Chapter 6 - 10 Review
Chapter 6 - 10 Review
Read and summarize
1 That night the king could not sleep. So one was commanded to bring the book of the records of the chronicles; and they were read before the king. 2 And it was found written that Mordecai had told of Bigthana and Teresh, two of the king’s eunuchs, the doorkeepers who had sought to lay hands on King Ahasuerus. 3 Then the king said, “What honor or dignity has been bestowed on Mordecai for this?” And the king’s servants who attended him said, “Nothing has been done for him.”
God’s Providence (6:1) the king could not sleep
— Even after a banquet of wine the King could not sleep
— God called him to have insomnia so he calls for the book of records
(6:1) book of the records of the chronicles; and they were read before the king
— Read what Mordecai had done 5 years earlier and then desired to reward him
— The servant read this particular passage just hours before Haman would request to see the king and ask for Mordecai’s life
(6:4) So the king said, “Who is in the court?” Now Haman had just entered the outer court of the king’s palace to suggest
that the king hang Mordecai on the gallows that he had prepared for him
— Wrong place, wrong time, wrong reason
Impatient for the wrong reasons
Wrong reasons — Haman is so impatient that he gets up early and wants to be first in line to see the king
— One word from the king and his thirst for revenge will be satisfied
Impatient for the right reasons
Right Reasons — The king is so impatient to honor Mordecai that he asks who is in the court
— Is it someone fit to carry out my wishes to honor Mordecai?
(6:5) The king’s servants said to him, “Haman is there, standing in the court.” And the king said, “Let him come in.”
In Bed — Let him come in
— The King is still in bed; Haman comes into the bedroom
— Both men have something important to say but because he is the King, King Xerxes speaks first
6 So Haman came in, and the king asked him, “What shall be done for the man whom the king delights to honor?” Now Haman thought in his heart, “Whom would the king delight to honor more than me?” 7 And Haman answered the king, “For the man whom the king delights to honor, 8 let a royal robe be brought which the king has worn, and a horse on which the king has ridden, which has a royal crest placed on its head. 9 Then let this robe and horse be delivered to the hand of one of the king’s most noble princes, that he may array the man whom the king delights to honor. Then parade him on horseback through the city square, and proclaim before him: ‘Thus shall it be done to the man whom the king delights to honor!’ ”
(6:6) Now Haman thought in his heart, “Whom would the king delight to honor more than me?”
Haman’s Conceit Haman can’t imagine anyone getting honored more than himself
— Not only will he get rich when the Jews are killed, he will get publically honored
Honored (6:8) Haman suggests that the King’s actual robe be given to this man
— The King’s actual horse be given to this man
— This man is to be treated as the King himself
— This is reminiscent of Joseph who has was second only to Pharoah, rode in the second chariot and people shouted,
“Bow the knee!” (Gen 41:40:44)
(6:10) Then the king said to Haman, “Hurry, take the robe and the horse, as you have suggested, and do so for Mordecai the Jew
who sits within the king’s gate! Leave nothing undone of all that you have spoken.”
Brilliant! — All that you said is a brilliant idea Haman, go do it!
11 So Haman took the robe and the horse, arrayed Mordecai and led him on horseback through the city square, and proclaimed before him, “Thus shall it be done to the man whom the king delights to honor!” 12 Afterward Mordecai went back to the king’s gate. But Haman hurried to his house, mourning and with his head covered. 13 When Haman told his wife Zeresh and all his friends everything that had happened to him, his wise men and his wife Zeresh said to him, “If Mordecai, before whom you have begun to fall, is of Jewish descent, you will not prevail against him but will surely fall before him.” 14 While they were still talking with him, the king’s eunuchs came, and hastened to bring Haman to the banquet which Esther had prepared.
The Jew Why at this point the King forgets that Mordecai is also a Jew and the edict that he, the king, signed is a mystery
— Humiliating for Haman to lead this man on horseback and shout that this is how the King honors a man!
Scampered Home (6:12) But Haman hurried to his house, mourning and with his head covered
(6:14) While he is still talking sharing with his wife what has happened, he is summoned to appear immediately at the banquet
Haman’s Reaction Unlike Mordecai, Haman is not puffed up
— (6:12) He goes back to work at the King’s gate
— “Honor is best given to hose who are not made proud and idle by it”
— Don’t react like I have and say, “I’ll take the rest of the day off!”
