 7

a.       leads the people to victory at mizpeh

b.      the people are revived and then attacked by philistines

3.      Samuel’s work *** listing question (3 positions / offices )

a.       Prophet (seer)

                                                                          i.      1st full time prophet that Israel has

                                                                        ii.      had the School of the prophets

b.      Judge

                                                                          i.      travels to different cities

1.      bethal

2.      Gilgall

3.      mizpah

4.      rama

                                                                        ii.      His son’s (took bribes)

1.      Joel

2.      Abiah

c.       Priest

                                                                          i.      He made offerings

Jeremiah  15:1 – significance of Samuel in Israel

ROK ******************************************************************

What judges were Filled with the Spirit?





age of the monarchy

Why did Israel Want a King?  I Samuel 8:5

1.      Samuel’s sons were wicked. -

2.      They wanted to be like the other nations. – peer pressure

3.      They figured that their security would be safe if they had a “King” - military

Genesis 49:10 -  scepter will not depart from Judah

Deuteronomy 17:14 – 17 – provision for king

The real problem was a rejection of God as King.

The people misunderstood the situation.

      They wanted security without moral responsibility.

Samuel’s warnings to them

·         military draft

·         Taxation

·         servitude of people

·         confiscation

Samuel Finds the 1st King

·         Saul the person

o   9:2 – he was goodly

o   9:5 – He was responsibility

o   10:6-9 – spiritual man

o   10:16-22 – not a boaster

o   10: 26 – He was a leader (people could follow him)

o   11 – He was a brave leader

o   9:1 – tribe of Benjamin (politically a good choice)

o   10:27 – peaceful man

·         Saul’s Mistakes

o   I Samuel 9:17- 19 – not as spiritually perceptive

o   I Samuel 10:22 – self-conscience (pride)

o   I Samuel 13 – lack of trust in God (offered sacrifice)

§  this leads to his first rejection of being king

o   I Samuel 14:24 – Saul was wanted to avenged for his enemies

o   I Samuel 15 – incomplete obedience (not killing all the amaliktes)

§  leads to his 2nd rejection

o   I Samuel 17 – focused on Self and did not want to face Goliath

o   I Samuel 18 – Saul is Jealous about David

o   I Samuel 28 – he goes to the Witch of endor

·         Saul’s conclusion

o   He was a brave fighter

o   He was easily swayed by events and people

·         Saul’s battles

(Know the battles of Saul and what happened at each battle ******)

o   He was a brave fighter


Saul’s Battles
Campaigns   Reference Place Enemy What happened?
1st I Samuel 11 Jabesh Gilead Ammonites Saul is called upon to help and he steps up to the plate.Then they went to Gilgal and was proclaimed
2nd (first Philistine campaign ) I Samuel 13 Gilgal Philistines 1st  Philistine Campaign Saul is rejected as being king.
I Samuel 13:13 God would have established him as king forever.  - God was just saying it to be nice- How could God bring his line though Saul he was from Benjamin and not Judah- could be he would co- reign
I Samuel 13 Michmas Philistines Jonathan and his armor bearer inspire the people to Fight after their victory. Earthquake Mercenaries   The battle where Saul says don’t eat & go fight.
3rd I Samuel 15 Havilah to shur Amalekites Exodus with Moses holding his hands up. The battle was successful but he was a spiritual failure.  He did not destroy all the Amalekites
4th (second Philistine campaign ) I Samuel 17   Philistines David gets the Victory Saul becomes jelouse  “Saul has slain his thousands but david his ten thousands”
4th  (Third Philistine campaign ) I Samuel 27   Philistines Saul and his sons die

Concluding remarks on Saul ***********************

·         Sin brought separation from God and godly leadership

·         Initiative became personal ambition

·         attractiveness talent and popularity don’t guarantee Gods Blessing

·         Theories about Saul and the witch of Endor

o   Psychological

o   Demoninc impersonation

o   Genuine appearance

o   Deliberate Impersonation by the withc

What happens there? She speech’s 

o   The crux of the matter is this. is chapter 28 factually true or is a faithful account of what was actually a deception.

