S211-021008 Ro 1d
Saul a Benjamite named after the King, Shǎ-ool ~ שָׁאוּל
Jew by birth and education
Greek by culture
Roman by citizenship
Born in Tarsus of Cilicia in about 1 A.D., Paul was from a well-to-do family and as was customary he was trained in the family business - as a tent maker.
Pau~lov means little and was his Gentile name.
Paul studied under Sanhedrin Elder Gamaliel, grandson of Pharisee founder Hillel.
Born ± 1 A.D.
Romans stands first in every list…
Augustine, John Chrysostom, Calvin, Luther and Wesley
On his way to Spain, Paul plans to stop in Rome.
Probably several churches were in Rome
It is evident that Peter was not in Rome at that time
Phoebe of Cen-chre-a
The city of Rome was founded in 753 B.C. on the Tiber River at a ford that was indispensable for traveling between northern and southern Italy. The 7 hills surrounding the Tiber River valley provided hilltop fortifications for times of attack. In Paul’s day, Rome had a population of approximately one million (the largest city in the world) and was the political hub of the vast Roman Empire.
A Jewish colony existed in Rome after 63 B.C., when Judea became a part of the Roman Empire, this colony grew. By 59 B.C. Cicero wrote of it as powerful and influential.
At times the Jews suffered expulsion from Rome, as in 19 A.D. due to financial scandal
Suetonius: Claudius expelled all Jews from Rome ‘because they were constantly rioting at the instigation of Chrestus’ in 49 A.D., Priscilla and Aquila had come to Corinth (Acts 18:2). Nero 54 A.D. with Seneca and Prefect Burrus helping he was an excellent Emperor until 59 A.D.
Textual variants in chapters 14–16 as Origen 200 said, was due to Marcion
A possibility is that Paul took the opportunity in this letter to the Romans to rehearse the speech he was going to give when he arrived in Jerusalem with the collection.
If all of the Bible were lost except Romans, scarcely any fundamental doctrine would be lacking.
Paul quoted from the OT more often than in all his other letters combined—showing how important the OT is to understanding the gospel.
Romans shows the root of salvation: faith alone. James shows the fruit of salvation: good works.
If by faith alone, what is to keep a person from going out and sinning as much as he pleases? Doesn’t God care about righteousness anymore?
This is how Paul’s teaching affected many in New Testament times too. How could faith be enough?
In Galatians we catch glimpses of themes that Paul now fully develops.
To most people now as then, Law and righteousness seem inseparably linked.
In his letter Paul fully answered the objections of the people of his day, and he answers the doubting of our time.
Law from the beginning was intended to serve as a mirror, to reveal sin. The Law was not a standard we must struggle to achieve, but a measure against which we might discover how far short we each fall.
The Old Testament introduced the principle of a justification that comes by faith. Abraham and David are examples of men who were called righteous by God not on the basis of their good deeds, but because they trusted in His Word. As David said, “Create in me a clean heart.”
God’s acts are “always righteous” (Jer. 12:1), for all God does is in harmony with His character.
God, as the Creator and the moral Judge of the universe, is Himself the one valid standard of what is right.
Righteousness is not to be measured by what a person does or does not do. As Peter said, “You know I love You.”
1Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus, called as an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God
Pau~lov dou~lov Cristou~ Ijhsou~,
A Jew can never be the slave of anyone other than God.
My life no longer belongs to me!!!!
Called to be… & Set apart…
eujagge>lion qeou~ Gospel of God
2which He promised beforehand through His prophets in the holy Scriptures
grafai~v aJgi>aiv Holy Scriptures
3concerning His Son, who was born of a descendant of David according to the flesh
4who was declared the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead, according to the Spirit of holiness, Jesus Christ our Lord
ajnasta>sewv nekrw~n Resurrection, not revivification!
The actual impact of the Greek is, acknowledged as the one true Son-of-God-in-power according to the Holy Spirit because of the resurrection – so Jesus the Christ is our true Lord.