Providence We see God’s providence in putting Mordecai in a position of employment at the King’s gate so that he was able to hear
the plot against the King five (5) years ago and for it to be recorded in the official records
Q: Do you ever think about God’s providence in your calling, your employment? Where he put you?
Your Calling Not allowing you to live an idle, useless life
— To drain and eat what others have earned
Sinful life He has not called you to a sinful trade. Can you think of some sinful trades?
— Sex trade, Human trafficking
— Arms dealers, drug dealer
— Organized crime
— They all trade for hell
Be Thankful (Deut 8:18) But remember the Lord your God, for it is he who gives you the ability to produce wealth (NIV)
The Devil The Devil acknowledged that God gives us the ability to produce wealth,
— He blesses the work of our hands
— He puts a “hedge” around us (Job 1:10)
10 Have You not made a hedge around him, around his household, and around all that he has on every side? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions have increased in the land.
Providence And by God’s providence Mordecai and his cousin Esther were born at the right time and place
Q: Have you ever thought about the time and place of your birth as an act of God’s providence?
1600’s Imagine being born in the 15th century and how different your life would have been
— Many of us would have died in childhood because of childhood diseases for which today we have a cure
— I remember my parents saying being glad your weren’t born in the wilds of Africa or China
— That same thinking was also the case for parents in “sophisticated” England in the 1600s.
“Suppose your mothers had brought you forth in America, among the savage Indians, who herd together as brute beasts,
are scorched with heat, and starved with cold, being naked, destitute and defenseless. How poor, miserable and
unprovided with earthly comfort and accommodations are millions of inhabitants of this world!”
Born 100 years ago You don’t have go back that far, just 100 years ago
— If you were born in the 1840 indoor plumbing had just started
— 1940s one-half of the homes still lacked hot water, a bathtub, shower of flushing toilet
Electricity Edison formed his company in 1882
— Forty - three years later In 1925 one-half of homes had electric power
A/C Air conditioning not invented until 1902 by Willis Carrier
— Was not widespread until the 1950s
The Time of our Birth, The Place of our Birth, The Lineage of our birth
Parents We can thank God for our parents
— So many drawn headlong into hell by their cruel and ungodly parents who teach them to swear as soon as they can speak!
Wicked Wicked men breed wicked children, so said of Abijam (1 King 15:3) and many other Kings who were evil like their father
3 And he walked in all the sins of his father, which he had done before him; his heart was not loyal to the Lord his God, as was the heart of his father David.
Good Many examples of wicked men and women who were like their parents
But also examples of good people who had good role models
— Paul says this of Timothy (2 Tim 1:5)
5 when I call to remembrance the genuine faith that is in you, which dwelt first in your grandmother Lois and your mother Eunice, and I am persuaded is in you also.
Flavel Our duty towards children
— We must teach them to pray, teach them Christ
— We will have no comfort if they die and go to hell because of our neglect
— If they do, our only comfort is that we did our duty
Neglect If we neglect to instruct them in holiness, will the devil neglect to instruct them in wickedness?
— If we don’t teach them to pray, we will teach them to curse, swear and lie
— Very few are converted when old
Read and summarize
Q: What causes a movie audience to spontaneously cheer and applaud when the villain gets what he deserves?
1 So the king and Haman went to dine with Queen Esther. 2 And on the second day, at the banquet of wine, the king again said to Esther, “What is your petition, Queen Esther? It shall be granted you. And what is your request, up to half the kingdom? It shall be done!” 3 Then Queen Esther answered and said, “If I have found favor in your sight, O king, and if it pleases the king, let my life be given me at my petition, and my people at my request. 4 For we have been sold, my people and I, to be destroyed, to be killed, and to be annihilated. Had we been sold as male and female slaves, I would have held my tongue, although the enemy could never compensate for the king’s loss.” 5 So King Ahasuerus answered and said to Queen Esther, “Who is he, and where is he, who would dare presume in his heart to do such a thing?” 6 And Esther said, “The adversary and enemy is this wicked Haman!” So Haman was terrified before the king and queen.