Why did God do this?

o   The sin of Going to the witch became part of his punishment

o   it confirms life after death

o   the superiority of God in Prophet  

David & Solomon

1.      David’s Training – I Samuel 16:7

1Sa 16:7 But the LORD said unto Samuel, Look not on his countenance, or on the height of his stature; because I have refused him: for the LORD seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the LORD looketh on the heart.

a.       Played the harp for Saul

                                                              i.      he had an opportunity to see what Saul’s court was like

                                                            ii.      this was training for him

                                                          iii.      the evil spirit

1.      if saul saved – oppressed

2.      if saul unsaved – possessed

3.      if spirit from God – to cause trouble

b.      Killed Goliath – 17

                                                              i.      he had already killed a bear

                                                            ii.      he had already killed a lion

                                                          iii.      he stood for God’s cause when the crowd was fearful

                                                          iv.      Gave him great trust in God

c.       Behaved himself wisely 18:14

d.      Fled from Saul ***

                                                              i.      Nob – (19, 21) a priest gives David the bread and the sword. 85 priests of nob were killed

                                                            ii.      Gath – David acted like a mad man. Philistines almost kill him

                                                          iii.      Adullam – (22) Saul had become irrational and these men were ostrasized by him. he takes his parents to Moab. Gad is with him. Abaithar shows David that the priests were killed at nob.

                                                          iv.      Keilah – (23) David defends them and then they tried to give David over to Saul

                                                            v.      Engedi – David is in the cave and David could have slain Saul.

                                                          vi.      Paran – Nabal (fool) and Abigal – David protected his flocks. David marries Abigal

1.      pligamy is a mistake

a.       in favor of it –

                                                                                                                                      i.      many in the Old Testament did it

                                                                                                                                    ii.      The Law regulates it

b.      Against it

                                                                                                                                      i.      pattern of Genesis

                                                                                                                                    ii.      Taking the Bible Completely

                                                                                                                                  iii.      God was taking Israel from Ur to Egypt to make them what he wants.

                                                        vii.      Ziph (2nd time) (26) – David and abashi sneek into Saul’s camp

1.      they take his spear and picture of water

                                                      viii.      Ziklag (27 – 30)  - David works for Achish (philistine) attacking the enemies of Israel. David does so well that he is choosen to fight against Israel.

2.      David’s triumphs

a.       King over Judah (II Samuel 1)

                                                              i.       Hebron, Capitol

                                                            ii.       7.5 years or rule

                                                          iii.      Civil War

b.      David, King over all Israel

                                                              i.      Israel came to Hebron to make David king

                                                            ii.      Protects the kingdom

1.      2 battles at Rephaim – Defense – Philistines

2.      Offence

a.       Fight against the Syrian on the North

b.      Fight against the Ammonites on the East

c.       Hiram King of Tire (Phoenicians were friends)

d.      Fight against Moab and Edom in the Southeast

e.       Philistia in the west

3.      Moving the capotil from Hebron to Jerusalem

a.       Politicaly: Hebron was deep into Judah, Jerusalem was not too far South or identified with Judah

b.      Militarily: It was easy to defend. (Defeat Jebusites)

c.       Religiously:

                                                                                                                                      i.      Moves the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem

                                                                                                                                    ii.      They fail when they used the Philistine way of transport, they only achieved success when they did it God’s way.

                                                                                                                                  iii.      David was not allowed to build the Temple.

1.      David’s idea initially

2.      Timing- Tabernacle for over 400 years

3.      David’s military conflicts were securing the kingdom so that his son could build the temple.

4.      Kind to Saul’s household (Jonathan’s sake) – the Case of Mepheshapth

3.      David’s Troubles

(Clear of his visible enemies, attack by an unseen Enemy.)

a.        Personal – Sin with Bathsheba

(During the Ammonite Campaign)

                                                              i.      Crime

1.      Adultery

2.      Murder

                                                            ii.      Confrontation and conviction

1.      Nathan the Prophet, accuses of him of the sin

Parable – rich man that takes the poor man’s lamb.

