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Liberty University

Operation Afghanistan: A Strategy to Reach the Pashtun Muslim People in a Depraved Country with an Introduction Survey of the Demographics and History of the Peoples and Current Missionary Work within the Country

A paper submitted to Dr. Smith

In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for

the course ICST 500

Liberty Theological seminary

By

Christopher W. Myers

                                                                                  

Lynchburg, Virginia

Sunday, March 9th, 2008

Table of Contents

Introduction- 3

The Muslim National People Groups- 3

The Pashtuns- 7

History of the Islamic Insurrection: A Brief Survey- 8

Missions Work in the Country- 11

The Strategy to Reach Them-- 16

Conclusion- 20

Bibliography- 21


!!! Introduction

       The power of two kingdoms and their fight for spiritual territory is best exemplified in the fall of Constantinople in 1453.  In May of that year according to the Julian calendar the Muslim Ottoman Empire overtook and defeated the capitol of the Christian Byzantine Empire.  Leading up to that time and following that time, Christians greatly embarrassed themselves by wielding the sword foolishly in the name of Jesus in the militant and Pope- sanctioned Crusades.  These violent Crusades are still in the minds of Muslims throughout the world and especially in the Middle East to this day.  The powers of the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Darkness clash until this day.  The Enemy is crafty and smart by creating a religion that is similar to Yahweh's true way of salvation.  This religion is called Islam and it infects the majority of the Unreached Peoples of this world especially within the 10/40 window.[1]  This paper will work toward a strategy to reach a Muslim national people group.  The history of the people group will be evaluated along with all pertinent information needed to strategize their evangelization.  A brief survey will evaluate the current missions work in the country and some solutions to the stumbling blocks presented before us in evangelization of these people.  And lastly, the proposed strategy will be laid out in a coherent framework.                  

The Muslim National People Groups

       It must be made clear that this strategy focuses on a geopolitical entity.  This is following the highly successful work of the Spirit through James Montgomery through his DAWN ministries. [2]  This strategy shares DAWN ministries' convictions "to reach the goal of seeing Christ become incarnate in every small group in every village and neighborhood and for every class, kind and condition of man. This means having at least one gathering of believers sharing Christ within easy access of every person in each country."[3]  The advantages to divide-and-conquer evangelization according to the saturation church planting principle pertains to the fact that the nations of this world maintain and uphold and produce the culture of its people.  Political nations give their people a national language, a national heritage, and a national history that allows these people to cohere and this only strengthens the spread and saturation of the gospel.  The major obstacle that a political nation may contribute is if they have adopted a national religion, especially an Islamic one, but our God can conquer the Enemy's devices, even on a national level! 

       Afghanistan is such a nation that is presently saturated with the Islamic religion.  Afghanistan is currently 99% Muslim.  80% of these Muslims are Sunni Muslims and 19% are Shiite Muslims.  The two national languages are Dari (also called Afghan Persian) spoken by 50% of the peoples and Pashto spoken by 35% of the peoples. [4] These languages need their own Bible translation.  There is currently a completed Farsi Bible translation, but Dari and Pashtun are currently only available in the New Testament.[5] 

        Afghanistan is a like an ethnic group melting pot.  The ethnic group breakdowns are generally 42% Pashtun, 27% Tajik, 9% Hazara, 9% Uzbek, 4% Aima, 3% Turkmen, and 2% Baloch.[6]  You can see the same peoples of the surrounding nations residing in Afghanistan.  Figure 1 shows the political map of Afghanistan in relation to its neighboring countries and Figure 2 shows the various provinces within Afghanistan.  The ethnic influence of surrounding countries has caused many to think that it would be better to reach the Afghani neighbors first and then have them send missionaries into Afghanistan.[7]  And this is understandable if someone is pessimistic enough to think that the Afghanistan political landscape will fall back into Taliban hands.  But at the same time if the Afghanistan government does prosper under American support then this would be the ideal time to directly saturate this place with Jesus before it is too late.  This might be the last chance we have for this country to hear the good news and we need to shoot for the gold and look at all of the glasses half full.  It must be remembered that Afghanistan is in the same position that South Korea was after the Korean War and look at the prolific church established there because of shooting-for-the gold Christian missionaries.  Now we must reduplicate history in this instance and combat Satan's stronghold in Afghanistan.  If Christians are successful in establishing a reproducing church in Afghanistan it will establish a Christian church that is dearly close to the lost Islamic nations of the Middle East and Asia-Oceania peoples.  It would be the middle-ground base of operation for future generations fighting for the name of Christ Jesus.  This importance cannot be forgotten.  