(7:2) the king again said to Esther, “What is your petition
— Third time now that the Kind has asked Esther what does she want
— She doesn’t ask for a high post, wealth or land for herself or a friend
(7:3-4) Instead preservation of her life and that of her countryman
If we had been sold as slaves
(7:4) If it was a matter of being bought and sold as slaves she would have kept quiet
— But we are being killed to satisfy the pride and revenge of one man!
7 Then the king arose in his wrath from the banquet of wine and went into the palace garden; but Haman stood before Queen Esther, pleading for his life, for he saw that evil was determined against him by the king. 8 When the king returned from the palace garden to the place of the banquet of wine, Haman had fallen across the couch where Esther was. Then the king said, “Will he also assault the queen while I am in the house?” As the word left the king’s mouth, they covered Haman’s face. 9 Now Harbonah, one of the eunuchs, said to the king, “Look! The gallows, fifty cubits high, which Haman made for Mordecai, who spoke good on the king’s behalf, is standing at the house of Haman.” Then the king said, “Hang him on it!” 10 So they hanged Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then the king’s wrath subsided.
Q: How did the King feel? Why?
(7:7) Then the king arose in his wrath from the banquet of wine and went into the palace garden;
— Anger at himself; to kill an entire nation including his Queen
— Anger at Haman who fooled him
— Anger at someone with whom he shared drinks and a meal and it turns out to be a villain
— A confidant and really a treacherous villain
One Day A day is coming when those who hate and persecute God’s chosen people will be like Haman (Rev 3:9)
9 Indeed I will make those of the synagogue of Satan, who say they are Jews and are not, but lie—indeed I will make them come and worship before your feet, and to know that I have loved you.
Haman begs for his life
(7:8) Haman had fallen across the couch where Esther was
Q: How was Haman’s plea for forgiveness misinterpreted ?
— He has fallen across the couch and fallen on Esther which looks very bad
— The king though Haman was sexually assaulting his Queen
3 Crimes Haman’s Three (3) crimes:
(a) He manipulated the King to kill the Queen’s people
(b) Assaulted the Queen
(c) He planned to execute the man whom the King just honored
Hanged (7:9) Then the king said, “Hang him on it!”
— So they hanged him on his own gallows
— The gallows were so big that everyone in town could see them
Wrath subsided (7:10) Then the king’s wrath subsided.
— Not until justice was done did the King’s wrath subside
Key The wonder is not that God punishes the wicked but that he first offers them deliverance
— He came to redeem sinners worthy of punishment
God’s Providence In the first 7 chapters
(a) Engineered circumstances so that Esther a Jewish women would be Queen
(b) Orchestrated events so that Mordecai, Esther’s cousin, would save the King’s life
(c) Allowed Haman to come up with a fool proof, airtight plan to kill the Jews
(d) Made the King agreeable to hear Esther’s plea - the banquet
(e) Gave the King insomnia and opened the book of records and was reminded of how Mordecai saved his life
(f) Forced Haman to honor Mordecai
Protects us form Evil
God’s providence protects us from evil (Flavel)
— Providence is a great barrier and hinderance to sin and prevents an abundance of sin (Gen 19:11)
11 And they struck the men who were at the doorway of the house with blindness, both small and great, so that they became weary trying to find the door.
Gal 5:17 says: For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one another,
so that you do not do the things that you wish
Paraphrase “Sanctification gives sin a miscarrying womb”
Q: Has anyone ever intervened and prevented you from sinning?
Providence Prevents sin Good men will have an abundance of sin
— Providence blocks our way
— Nabal was rich and foolish
— David’s men protected his servants and when David’s men greeted him, he hurled insults
— David planned to kill Nabal, but Abagail intervened (1 Sam 25:34)
34 For indeed, as the Lord God of Israel lives, who has kept me back from hurting you, unless you had hurried and come to meet me, surely by morning light no males would have been left to Nabal!”
