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David 1 Samuel 17 The Wholehearted King
Last time: 1 Samuel 16 – We looked at the heart of King Saul – the 1st king of Israel – and we saw how the Bible revealed him as the no hearted king
· If you remember, the People had demanded a king just like the other nations and they get just what they asked
o Saul is anointed king, and he surly looked perfect for the part… outwardly
o Tall, handsome, wealthy family
o A lot of emphasis was made on his external/visible appearance
· But he proved the emptiness in his heart by his actions
o His heart was not truly with God – but for himself
o His desire was instead to build his own kingdom instead of God’s
§ He set up his own monuments
· Monuments of pride, ego, self-justification, arrogance
§ It was about Saul’s fame and glory instead of the glory going rightly to God
§ Saul showed himself unfit to lead by his disobedience and direct rebellion against God
But during this very teachable moment for the nation of Israel, God was raising up another man… One uniquely shaped and molded by God into one who would lead with his whole heart for God.
1 Samuel 16 – God chooses a new King, this is the king that they needed – the one who would be a forerunner of the messiah – the King of Kings In verses 1-5, the LORD tells Samuel to go anoint a new king§ To go to Jesse in Bethlehem to anoint one of his sonso 1 Samuel 16: the LORD says to Samuel “for I have provided for myself a king”§ Don’t worry Samuel, I’ve got a plan· God has seen to it§ So, the prophet Samuel goes and invites Jesse and his sons to consecrate themselves and come make a sacrifice to the LORD.
1 Samuel 16:6-7 [6] When they came, he (Samuel) looked on Eliab (Jesse’s oldest) and thought, “Surely the LORD's anointed is before him.” (First one out of the gate and Samuel has already got his hands on the anointing oil, Eliab looked the part, tall and handsome)[7] But the LORD said to Samuel, “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him. For the LORD sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the LORD looks on the heart.” § The truth is: that to God, what is inside your heart is far more important than your external appearances.o This theme carries throughout the Scripture – the LORD is looking past the outward and to the inwardo You cant fool God with an fine outward show, he knows the motives of your heart:§ Where we can only see with our eyes· God sees the thoughts/intentions/desires/our inner selfo He sees the raw inner wiring from which all the external actions in our lives flow So Jesse has all his sons who are present pass by and the LORD rejects them all….Samuel asks:1 Samuel 16:11 …“Are all your sons here?” And he (Jesse) said, “There remains yet the youngest, but behold, he is keeping the sheep.” § He’s so young and scrawny, he’s so seemingly unimportant/insignificant/irrelevant verses his older bigger stronger brotherso Apparently, it wasn’t even a passing thought that David could be chosen -based on appearanceso Neither did David, he was obediently doing his job keeping the sheep, not arguing with his father that he was a better candidate than his brothers.§ We can even see the humility of David just in this simple fact [12] And he sent and brought him in. Now he (David) was ruddy and had beautiful eyes and was handsome. And the LORD said, “Arise, anoint him, for this is he.” [13] Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers. And the Spirit of the LORD rushed upon David from that day forward. § Samuel anointed him with oil and God anointed him with the presence and power of the Holy Spirito With the presence and power and blessing of the Holy Spirit we can do nothing of the work of God§ Look at verse 14, the Spirit of the LORD now departs from Saulo God has removed his Spirt from Saulo David’s time is rising and Saul’s reign has been overruled by our sovereign God, his time has already passed
In 1 Samuel 17 we find one of the most famous stories ever told, David and Goliath.
§ The truth given in chapter 16 - The LORD sees not as a man sees, but looks on the heart: is illustrated for us in Chapters 17 as we see David shown as the wholehearted king – the man after God’s own heart
1 Samuel 17:1-3
[1] Now the Philistines gathered their armies for battle… (jump to v2)
[2] And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered, and encamped in the Valley of Elah, and drew up in line of battle against the Philistines.
[3] And the Philistines stood on the mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on the mountain on the other side, with a valley between them.