FIGURE 1: Afghanistan and surrounding countries

FIGURE 2: Map of Afghanistan showing national provinces

 

The Pashtuns

       The Pashtun people group is the dominant ethnic group in Afghanistan.  They mostly reside in the East and South side of the Afghan country.  These people will be concentrated on in the details of this strategy because they are the majority within Afghanistan as well as Pakistan!  Actually there are more Pashtun people in Pakistan than in Afghanistan.  See Figure 3 below for an estimated demarcation of their presence in the country.  It is estimated that there are 11.5 million Pashtuns in Afghanistan and more than twice that number in Pakistan.[8]   Entire Pakistan and 35% of the Afghan people speak the Pashtun language of Pashto.  The Pashtuns on both sides of the Afghanistan-Pakistan border comprise what has been called the largest Muslim tribal society in the world, approximately 27 million people in over 30 major sub-tribes.[9]  The challenges of this people group are that the majority of the people are Sunni Muslim and the Taliban is made up of Pashtun Sunni Muslims.

FIGURE 3: The Pashtun distribution within Afghanistan[10]

History of the Islamic Insurrection: A Brief Survey

       In the seventh century AD the Arabs violently invaded the land forcing Islam on this region.  Arab rule gave way to the Persians, who controlled the area until conquered by the Turkic Ghaznavids in 998 AD.  The Ghaznavids consolidated rule until 1030 when their king Mahmud of Ghazni died.  The land was thrown into chaos and tribal rule until the accomplishments of Genghis Kahn and his Mongol invasion in 1219.  After Genghis Kahn's death in 1227 the country again fell into chaos and tribal chiefs and princes tallied for power until the late 14th century when Genghis Kahn's descendent Tamerlane incorporated the Afghan territory into his Asian empire.[11] 

       Various dynasty's rise and fall, but our next time of interest is in the 18th century, when in 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani, a Pashtun establishes his rule and unites various chieftainships under his rule to give Afghanistan the political boundaries similar to today.  In the 19th century, power games between the expanding British Empire in the subcontinent and czarist Russia influenced Afghanistan in what was termed "The Great Game."  Britain saw much resistance from the natives resulting in Anglo-Afghan wars, three of them in matter of fact, one in 1839 to1842, the second from 1878-1880, and the third in 1919.  The British were greatly beaten in the first Afghan war, but they succeeded in the second, bringing a new Afghan ruler to power under British headship.  And it was during this time at the turn of the twentieth century that the British and Russians officially established the boundaries of what would become modern Afghanistan through the demarcation of the Durand Line. The British retained effective control over Kabul's foreign affairs.  However, World War 1 greatly weakened Britain and the assassination of the Britain-friendly king led to the third Anglo-Afghan War, which war-weary British quickly resolved by signing the Treaty of Rawalpindi in August 1919, freeing Afghanistan from colonial forces. In commemoration of this event, Afghans celebrate August 19 as their Independence Day.[12]

      The kingly family that maintained power after the Afghan Independence in 1919 ruled until 1973, when the rule was ended by a military coupe.  The resulting republic from the coupe failed and a second military coupe occurred in 1978.  The USSR took advantage of the coupe and sponsored the People's Democrat Party of Afghanistan to take control over the country.  The significance to this time is that the nationals greatly revolted against the Communist regime and the Afghan guerrilla warriors (the Mujahideen) were born in June of 1978.[13] 