Providence hinders means and instruments
Ships Jehoshaphat was a good king, but joined himself with Wicked King Ahaziah
— Built ships at Ezion-gaber to go to Tarnish(2 Chron 20:35-37)
— But the Lord destroyed the ships with a storm
Affliction Sometimes God’s providence comes in the form of a strong affliction to the body
— God did something to Paul to prevent him from being prideful (2 Cor 12:7)
7 And lest I should be exalted above measure by the abundance of the revelations, a thorn in the flesh was given to me, a messenger of Satan to buffet me, lest I be exalted above measure.
Daily living Your life is preserved every day by providence
— Why are you so tenderly preserved by providence if not to be used by God? (Rom 6:13)
13 And do not present your members as instruments of unrighteousness to sin, but present yourselves to God as being alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God.
God performs all things for you, God is responsible for everything that happens - both good and bad
Comforts A great evil not to observe God in all these things
— Terrible to neglect God when he does good on our behalf (Flavel)
— c.f. (Hos 2:8)
8 For she did not know That I gave her grain, new wine, and oil, And multiplied her silver and gold— Which they prepared for Baal.
Q: Any dog owners? Does a god know it’s master
The ox Knows The ox knows it’s master
(Isa 1:3) The ox knows its owner And the donkey its master’s crib; But Israel does not know, My people do not consider.”
If God performs all these things for you, how great is His love?
Keeps his eye He always keeps his eye on you
(Job 36:7) He does not withdraw His eyes from the righteous
Day and Night He guards you day and night
(Isa 27:3) I, the Lord, keep it, I water it every moment; Lest any hurt it, I keep it night and day
— Referring to his vineyard, his people that nation Israel
If God performs all things for you, see how obliged you are to perform all duties and services to God?
All things If God does all things for us — how can we do nothing ?
(Isa 5:1-4) He does everything for his vineyard. What more can he do?
David David said (Ps 116:12) What shall I render to the Lord For all His benefits toward me?
Does God perform all things for his people? Then do not distrust him when great difficulties arise
(Isa 59:1) Behold, the Lord’s hand is not shortened, That it cannot save; Nor His ear heavy, That it cannot hear.
Read and summarize
1 On that day King Ahasuerus gave Queen Esther the house of Haman, the enemy of the Jews. And Mordecai came before the king, for Esther had told how he was related to her. 2 So the king took off his signet ring, which he had taken from Haman, and gave it to Mordecai; and Esther appointed Mordecai over the house of Haman.
Wealth Transferred All of Haman’s money, house, cattle given to the king
— The king gave it all to Esther
— Evil men’s money goes to the righteous (Prov 13:22)
22 A good man leaves an inheritance to his children’s children, But the wealth of the sinner is stored up for the righteous.
(8:1) And Mordecai came before the king, for Esther had told how he was related to her
— Mordecai is introduced as the Queen’s cousin
— He raised her as a father
— The king is now more obliged than before
Obliged — The King and the Queen owe their lives to him
God’s Providence What if Mordecai had not been related to Esther?
At Birth Providence starts at birth (Ps 139:13-16)
— I read this a women who was on her way to an abortion clinic
13 For You formed my inward parts; You covered me in my mother’s womb. 14 I will praise You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; Marvelous are Your works, And that my soul knows very well. 15 My frame was not hidden from You, When I was made in secret, And skillfully wrought in the lowest parts of the earth. 16 Your eyes saw my substance, being yet unformed. And in Your book they all were written, The days fashioned for me, When as yet there were none of them.
Our Second Birth Providence in the way that we are saved
— My life: In college, no direction, heavy with sin
— Thought that my girlfriend was pregnant
— Brought Mike Busboom into my life who himself was returning to his faith; shared the gospel
Prison Men have gone to prison to be saved
— Chuck Colson went to prison for his part in Watergate
— Special Counsel to President Nixon (1969-1973)
— One of the Watergate 7, pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice
— 7 months in prison and born again
— Founded Prison Fellowship; authored 30+ books
Jailer Paul saved some in Prison (Acts 16:27-31)
27 And the keeper of the prison, awaking from sleep and seeing the prison doors open, supposing the prisoners had fled, drew his sword and was about to kill himself. 28 But Paul called with a loud voice, saying, “Do yourself no harm, for we are all here.” 29 Then he called for a light, ran in, and fell down trembling before Paul and Silas. 30 And he brought them out and said, “Sirs, what must I do to be saved?” 31 So they said, “Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and you will be saved, you and your household.”