5through whom we have received grace and apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith among all the Gentiles for His name’s sake
uJpakoh<n pi>stewv Result of hearing is believing and behaving accordingly Obedience of faith
uJpe<r on behalf of… or for the benefit of… His Name
6among whom you also are the called of Jesus Christ; 7to all who are beloved of God in Rome, called as saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
klhtoi~v aJgi>oiv Called as saints Elect or more accurately selected to be separate from the rest.
8First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, because your faith is being proclaimed throughout the whole world.
Thankful to God through, dia<, Jesus as mediator.
The fact that people had bowed the knee to Christ in the capital city was significant for the cause of Christ around the world.
9For God, whom I serve in my spirit in the preaching of the gospel of His Son, is my witness as to how unceasingly I make mention of you,
Serve is latreu>w, meaning to worship (LXX of priestly service). Paul’s ministry work is an act of worship.
Paul’s worship through service is ultimately spiritual – flowing from his changed heart not as a religious duty.
10always in my prayers making request, if perhaps now at last by the will of God I may succeed in coming to you.
Obviously a strong desire to visit Rome, but only in accord with God’s perfect will.
11For I long to see you so that I may impart some spiritual gift to you, that you may be established;
Paul did not mean he would grant the Roman church spiritual gifts. The context here is that Paul will hopefully encourage the believers in Rome – move them closer to God with the spiritual gift or gifts required.
These gifts can be: Prophecy, serving, teaching, encouraging, giving, leadership, mercy, wisdom, knowledge, faith, healing, wonders, discernment, tongues, interpretation, apostles, evangelists and pastors (Romans 12, 1 Corinthians 12, Ephesians 4).
12that is, that I may be encouraged together with you while among you, each of us by the other’s faith, both yours and mine.
Through the gifts already given by God, the apostle and the Romans would encourage and edify each other and ultimately serve God’s purpose; win-win-win spiral.
13I do not want you to be unaware, brethren, that often I have planned to come to you (and have been prevented so far) so that I may obtain some fruit among you also, even as among the rest of the Gentiles.
Turf concerns of Paul indicate that no other Apostle had made it to Rome yet. He alludes to the same thing in 15:22.
14I am under obligation both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to the wise and to the foolish.
Paul knew he had been set apart for personal salvation and the gospel of God leading to his deep conviction that given such a privilege he was now in debt to all men, that is, to preach the gospel to them.
15So, for my part, I am eager to preach the gospel to you also who are in Rome.
16For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.
Paul was not ashamed of the gospel for it has the power to bring anyone into a right relationship with God through Christ at the moment they believe in God’s saving action in Christ.
The Jew first is not temporal, but one of priority for the promises of salvation through God’s messiah were first given to the Jew (2 Sam 7:8-16).
17For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, “But the righteous man shall live by faith.”
The word “for” takes us back to the preceding idea about the gospel being the power of God for salvation. How is that so? Paul knows that the gospel saves because it reveals the righteousness of God.
God creates, allows freedom of will and provides salvation because of His righteous character.
From faith to faith has been variously interpreted throughout the history of the church:
1) it refers to the faith of the OT saints to the faith of NT saints;
2) from an immature faith to a more mature one;
3) from a Law-oriented faith to a gospel-oriented faith;
4) from the faith of the preacher to the faith of the hearers;
5) from present faith to a future faith;
6) from God’s faithfulness to man’s faith
7) sheer faith and faith alone.
All these have some truth in them, but our daily prayer answers the question in its final phrase. our faith must grow – you either move forward or backward – you’re either in the desert 40 days or 40 years i.e. until you die!
Realistic Comprehension of Grace produces a thankfulness that is manifested as a zeal for God’s glorification.
The power of God for salvation to everyone who believes is the righteousness of God
And it is revealed from faith to faith.
18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness,
The righteousness of God is tied to His wrath - He must do both or neither.
There cannot be salvation if there’s nothing to be saved from!