Gives us the setting – the Valley of Elah – The Philistines have invaded into the heart of Israel territory§ 📷Picture – Valley of Elah (modern day)o Visualize the army of the Philistines gathered on one side of the valley and Israel on the other§ They meet in this wide open plain and draw up their battle lines in preparation to fight§ You can imagine the tension in the air, the nervousness/anticipation before battle
�1 Samuel 17:4-7
[4] And there came out from the camp of the Philistines a champion named Goliath of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span. [5] He had a helmet of bronze on his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail, and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of bronze. [6] And he had bronze armor on his legs, and a javelin of bronze slung between his shoulders. [7] The shaft of his spear was like a weaver's beam, and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron. And his shield-bearer went before him. § We are introduced to the giant, Goliath of Gath, the Philistine o Just for comparison:§ 📷Paul Sturgess – former pro basket ball player, 7’8, size 19 shoes, 325lbs§ 📷Shaquille O’Neal 7’1” 340lbs in his playing dayso 📷Guinness Book of World Records has Robert Wadlow at 8’11” as the tallest recorded man from back in the 1930’s. § That little man standing next to him is his father, Harold Wadlow who is 5’11”, Harold’s got me beat by 3” and he looks like a child compared§ Now Goliath was almost a whole foot taller than Robert here. Goliath is 9’9” tall§ Robert Wadlow weighed in at 439lbs, Goliath??? 500lbs?§ 📷Let’s talk about Goliath’s armor, here we have the most detailed list of armament in the Old Testament V5-7o Helmet of Bronze helmet, o coat of mail (scale armor NIV) by itself weighed 126lbs, o bronze leg armor/greaveso javelin – in this case an exceptional – curved (crescent shaped) sword – none like it in the land (as described in 1 Sam 21)o spear - the tip alone weighing 15lbso OH an also a shield bearer – someone to stand in front of him with a large shield§ The expression you might say is he was armed to the teeth Imagine, the sight, if you could see this guy: A literal giant clad in shining bronze armor.§ He’s fierce/awesome, terrifying, o He’s alarmingly invulnerable, o apparently invincible, o He’s imposing, striking, overwhelming, stunning§ I would be afraid of this guy if I saw him coming for me, you would be too§ To mess with him would be apparent suicide, so it would seem§ That’s the point the inspired writer of 1 Samuel 17 is making to us:o That this guy, Goliath of Gath, by all outward appearances in utterly and completely undefeatable V4 says that Goliath is a “Champion”V8[8] He (Goliath) stood and shouted to the ranks of Israel, “Why have you come out to draw up for battle? Am I not a Philistine, and are you not servants of Saul? Choose a man for yourselves, and let him come down to me. [9] If he is able to fight with me and kill me, then we will be your servants. But if I prevail against him and kill him, then you shall be our servants and serve us.” (Goliath proposes at battle of champions where he, the Philistine’s best/biggest/strongest would face the best of Israel’s army in a one-on-one dual to the death, the winner would claim victory for their entire side)[10] And the Philistine said, “I defy the ranks of Israel this day. Give me a man, that we may fight together.” [11] When Saul and all Israel heard these words of the Philistine, they were dismayed and greatly afraid. § In defying God’s people, he is mocking them, and in reviling them, he is shaming themo he is also defying / daring Yahwey. The LORD God of Israel.§ God’s people are dismayed and afraid – shocked/overwhelmed and terrifiedo V16 tells us that for 40 days, morning and evening, Goliath comes out to defy/humiliate the army of Israel, and blaspheme the LORD God§ Joshua had told them to be strong and courageous for he is with themo But at the sight of and at the sound of the words of this giant threat, they are too frightened to fight Things are looking very dark indeed for God’s chosen nation:§ But, David enters in to the scene in V12 like a bright ray of hope in the midst of the despairing people. David has come bringing food to his brothers Now v23 [23] As he talked with them, behold, the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, came up out of the ranks of the Philistines and spoke the same words as before. And David heard him.§ Israel and Saul had heard this day after day and were terrified/and ashamed, this time David hears these blasphemous insults/these cursing words V24-27, there is a striking word repetition, the God is making a point in these verses: [24] All the men of Israel, when they saw the man, fled from him and were much afraid. [25] And the men of Israel said, “Have you seen this man who has come up? Surely he has come up to defy Israel. And the king will enrich the man who kills him with great riches and will give him his daughter and make his father's house free in Israel.” [26] And David said to the men who stood by him, “What shall be done for the man who kills this Philistine and takes away the reproach from Israel? For who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God?” [27] And the people answered him in the same way, “So shall it be done to the man who kills him.”