        The violence and turmoil caused by the Mujahideen instigated the USSR to invade Afghanistan in December of 1978.  This started the long and bloody Russian-Afghanistan War that lasted until 1989 when the Soviet Union collapsed and the Soviet Union troops withdrew from Afghanistan.  After Soviet withdraws the country sank into even worse conditions and warlord and tribal rule was the constant conflict throughout the country.[14]

       This would be the ideal time to mention a familiar figure in America today.  Osama Bin Laden fought with the Mojahideen to combat Russian forces in the mid-eighties.  Osama bin Laden, a wealthy and well-educated man from Saudi Arabia, split from the Nujahideen to form his own organization.  Osama bin Laden used the war-torn Afghanistan to form his Al-Qaeda worldwide organization, which was a network of Islamic radicals of the Sunni Muslim persuasion.  When Iraq invaded Kuwait in the early nineties, Bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia urging the Shah not to rely on non-Muslim armies to defend Kuwait.  Osama Bin Laden was rebuked and Osama's disdain for the Shah led to Bin Laden's banishment from the country and eventually his own family renounced him.  Osama bin Laden fled Saudi Arabia to Sudan where he set up further Al-Qaeda networks.[15]

      Back to Afghanistan Osama went, and the Taliban, which had gained power over the majority of the country by 1996, provided refuge for him, while planning his terrorist activities.  Osama bin Laden orchestrated many successful attacks on the United States and other countries and went highly unnoticed until September 11, 2001 when over 3,000 Americans lost their lives by the Al-Qaeda attack on the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and in a third downed jet plane in Pennsylvania.[16] 

       The United States quickly invaded Afghanistan ousting the Taliban from power in November 13th, 2001.  Osama bin Laden fled for the mountains on the Afghanistan-Pakistan border where he still remains at large as the most wanted man in the world to this day.  On October 9, 2004, Afghanistan held its first national democratic presidential election. More than 8 million Afghans voted. Hamid Karzai was the official winner and inaugurated on December 7 for a five-year term as Afghanistan's first democratically elected president.[17]

       The result of this historical analysis shows that any Missionary is up against a demonic Enemy in this country that knows mostly unremitting war and turmoil.  This darkness started in the seventh century with the advent of Islam.  Presently there is not one church building standing, but there are currently at least 48,000 mosques.[18]  At the same time, this historical survey also showed the present success in the country through the coalition forces invasion mainly led by the United States.  This democratic government and suppression of the Taliban has allowed missionaries to walk amongst these people in quiet evangelization.  There is still much to be done and the Taliban must continually be suppressed by the hand of God for this to remain a hole for Christianity to seep in and win these people for Christ.

Missions Work in the Country

       Currently, missionary work is being done in Afghanistan under the guise of relief work, education, and business owners.  First, let us examine the medical and humanitarian relief work within Afghanistan.  The most visible church taking up this work in Afghanistan is the South Korean church.  The South Korean church is an American post-wartime success story of Christianity.  After the Korean War many missionaries from the States poured into the country and the fruit is producing to this day.  Prayer should be directed to see the same results of South Korea in Afghanistan, especially since their situations are so similar.  Churches from South Korea sponsor and send out missionaries from their churches to the deprived Asian countries of the world.  South Korea is significant in that it holds the one of the highest number of Christian populations in Asia, which is roughly 30 percent.[19]  In July 2007, twenty-three of these South Korean missionaries were kidnapped in Afghanistan.  Two men were martyred and the women were sexually assaulted.  The Taliban released the remaining twenty-one hostages after negotiations from the South Korean government.  This is why the missionary presence must stay on a hush level to the Islamic leaders.  Islamic radicals will bulldoze houses, murder, and kidnap missionaries if evangelization is reported to them.  The more moderate Islamic leaders will appeal to the government and strongly press the banishment of all foreign missionaries and even jail time.[20] 

       The medical and humanitarian relief outreach mainly targets the lower class and poorer Muslim population in urban centers where goods can be transported easily and distributed appropriately.  There is an array of Christian and secular organizations that missionaries are able to attach themselves to and share the gospel to those hearts that are ready to make peace with God.[21]  Unfortunately, the evangelization must be kept on the down low at all times and cannot be publicly acclaimed without grave persecutions. 