Mark 3:5 ~ Jesus entered a synagogue and there was a man whose hand was withered. The Pharisees were watching Him to see if He would heal him on the Sabbath, so that they might accuse Him. Jesus said to them, “On the Sabbath is it lawful to do good or evil, to save a life or to kill?” But they kept silent.
5After looking around at them with anger, grieved at their hardness of heart, He said to the man, “Stretch out your hand.” And he stretched it out, and his hand was restored.
The Pharisees went out and immediately began conspiring to kill Jesus
ojrgh, is not punishment of sin but God’s attitude towards it – Frustration over people destroying themselves and keeping others in the same boat.
By destroying the Light = metaphor for Truth
The truth here is not the gospel; it is the 1st Truth –
John 1:4&5, 9-11 ~ 4In Him was life, and the life was the Light of men. 5The Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.
9There was the true Light which, coming into the world, enlightens every man. 10He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him. 11He came to His own, and those who were His own did not receive Him.
comprehend = kate>laben – forcefully hold down or destroy – also apprehend or acquire (overcome RSV, extinguish NLT, put out TM ~~~ understood NIV, comprehend NASB & KJV ~~~ mastered NET, apprehend DARBY & ASV)
19because that which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them.
evident within them = in their hearts and conscience.
All mankind is inherently religious
20For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse.
What a paradox, invisible things which are visible.
Man, able to reason on the basis of the law of cause and effect is forced to the conclusion that such a tremendous effect as the universe, demands a Being of eternal power and of divine attributes. That Being must be the Deity who should be worshipped.
1 Corinthians 2:9 (quoting Isaiah) but just as it is written,
“Things which eye has not seen and ear has not heard,
And which have not entered the heart of man,
All that God has prepared for those who love Him.”
Hebrews 11:1 Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen.
qeio>thv, means Godhead as in divine, not a personal God and is used by Paul of Jesus in Colossians 2:9, “For in Him all the fullness of Deity dwells in bodily form.”
He can be recognized by creation - His divine attributes, His majesty and glory can be known from His works,
but He can be understood or known personally only through the revelation of Himself in Jesus.
Mars Hill, a]reiov pa>gov, Areopagus
Although Corinth was the actual capital of Achaia (uh-kay-yuh) Athens was the cultural capital of the whole ancient world.
Academy of Plato b427, (Socrates b470 council condemned 399)
Lyceum (Lie-see-um) of Aristotle b384
Porch or Stoa of Zeno 300
Garden of Epicurus 300
Acts 17:23-28 ~ 23“For while I was passing through and examining the objects of your worship, I also found an altar with this inscription, ‘TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.’ Therefore what you worship in ignorance, this I proclaim to you. 24“The God who made the world and all things in it, since He is Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands; 25nor is He served by human hands, as though He needed anything, since He Himself gives to all people life and breath and all things; 26and He made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined their appointed times and the boundaries of their habitation, 27that they would seek God, if perhaps they might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us; 28for in Him we live and move and exist, as even some of your own poets have said, ‘For we also are His children.’
Thus, through the light of the created universe, unsaved man recognizes the fact that there is a God who deserves obedience, respect, thanks, love and adoration.
Psalm 19:1The heavens proclaim the glory of God. The skies display his craftsmanship.
Without excuse literally means without a defense because there is no acceptable, reasonable explanation.
Romans 1:21-25 ~ 21For even though they knew God, they did not honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened. 22Professing to be wise, they became fools, 23and exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and four-footed animals and crawling creatures. 24Therefore God gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, so that their bodies would be dishonored among them. 25For they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.
21For even though they knew God, they did not honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
timh> & qeo>v
Cause and effect… reject God and your cogitating or deliberating with yourself becomes futile or without achieving anything of value.
Proverbs 9:10“The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and knowledge of the Holy One is understanding.
22Professing to be wise, they became fools,
Fools is mwrai>nw, moron
Vain thinking is the nou~v, mind, spirit.
Foolish heart is kardi>a, will, soul, yuch>.
Fools (act foolishly) is body, soma> sa>rx
Everyone thinks that they are wise and yet anyone claiming such things is a fool.