Runaway While Paul was in prison a runaway slave came to him and ministered to him
— Just happened to be the slave of Philemon who Paul knew
— Paul sent the slave Onesimus back to his master
— God’s providence brought the slave to Paul
Esther saves the Jews
3 Now Esther spoke again to the king, fell down at his feet, and implored him with tears to counteract the evil of Haman the Agagite, and the scheme which he had devised against the Jews. 4 And the king held out the golden scepter toward Esther. So Esther arose and stood before the king, 5 and said, “If it pleases the king, and if I have found favor in his sight and the thing seems right to the king and I am pleasing in his eyes, let it be written to revoke the letters devised by Haman, the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, which he wrote to annihilate the Jews who are in all the king’s provinces. 6 For how can I endure to see the evil that will come to my people? Or how can I endure to see the destruction of my countrymen?” 7 Then King Ahasuerus said to Queen Esther and Mordecai the Jew, “Indeed, I have given Esther the house of Haman, and they have hanged him on the gallows because he tried to lay his hand on the Jews. 8 You yourselves write a decree concerning the Jews, as you please, in the king’s name, and seal it with the king’s signet ring; for whatever is written in the king’s name and sealed with the king’s signet ring no one can revoke.” 9 So the king’s scribes were called at that time, in the third month, which is the month of Sivan, on the twenty-third day; and it was written, according to all that Mordecai commanded, to the Jews, the satraps, the governors, and the princes of the provinces from India to Ethiopia, one hundred and twenty-seven provinces in all, to every province in its own script, to every people in their own language, and to the Jews in their own script and language. 10 And he wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, sealed it with the king’s signet ring, and sent letters by couriers on horseback, riding on royal horses bred from swift steeds. 11 By these letters the king permitted the Jews who were in every city to gather together and protect their lives—to destroy, kill, and annihilate all the forces of any people or province that would assault them, both little children and women, and to plunder their possessions, 12 on one day in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar. 13 A copy of the document was to be issued as a decree in every province and published for all people, so that the Jews would be ready on that day to avenge themselves on their enemies. 14 The couriers who rode on royal horses went out, hastened and pressed on by the king’s command. And the decree was issued in Shushan the citadel.
Sivan (8:8) which is the month of Sivan
— May / June
— It had been 10 days since Haman’s decree (3:12)
— The Jews had 8 months and 20 days to prepare and get ready
Satraps (8:9) the satraps, the governors, and the princes of the provinces from India to Ethiopia
— Satraps were Persian political office holders, governors
Decree The decree was still in force and could not be overridden or revoked even by the King
— Many of man’s sins survive us
Q: Can you think of things that survive us?
— What we “write” could survive us and be either profitable or hurtful
— Movies, videos, music; lots of things survive us
Humility (8:5) If it pleases the king, and if I have found favor in his sight and the thing seems right to the king and I am pleasing in his eyes,
let it be written to revoke the letters devised by Haman
— Esther asks in humility
— Even when we have a just cause and justice and reason is on our side, we should ask in humility (Henry)
— When we speak to our superiors - not demanding but speak respectfully
(8:11) By these letters the king permitted the Jews who were in every city to gather together and protect their lives—to destroy,
kill, and annihilate all the forces of any people or province that would assault them, both little children and women,
and to plunder their possessions
— Not only protect themselves but take revenge against their enemies
— Destroy their enemies as they intended to destroy them
— And take their enemies’ possessions; turn the tables
Civil War The king caused a civil ware because he could not revoke his decree
Q: Some Christians argue that total trust in God means it is never right to defend yourself against charges or attacks. What you do you think about this argument and about what Mordecai did?
15 So Mordecai went out from the presence of the king in royal apparel of blue and white, with a great crown of gold and a garment of fine linen and purple; and the city of Shushan rejoiced and was glad. 16 The Jews had light and gladness, joy and honor. 17 And in every province and city, wherever the king’s command and decree came, the Jews had joy and gladness, a feast and a holiday. Then many of the people of the land became Jews, because fear of the Jews fell upon them.
Cool to be a Jew It as cool to be a Jew
— Joy, celebrations
— Became a holiday
Q: How was Mordecai dressed just a few days earlier?