                                                          iii.      Consequences – II Samuel 12 à

1.       Sword never departs from his house

2.      Evil in his house

3.       Wives Taken

4.       Gave occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme

5.      Death –

a.       Loses the infant son

b.      Loses Amnon  (II Samuel 13) – Immorality

c.       Lose Absalom (II Samuel 13-18 ) – Rebellion

d.      Loses Adonijah

b.      Public/ Political

                                                              i.      Gibeonite league violation

1.      7 men delivered to the Gibeonites

                                                            ii.      Census

1.      Sin

a.       Pride in numbers and positions

b.      Satan moves David to number the People

c.       No offering to the Lord (Deuteronomy 17:14; Exodus 30:11-16)

d.      Presented an undo burden upon the People (David wanted to know how much he would gain from taxes)

2.      Judgment:

a.       Alternatives

                                                                                                                                      i.      Famine II Samuel 24:13, I Chronicles 21:12

1.      three years of famine or 7 years? \

a.       3 – from the gibeionite violation

b.      1 year imbetween

c.       3 – afterward

2.      Three previous years of famine(Because of the Gibeonites), one intervening year plus three years of additional famine

                                                                                                                                    ii.      Three Days of pestilence

                                                                                                                                  iii.      Three months of military control

3.      Repentance: David purchases the threshing floor of Araunah which later became the temple location.


1.      Promotion to the throne

a.       comparison with David

Solomon David
Palace Outside/ Shepard
Prince Fugitive
Peace Soldier

b.      Three Reasons why Solomon was promoted to the throne.

                                                              i.      David was old in Sick – I Kings 1:1

                                                            ii.      Adonjinah (Absalom’s full-blooded brother ) Tried to usurp the throne – 1:5

1.      Formed a parade

2.      Had a banquet

3.      Supports: Joab (Military) and Abiathar (Priest)

                                                          iii.      It had been promised to Bathsheba – 1:17

                                                          iv.      I Chronicles 22:9 – The Lord directed this

c.       Coronation – Rode upon th eKing’s horse

                                                              i.      Anointed by Zadok (Priest)

                                                            ii.      Menaiah (Military)

                                                          iii.      Nathan (Prophet)

d.      Charge from David

                                                              i.      Spiritual

1.      Be strong

2.      Be a student of the Bible (7 Words)

a.       Commandments

b.      judgments

c.       testimonies

d.      law of Moses

e.       statutes

f.       charge of the lord

g.      His ways

3.      Promise: David’s line would stay on the throne

                                                            ii.      Political

1.      Punish

a.       Joab (Possily doesn’t punish him because Joab was aware of the Uriah the Hittite murder)

b.      Shimei – threw rocks at David and cursed him

2.      Kindness to Barzilli

Did Solomon obey the charge?


2.      Program as king

a.       Foreign Relations

                                                              i.      Marriage to the daughter of the Pharaoh – I Kings 3

                                                            ii.      Wives and Concubines (Total: 1,000 ) Violation: Affiliation with Egypt and he multiplied wives – Deuteronomy 17:16-17

b.      Internal – Domestic Relations

                                                              i.      Shimei and Joab executed

                                                            ii.      Adonijah executed

                                                          iii.      Abiathar, The priest, was removed from the priesthood


1.      He had sided with Adonijah

2.      He was part of Eli’s line (I Samuel 2 says that his line would be ended)

c.       Vision

                                                              i.      offers 1,000 Sacrifices at Gibeon

Prayers for help and Discernment

The lord offeres whatever he should ask

He asks fro understanding, judgment, and discernment

Received these and riches and honor in addition.

Evidence of his Wisdom – Books of the Bible?

1005 songs

3000 proverbs


Books: Proverbs, Ecclasties, Song of Solomon

d.      Finances and provisions

                                                              i.      food

1.      190 bushels of flour

2.      360 bushels of meal

3.      2 tons of meat – 10 fat oxen

4.      Plus additional meat

                                                            ii.      Money to pay for it?

Charges taxes (Twelve districts for each month had to give provisions for his household).