       It is unfortunate that the new government constitution includes the clause, "no law can be contrary to the beliefs and provisions of the sacred religion of Islam."[22]  In 2006, the obstacles caused by the Afghan Constitution to missions was further seen when an Afghan man faced the death penalty due to his conversion to Christianity.  By the power and grace of God, the man was released and received into Italy for refuge.[23]  This was the first time that Afghan Christians had been highly noticed by the international community.  The small Afghan Christian community secretly tries to reach Afghans in and out of the country by such media as television, radio, and the Internet.[24]       

       Another work within the country is through education.  This category of missions reaches the richer classes of Afghanistan who desire a good education for their children.  Personally, this writer has direct contact with a missionary who serves in this capacity in Afghanistan.  This missionary is sponsored by Faith Bible Church in Harrisonburg, Virginia.  This area of missionary work is invaluable because it gives Christians direct access to the next generation of Afghans.  As schools are equipped with media and Afghans children learn English, Christ becomes more and more accessible to them.  The parents tend not to complain about the influence of these undercover missionaries because they strongly desire education for their children.  Let me remind you that this is the same way that the South Korean church was planted after the Korean War.  The parents desired education for their children and Christian men and women were sent to be their teachers!

      Organization such as Christian Children's Fund, operating as the Child Fund Afghanistan (CFA) in Afghanistan provide the cover for Christian missionaries to reach the upper class and middle class women and children in Afghanistan through education.[25]

       Lastly, there are many missionaries who immerse themselves in Muslim culture by taking up a business within Afghanistan, some take up a native-type business and others prefer to take advantage of the American and UN force business contracts.  The latter employs Muslims and reaches these people in that way and the former reaches the native Muslims by doing business with them and displaying their Christian witness.[26]   

       All of these current missionary assignments have to overcome obvious Muslim stumbling blocks to coming to Christ.  These stumbling blocks can be overcome in the same way that they were for many first-century Jews.  The stumbling blocks to Muslims that this paper will highlight are the nature of God, the Incarnation, God's revelation, and the crucifixion of Christ and it will be shown how many of the current missionaries are overcoming these blocks.

       Muslims deny the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and they affirm the oneness of God in similar terms that a Unitarian or oneness Pentecostal do.  This emphasis on the oneness of God has necessary consequences within the Muslim culture.  The doctrine of the trinity stresses how our God is unity in diversity and diversity in unity.  The Muslim culture dismisses any diversity in their persons or governments and subordinates women because of their stress on oneness and unity without diversity.  In addition, this oneness theology inevitably leads to legalism and this is exactly what we find with the Jewish and Islamic faiths that adhere to this doctrine.[27]  Missionaries today must not and do not use the Western formulations and terms of the doctrine of the trinity.  Instead, they use and teach the Triune-ness of God in the same language as Scripture by putting emphasis of God's action within the world such as:  God the Father loved us so much that he sent His Son to be a sacrifice for our sins, and He gives us His Spirit within us to sanctify us.  The trinity doctrine must be taught to Muslims in light of God's relationship with us as Father, Son, and Spirit.  This leads to the inevitable discussion of the Incarnation.[28]

      Muslims do not believe that Jesus was God, but merely a prophet, and therefore deny the Incarnation.  Missionaries have dealt with this by using the Muslim view of the Qu'ran as the direct revelation of God and as an incarnation of God's speech.  The argument is if God can incarnate one of his attributes, then how much more could he incarnate his person to relate and save his people.  For this reason, the battle of the books (Qu'ran vs. the Bible) is totally bypassed in order to point to the above argument.  If the Incarnation can be understood, then the nature of God, the nature of His revelation to us, and the nature and purpose of the cross can also be understood more plainly.  Then, inevitably, the cross stumbling block arises.[29]