Proverbs 18:2A fool does not delight in understanding, but only in revealing his own mind.
23and exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and four-footed animals and crawling creatures.
Incorruptible is without decay/change. Descending order of idols ~ Satan is depicted as a serpent.
24Therefore God gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, so that their bodies would be dishonored among them.
paradi>dwmi, hand over to entrust to the care of another. To the natural course – cause & effect.
God’s sovereign choice is to allow people to choose!
Lusts is epiqumi>a a passionate irresistible craving, longing or desire of the heart, i.e. the place of will, not the mind.
People play mind-games, but this desire is who we are and cannot be easily resisted – it is by definition a predisposition or addiction.
It’s not how God made you! It is the depravity you wallow in and can be broken by right relationship with God.
Most Gays either reject Christianity altogether or change it to be an abomination – either way they reject God’s revealed Truth, the only thing that can save them, and go deeper into the jungle.
25For they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.
Creature can be creation in general to include everything from the tree hugger religion to Carl Sagan- Esq. astrophysics.
Creature can refer to idols.
Ultimately the creature worshipped is self.
Romans 1:26-32 ~ 26For this reason God gave them over to degrading passions; for their women exchanged the natural function for that which is unnatural, 27and in the same way also the men abandoned the natural function of the woman and burned in their desire toward one another, men with men committing indecent acts and receiving in their own persons the due penalty of their error. 28And just as they did not see fit to acknowledge God any longer, God gave them over to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper, 29being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips, 30slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, 31without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, unmerciful; 32and although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, they not only do the same, but also give hearty approval to those who practice them.
26For this reason God gave them over to degrading passions; for their women exchanged the natural function for that which is unnatural,
Female and later male, not women and men.
Men full of testosterone and drunk with power mistreated women
Divorce and now we’ll all pay.
God has given us over to pa>qov, even more intense.
Pathology is now the study of disease, but it was originally the study of passion and some passion is pain and suffering brought on by disease.
A person’s passion is consuming – you can’t just turn it off!
27and in the same way also the men abandoned the natural function of the woman and burned in their desire toward one another, men with men committing indecent acts and receiving in their own persons the due penalty of their error.
Sexual use of females and “intensely burned”
Actually Men in men – indecent is ajschmosu>nh, meaning disfigured/deformed not normal and in this sense shameful because it didn’t happen to you, you are doing it to yourself.
Men abandon family responsibility and act like kids.
Recompense i.e. payday has come and is coming.
28And just as they did not see fit to acknowledge God any longer, God gave them over to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper,
See fit to acknowledge is dokima>zw, which means to examine or put to the test.
Man tested God and found Him wanting.
Man declared God unfit and that judgment leads to a hardened conscience where eventually anything goes
29being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips,
All kinds of anti-God behavior
ponhri>a, evil, wicked or mean.
pleonexi>a, avarice; pursuing money.
kaki>a, bad or evil.
fqo>nov, jealousy or envy.
e]riv, strife, discord, argument.
do>lov, treachery, deceit, trickery.
kakoh>qeia, malice or spite.
30slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents,
kata>lalov, slanderer, defamer, insulting.
uJbristh>v, abuser, mistreating others.
uJperhfa>nouv, prideful, arrogant.
ajlazw>n, boastful, braggart.
ejfeureth>v kako>v, inventor or contriver of evil.
goneu>v ajpeiqh>v, to parents - disobedient
31without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, unmerciful;
ajsu>netov, dull or foolish.
ajsu>nqetov, faithless, unreliable.
a]storgov, without familial love, heartless.
ajneleh>mwn, ruthless, merciless.
32and although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, they not only do the same, but also give hearty approval to those who practice them.
Everyone has a conscience even if it is so dulled it seems to be nonexistent.
Hearty approval is the result of relative righteousness.
I don’t feel too guilty if everyone else is doing the same or similar things.
I don’t have to fear God’s wrath if I’m basically a good person… relative to others.