Sackcloth and Ashes (4:1)
— (8:15) Now royal robes of White and Blue; a great crown of gold, fine linen and purple
Converts (8:17) Then many of the people of the land became Jews, because fear of the Jews fell upon them
— Many became converts to Judaism
— People saw God’s providence was on these people; they were protected by God (Zech 8:23)
Q: How were the Thessalonians similar to the Jewish converts of 8:17? (c.f. 1 Thess 1:9-10)
9 For they themselves declare concerning us what manner of entry we had to you, and how you turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God, 10 and to wait for His Son from heaven, whom He raised from the dead, even Jesus who delivers us from the wrath to come.
23 “Thus says the Lord of hosts: ‘In those days ten men from every language of the nations shall grasp the sleeve of a Jewish man, saying, “Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.” ’ ”
Q: Can you think of an area in your life that seems hopeless? Does the story of Esther and Mordecai change the way you think about it?
Q: Can you think of anyone in your life that needs to see an amazing comeback? Maybe you can be someone that offers encouragement
Read and summarize
1 Now in the twelfth month, that is, the month of Adar, on the thirteenth day, the time came for the king’s command and his decree to be executed. On the day that the enemies of the Jews had hoped to overpower them, the opposite occurred, in that the Jews themselves overpowered those who hated them. 2 The Jews gathered together in their cities throughout all the provinces of King Ahasuerus to lay hands on those who sought their harm. And no one could withstand them, because fear of them fell upon all people. 3 And all the officials of the provinces, the satraps, the governors, and all those doing the king’s work, helped the Jews, because the fear of Mordecai fell upon them. 4 For Mordecai was great in the king’s palace, and his fame spread throughout all the provinces; for this man Mordecai became increasingly prominent. 5 Thus the Jews defeated all their enemies with the stroke of the sword, with slaughter and destruction, and did what they pleased with those who hated them.
12th Month (9:1) Now in the twelfth month
Feb / March
(9:1) On the day that the enemies of the Jews had hoped to overpower them, the opposite occurred
— The enemies had hoped to over power the Jews
— The enemies were the aggressors, not the Jews
— But the tables were turned
Q: What did God do? v2?
(9:2) And no one could withstand them, because fear of them fell upon all people
God struck all the people with fear of the Jews
6 And in Shushan the citadel the Jews killed and destroyed five hundred men. 7 Also Parshandatha, Dalphon, Aspatha, 8 Poratha, Adalia, Aridatha, 9 Parmashta, Arisai, Aridai, and Vajezatha—10 the ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the enemy of the Jews—they killed; but they did not lay a hand on the plunder.
Haman’s Sons Haman’s ten sons were also killed
— Extra biblical writing “The Chaldee” says that Zeresh with 70 more of his children went door to door begging for bread
Not Plunder The Jews did not plunder
— They were given permission to plunder by the King’s decree but did not plunder
— Just the opposite of Saul; prohibited but he did (1 Sam 15:3)
11 On that day the number of those who were killed in Shushan the citadel was brought to the king.
Status Report The king gets a status report of how many people are killed
— The king brings the news to Esther (9:12) what would you like to do now?
12 And the king said to Queen Esther, “The Jews have killed and destroyed five hundred men in Shushan the citadel, and the ten sons of Haman. What have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces? Now what is your petition? It shall be granted to you. Or what is your further request? It shall be done.”
Q: Why did Esther answer the way that she did (vs 13-14). Was she bloodthirsty ?
13 Then Esther said, “If it pleases the king, let it be granted to the Jews who are in Shushan to do again tomorrow according to today’s decree, and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged on the gallows.” 14 So the king commanded this to be done; the decree was issued in Shushan, and they hanged Haman’s ten sons.