§ What’s the point being stressed? Its going to take a man equal to Goliath to take away their reproach Now look at v31 – David is brought before King Saul [31] When the words that David spoke were heard, they repeated them before Saul, and he sent for him. [32] And David said to Saul, “Let no man's heart fail because of him. Your servant will go and fight with this Philistine.” [33] And Saul said to David, “You are not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him, for you are but a youth, and he has been a man of war from his youth.” § Saul’s words, sum up the situation…. In Saul’s estimation, David is not yet a man, David is only a youtho And by all outer appearances, this ruddy/handsome son of Jesse has no chance against this heavily armed, skilled, and experienced MAN of WAR§ Saul and the rest of Israel are shown to believe there are 3 requirements to defeat Goliatho Stature – You must be equal to the giant in height/strengtho Resources – you need armor and weaponso Experience – Goliath has been a man of war from his youth, § you must be a man trained in the ways of war From outward appearances, David is unqualified but there is one in Israel who appears to be§ It is King Saul, Saul had the height (head and shoulders taller)o Saul had the experience (fighting in many battles)o Saul had the equipment (he had the matching armor and weapons)o But the Spirit had left him, in Saul’s heart there was only weakness and fearBut what about David?· Though he looks to be only a youth, he truly is a man in his hearto He is God’s man, a man after God’s own hearto He had experience and strength that God alone knew abouto God had trained him up for this fight out in the fields and valleys of life – for such a time as this§ [34] …David said to Saul, “Your servant used to keep sheep for his father. And when there came a lion, or a bear, and took a lamb from the flock, [35] I went after him and struck him and delivered it out of his mouth. And if he arose against me, I caught him by his beard and struck him and killed him. [36] Your servant has struck down both lions and bears, and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be like one of them, for he has defied the armies of the living God.” § David in appearance does not possess the Stature/Resources/Experienceo But in actuality, in the inner man, in the heart, he has all three§ God is with David – greater advantage than height/physical strength· If God is for you, who can stand against?§ David’s greatest resource was not physical armament? · There in the pasture, alone with the sheep and the LORD, alone to meditate on the power/presence/deliverance of God· David was armed by faith§ David’s certainly had experience, fighting the beasts who would harm the flock· Indeed, in my book, if you grab a lion by the beard and slay him you are more man than I will ever ever be!
[37] And David said, “The LORD who delivered me from the paw of the lion and from the paw of the bear will deliver me from the hand (paw) of this Philistine.” (it will be just the same) And Saul said to David, “Go, and the LORD be with you!”
David knows that real victory comes “Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, says the LORD of hosts” Zechariah 4:1
David himself wrote:
�Psalm 144:1-2 – A Psalm of David [1] Blessed be the Lord, my rock, who trains my hands for war, and my fingers for battle; [2] he is my steadfast love and my fortress, my stronghold and my deliverer, my shield…
�Psalm 23:4 (ESV) David said again: [4] Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me.
V38 Saul tries to cloth David with his own armor but David refuses – he could not put on another’s armor/the armor of the world, · but chose to trust instead the Whole Armor of God (Eph 6) Look at David’s equipment: [40] Then he took his staff in his hand and chose five smooth stones from the brook and put them in his shepherd’s pouch. His sling was in his hand, and he approached the Philistine. § Goliath was said to have:o Helmet, coat of mail, armor of bronze, Javelin, spear§ David has:o A stick, stones, bag, and a sling§ And ONE MORE THING!!! The Power of Godo 1 Corinthians 1:27 [27] God chose what is foolish in the world to shame the wise; God chose what is weak in the world to shame the strong;§ God will use these simple things/simple people to defeat the apparent mighty in this world, and it will be to his glory when he does
📷On the screen I have a picture, I’m sure you have all seen:
This is Michelangelo’s David: 17ft tall, 12,000 pounds, carved from solid marble, it took 3 years to create and was completed in the year 1504.
· If you are ever in Florence Italy, you can go and see it
· 📷 Ever wondered what he is looking at?