Labor draft

Foreign tributes and gifts


e.       Building Projects

                                                              i.      Temple

                                                            ii.      his own house

                                                          iii.      Palace of the forest of Lebanon

                                                          iv.      treasure cities and defense cities

                                                            v.      House for his Egyptian wife

3.      The decline of Solomon

a.       Causes

                                                              i.      Disobeyed the Command of the Lord concerning intermarriage with marriages to foreign women. 1 Kings 11:1-2

                                                            ii.      His heart was turned away to the strange gods. ( II Samuel 12:13 – He was warnes)

b.      Consequences – I Kings 11:14-26

                                                              i.      Hadad of Edom

                                                            ii.      Hazor of Damascus

                                                          iii.      Jeroboam, son of Solomon’s servant

                                                          iv.      Sorrow, misery, trouble in the kingdom

4 Judges in the Hall of Faith Hebrews 11:2

      Gideon, barak, Samson, jepthah


Insert Lecture notes handout

Why did the Kingdom Divide?***********************

1.      Personal - Solomon’s personal disobedience – If he obeys the kingdom survives if not it is taken away (I Kings 1:9)

2.      Law - Solomon disregarded the Law of God which had been given before – (Deut 17:16-17)

3.      God’s decision - God Chose to do it - I Kings 11:26

a.       10 tribes

                                                                          i.      Levi – no land

                                                                        ii.      Simeon – land inside Judah

                                                                      iii.      ½ tribe of menassa

4.      Division - Division among the people

a.       Immediate cause: Solomon’s taxation

b.      Joshua 17:14 – josephs tribes want more land

c.       Judges 8:1 – problems between Ephraim and Manasseh

d.      Judges 12:1 – Ephraim

Comparison of the Kingdoms

Comparison of the Kingdoms
  Judah Israel
Capitals 1 Capital z 4 CapitalsI Kings 12:25 – Shechem, Penuel14:17 – Tirzah16:24 - Samaria
Dynasties 1 9
# of kings 19 (22 including Saul and David) 19
Good kings 8 good kings None (Bad & Worst)
# of tribes 2 10
How long Does it last and when does it Fall 586 – Babylonians 722 – Assyrians

Why overlaps or Co-regencies?

1.      Mathematic problems:

a.       Judah: total reigns add up to 397.5 years, Availavle time = 345 years (931-586 BC)

b.      Israel: 241.5 must fit into 209 years

2.      Practical benefit

a.       domestic politics – allows consistency and smooth transitions (prevents coos)

b.      Military benefit – lets potential enemies know that he old king is training the new king

c.       Personal – lets the young man learn about ruling before he has the full responsibility

3.      Partial years may have also helped explain some of the differences also. (a partial year in Hebrew writings = a full years)