Slaughter Only went to the capital city
— No time to get the message out to all 127 providences
Hanged Sons King hanged the 10 sons of Haman
— They were put on Haman’s own gallows to further disgrace his family
— Dr G: kill them, bury them, gig them up and kill them again
Self-defense They stood their ground and killed in self-defense and by the king’s decree
No booty They took no booty (9:10,15, 16)
— They took none of the spoils that the king allowed (8:11)
— You can be sure that Haman would have taken spoils if his side had won
15 And the Jews who were in Shushan gathered together again on the fourteenth day of the month of Adar and killed three hundred men at Shushan; but they did not lay a hand on the plunder. 16 The remainder of the Jews in the king’s provinces gathered together and protected their lives, had rest from their enemies, and killed seventy-five thousand of their enemies; but they did not lay a hand on the plunder. 17 This was on the thirteenth day of the month of Adar. And on the fourteenth of the month they rested and made it a day of feasting and gladness.
Killed 75,000 Jews said that they were Amalekites
— Utterly blot out (Ex 17:14)
14 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Write this for a memorial in the book and recount it in the hearing of Joshua, that I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.”
18 But the Jews who were at Shushan assembled together on the thirteenth day, as well as on the fourteenth; and on the fifteenth of the month they rested, and made it a day of feasting and gladness. 19 Therefore the Jews of the villages who dwelt in the unwalled towns celebrated the fourteenth day of the month of Adar with gladness and feasting, as a holiday, and for sending presents to one another. 20 And Mordecai wrote these things and sent letters to all the Jews, near and far, who were in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, 21 to establish among them that they should celebrate yearly the fourteenth and fifteenth days of the month of Adar, 22 as the days on which the Jews had rest from their enemies, as the month which was turned from sorrow to joy for them, and from mourning to a holiday; that they should make them days of feasting and joy, of sending presents to one another and gifts to the poor. 23 So the Jews accepted the custom which they had begun, as Mordecai had written to them, 24 because Haman, the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the enemy of all the Jews, had plotted against the Jews to annihilate them, and had cast Pur (that is, the lot), to consume them and destroy them; 25 but when Esther came before the king, he commanded by letter that this wicked plot which Haman had devised against the Jews should return on his own head, and that he and his sons should be hanged on the gallows. 26 So they called these days Purim, after the name Pur. Therefore, because of all the words of this letter, what they had seen concerning this matter, and what had happened to them, 27 the Jews established and imposed it upon themselves and their descendants and all who would join them, that without fail they should celebrate these two days every year, according to the written instructions and according to the prescribed time, 28 that these days should be remembered and kept throughout every generation, every family, every province, and every city, that these days of Purim should not fail to be observed among the Jews, and that the memory of them should not perish among their descendants. 29 Then Queen Esther, the daughter of Abihail, with Mordecai the Jew, wrote with full authority to confirm this second letter about Purim. 30 And Mordecai sent letters to all the Jews, to the one hundred and twenty-seven provinces of the kingdom of Ahasuerus, with words of peace and truth, 31 to confirm these days of Purim at their appointed time, as Mordecai the Jew and Queen Esther had prescribed for them, and as they had decreed for themselves and their descendants concerning matters of their fasting and lamenting. 32 So the decree of Esther confirmed these matters of Purim, and it was written in the book.
Purim March 20-21
— The ONLY biblically revealed non-Mosaic holiday
— Not a holiday
The Pur(lots) Haman cast lots to determine when to kill the Jews
— The lots (pur) became a symbol not of death and destruction
— Rather, God’s goodness and power
Read and summarize
1 And King Ahasuerus imposed tribute on the land and on the islands of the sea. 2 Now all the acts of his power and his might, and the account of the greatness of Mordecai, to which the king advanced him, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Media and Persia? 3 For Mordecai the Jew was second to King Ahasuerus, and was great among the Jews and well received by the multitude of his brethren, seeking the good of his people and speaking peace to all his countrymen.
Mordecai Exalted Mordecai — a Benjamite
(10:3) For Mordecai the Jew was second to King Ahasuerus
— Second in command to the king
— Esteemed by his countryman
— Once at the king’s gate, now advising the king
The End Six (6) more chapters but considered apocryphal
— Only found in Greek
Flavel, J. (2014). The Mystery of Providence. (n.p.): CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
The Mystery of Providence PDF: https://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/sdg/flavel/The%20Mystery%20of%20Providence%20-%20John%20Flavel.pdf
Who was Zeresh? https://www.chabad.org/holidays/purim/article_cdo/aid/2519584/jewish/Who-Was-Zeresh.htm