o His stance is a relaxed, turned to the side, weight on the back foot
§ The stance of one ready for action
o He’s got a sling in his left hand that goes around his back
§ And you can see what appears to be a smooth stone in his right hand
o There is a quiet confidence in his eyes
§ His gaze is fixed with resolve and a hint of anger
§ Its fixed on an enemy across a field that he alone can see
o Now if David here is 12,000 pounds and 17ft tall, that museum he is standing in couldn’t hold a statue of Goliath
§ But this is the moment where David fixes his eyes on and faces the enemy
V41 [41] And the Philistine moved forward and came near to David, with his shield-bearer in front of him. [42] And when the Philistine looked and saw David, he disdained (he had contempt for/he despised) him, for he was but a youth, ruddy and handsome in appearance. [43] And the Philistine said to David, “Am I a dog, that you come to me with sticks?” (Goliath is offended by this youth, I have stood challenging you for 40 days and you send me this boy to fight) And the Philistine cursed David by his gods. (the truth is, behind the physical battle there is a spiritual one raging. It is the gods of the Philistines verses the one true God Yahwey)[44] The Philistine said to David, “Come to me, and I will give your flesh to the birds of the air and to the beasts of the field.” § Goliath has not only mocked Israel but has blasphemed the Name of the LORD Now David continues in v45 with some ancient trash talk of his own:[45] Then David said to the Philistine, “You come to me with a sword and with a spear and with a javelin, but I come to you in the WHAT?? name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied. Goliath had his great armor and weapons, but David had God with him David continues v46 - NO NO, you’ve got it all backward:[46] This day the LORD will deliver you into my hand, and I will strike you down and cut off your head. And I will give the dead bodies of the host of the Philistines this day to the birds of the air and to the wild beasts of the earth, that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel, [47] and that all this assembly may know that the LORD saves not with sword and spear. For the battle is the LORD's, and he will give you into our hand.”§ David appeals to two reasons the LORD will deliver Goliath over to defeat. o 1. That all the earth may know there is God – The God of Isreal is the one true Godo 2. That all may know the LORD saves not with sword and spear.§ It’s not about physical attributes but about the power of God in the heart of his people Goliath had enough and drew up at the line of battle to fight David [49] And David put his hand in his bag and took out a stone and slung it and struck the Philistine on his forehead. The stone sank into his forehead, and he fell on his face to the ground. [50] So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and struck the Philistine and killed him. There was no sword in the hand of David. (I think at that moment, the Philistines who had been laughing/mocking and jeering, were absolutely stunned into silence…) [51] Then David ran and stood over the Philistine and took his sword and drew it out of its sheath and killed him and cut off his head with it. When the Philistines saw that their champion was dead, they fled. · Now it was their turn to fear, it was their turn to be afraid, it was their turn to flee/terrified§ Let’s get out of here! If their God can do that with a youth, just think of what he’ll do with the others! For Israel, this victory was bringing life back into their will to fight!Israel too knew their God was with them, to fight for them!Their faith is strengthened!
[52] And the men of Israel and Judah rose with a shout and pursued the Philistines as far as Gath and the gates of Ekron…
1: walk by faith
· Though darkness appears to reign, God is truly in control
2: the power of the Spirit
· Will God be glorified, will he be made known by
3: David example of wholeheart for God -> Jesus
4: Jesus defeating the enemy of death – crushing the snake
2 Corinthians 5:7 – Paul says to us For we walk by faith, not by sight.
§ David in 1 Samuel 17 is the only one walking by faith while everyone else is relying on sight.
§ What fueled David’s faith? His experience
o It was the daily walk with the LORD, the quite times of prayer-joy-peace
§ Time spent with the LORD training in righteousness
o It was the tough battles faced in the past
§ David had to face a lion and a bear, God was shaping him to become this fearless/confident/faith-filled leader
§ What battles have we faced, are we facing right now?
· Are we shaking our fist at God? Or are we growing in faith by trusting and relying the LORD to see us through?
· Romans 5:3–5 Paul shows us how suffering is meant to build faith [3] … we rejoice in our sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance, [4] and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, [5] and hope does not put us to shame, because God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who has been given to us.
o Like with David, actually seeing God deliver you through the trials that builds a solid faith to stand on
o How is this daily training in righteousness necessary for us?
§ So that we can stand when our own day of testing comes
§ Are you spending those quite hours with the LORD, pouring over his word, asking him for his presence in your life, in your heart, in your work?
§ Ephesians 6:10-11 [10] Finally, be strong in the Lord and in the strength of his might. [11] Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the schemes of the devil.
David facing Goliath teaches us about faith in God/and the power of the Spirit available to believers/and God’s view of the heart of man. There is something more:
§ What was the challenge Goliath gave Israel? Battle by championship
o 1 vs 1, good versus evil, the strongest the best of each side battling it out to the death
§ Fighting for the representative title of champion, deliverer of the people
o Who do we picture ourselves as most like, David? Or are we more like the people of Israel, powerless without the Spirit of God, harassed morning and night by our enemies of evil/death and sin, weak and fearful by nature? – Israel
§ Then like Israel, what do WE need? A savior, a champion, a deliverer
§ German Theologian Dirk Philips wrote nearly 500 years ago points the way “Our spiritual David, Jesus Christ, in his divine righteousness has taken away our sin and slew death with his eternal life… That is the joyous gospel with which the Holy Spirit comforts all repentant and troubled hearts.”
§ We need a king
· The good news, the gospel, the best news is that we have a king
o Jesus has come, and fought, he has defeated the devil, and slain the giant of sin and death
§ granting us victory by representative, by championship
§ and now leads us by the Spirit to eternal life
§ This is his promise to EVERYONE who believes, who comes and places their faith in him.
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