Insert notes from Dr. Rinehart

1.      The progression of the Monarchy

a.       Northern Kingdom

                                                                          i.      Early years

1.      Jeroboam

a.       The one who caused Israel to sin

b.      se up false worship

c.       sets up a new worship group

d.      he adjusts the calendar

2.      Nadab

a.       reigned 2 years

3.      Baasha

a.       raised up by God to destroy the house of Jeroboam

b.      Continues in Sin

4.      Elah

a.       short reign 2 years

b.      Drunk and bad and killed by his General

5.      Zimri

a.       7 day reign

b.      Suicide

c.       885 Elahl, Zimri, Timeri, Omri, all reign in this year

                                                                        ii.      Alliance between Israel and Judah

1.      Omri

a.       successful military

b.      moved the capatil

c.       Made an alliance

d.      Scripturally he did wrong

2.      Ahab

a.       Married to Jezebel

b.      Introduces baal worship

c.       Death in battle with Syria

3.      Ahaziah

a.       2 years

b.      Falls through a window and dies

c.       works with joshaphat

4.      Jehoram

a.       12 years

b.      killed by Jehu to fulfill the word of the Lord

c.       he put away baal images but did not stop the calf worship

                                                                      iii.      Dynasty of Jehu

1.      Jehu

a.       kills many people

b.      Does not get rid of the false worship system

c.       Practical reasons for why it was weak

                                                                                                                                                  i.      he killed the king

                                                                                                                                                ii.      He killed all the nobles

2.      Jehoahaz

a.       Continued the sins of Jeroboam

b.      Asked God for help

3.      Jehoash

a.       on Elisha’s death bead

4.      Jeroboam II ***

a.       Longest reigning king in Israel

b.      Greatest king in the northern kingdom

c.       largest territory in his time period

d.      Greatest geographic control

e.       no spiritual prosperity

5.      Zechariah

a.       fulfilles a prophecy and dies

                                                                      iv.      Decline of Israel

1.      Shallum

a.       1 month

2.      Menahem

a.       Paid tribute to Asyeria

3.      Pekahiah

a.       Continued in the sins of jerboam the son of Nebat

b.      Assassinated by pekah after a brief rule of 2 years

4.      Pekah

a.       20 years

b.      Reigned as a Coregent

5.      Hoshea

a.       Last king

b.      there when the kingdom is carried into captivity

b.      Southern Kingdom

                                                                          i.      Conflict with Israel (931- 870) ********************* know key periods with years for Israel and Judah

1.      Rehoboam

a.       Lost the 10 tribes

b.      Bad king

c.       Brings cannite religious worship to Israel

d.      Faught against jeroboam

e.       Defeated by shishack king of Egypt

f.       Replaces the gold shields of Solomon with brass shields

g.      his mom was one of 700 wives of Solomon

2.      Abijam / Abijah

a.       Evil king with a short reign

b.      Victorious over Jeroboam (killed 500,000)

3.      Asa ********************** First good king

a.       Reigns for 41 years

b.      Reforms

c.       Makes changes in worship

d.      victorious against the Ethiopians

e.       Tried to have a diplomatic fix with benhaddad and then angered the lord against him.

f.       God sent him Hannani and he was put in prison.

g.      His life ends in sorrow and he dies from a foot desezise.

                                                                        ii.      Period of alliance with Israel (873-835)

1.      Jehosophat *********************************

a.       Gets rid of baal worship

b.      Taught the people the Law

                                                                                                                                                  i.      2 Chronicles 19:4

c.       Trusted God

d.      Defeated enemies

e.       He made an alliance with omri.

                                                                                                                                                  i.      II Chronicles 19:2

2.      Jehoram

a.       married to atholiah the daughter of Ahab and jezebel

b.      murdered his 6 brothers to make sure he got the throne.

c.       Does evil

d.      He gets punished and dies of a severe disease in his bowels.

3.      Ahazaiah

a.       He was assinated by Jehu ******

b.      Baal worship

c.       brings about the reign of atholiah

                                                                      iii.      4 God approved Kings (835-731) *** remember these kings actions

1.      Joash

a.       did well as long as his uncle was around

2.      Amaziah

a.       Good king but not with a perfect heart

b.      He defeats the edomites and then worships the God of the edomites *****

3.      Uzziah / Azariah

a.       Has the most tetiory of any other

b.      2nd longest reign

c.       Defeated and captured by Joash King of Israel

d.      he gets leporosoy à his son dosnt go to the templ à his son (grandson of uzziah) closes the temple

4.      Jotham

a.       does not go to the temple

                                                                      iv.      Assyrian Dominance

1.      Ahaz

a.       tried to get help form Assyria to fight Syria and Israel

2.      Hezekiah

a.       Reforms of worship

b.      God delivers him from the Assyrians 

c.       he was healed

d.      he brought in a delegation from the king of Babylon

3.      Manasseh

a.       Longest reigning king of both kingdoms

b.      Worst king up until that time then he repents and becomes good.

4.      Amon

a.       Fits between Joshiah and Menasah

b.      follows evil

                                                                        v.      Babylonian Dominance

1.      Josiah is worth remembering

a.       seeks the Lord

b.      Finds the book of the Law

c.       Burns the bones of the priest on the alter of bethel

d.      he dies in battle against Egypt

2.      Jehoahaz

3.      jehoiakim

4.      Jehoiachin

5.      Zedikiah

a.       Last king of Judah

2.      Impact of the Babylonian captivity

a.       Babylon did not replant new people there

b.      The synogog did not require priests. the written word became very important

c.       Know the summery of the 3 returns and the book of ester

                                                                          i.      who leads it

                                                                        ii.      what is the purpose

                                                                      iii.      When did it happen?

d.      Ester ***

                                                                          i.      be able to place it

                                                                        ii.      know names

                                                                      iii.      know setting

e.       Know the order of the kingdoms with the years that they are powerful **

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