       The Qu'ran teaches that Jesus was not crucified, but that God miraculously rescued him from the shameful death of the cross.  This is the gravest departure of the Qu'ran from the truth.  A proper understanding of the purpose of the Incarnation reveals the truth of the cross.  The way that Missionaries today deal with this is by appealing to Islam's lack of theology on salvation.  Sin is not completely understood in Islam and salvation is blurred to the point that legalism is seen as the proper place for salvation to occur for many Muslims.  This void and weaknesses within Islam can be filled and mended by the good news of the death and resurrection of Christ.  Christ died for our sins, so that we do not have to die for our sins by faith in His Son.  The righteous life of Christ is accounted to us for righteousness and truly, God did deliver Christ, not from the cross, but from death, so that we can have the victory over death and the hope of that glorious day of Resurrection when we will be given a glorious body to fellowship with the Almighty, forever.[30]  Amen.

The Strategy to Reach Them

       The first issue to consider in a strategy to reach the Pashtun people is to mobilize individuals who have a passion for the Pashtun Muslim people and equip them with weapons to withstand the uphill battle.  This means that individuals must be selected who meet the following criteria: passion for church planting and incarnation-cross-cultural evangelization, a passion for Muslim people groups, a desire to learn the Pashtun language, and the proper knowledge of the Pashtun culture and Islamic culture in general.  These people will have opportunities to train in the States for their future work with the Pashtun people.  Operation Afghanistan will coordinate the training and require and provide Mission work to Muslims in the United States as a prerequisite to starting Mission work in Afghanistan.  The preferred missionary will be Muslim in background and even American-Pashtun if God provides.  But Operation Afghanistan will not be constrained by this preference, the Operation will be flexible to the Spirit's leading and all Christians with a passion for Christ will be considered.

       Three teams will be needed to complete the vision of Operation Afghanistan.  The vision of Operation Afghanistan is to start planting underground Christian churches within Afghanistan by infiltrating the urban centers of the Pashtun people, the underground churches will not be led by the missionaries, but will be run by indigenous people who God calls out of darkness.  The missionaries sent by Operation Afghanistan will be trained to be Paul-type missionaries; this means that they will cultivate indigenous leadership and allow the native people to finance their congregations as deemed appropriate.  Operation Afghanistan's missionaries responsibilities will be to equip, energize, and mobilize the native Christians to become reproducing disciples.  Guidance will be given to doctrine issues and the providing of literature in the Pashtun language: both the Bible and Christian literature.  Furthermore, missionaries will be responsible for cultivating the prayer support needed for the indigenous church by world Christians.

     For Operation Afghanistan, if mobilizing, equipping, and energizing of missionaries is Phase One of the Operation, then Phase two is insertion.  Operation Afghanistan will insert the three teams by humanitarian and aid relief-Team 1 in Kabul and child (Christian) education-Team 2 in Kabul, and finally, business ownership-Team 3 in Kandahar.  Some principle notes on this strategy are that Operation Afghanistan recognizes in accordance with the Lausanne Covenant that evangelization includes social responsibility[31] and working to spread the righteousness of the kingdom of God to the darkness, although it is clear to us that evangelization takes priority over social responsibility.  To deal with this, we created Team 2 with a long range and short-range mission.  Team 2 operating in Kabul under the purpose of education personnel will seek to cultivate an underground church among the middle-class and upper class Pashtuns as a short-term endeavor.  However, their long term outlook will be to educate the Pashtun children in such a way to allow the next generation of Pashtuns to improve the social aspect of the country in order that the gospel of Christ will be able to spread more easily; this means the next generation will be more tolerant of religious plurality, women will be elevated in society, and Islamic tendencies will be abolished from the government constitution in favor of a more theist secular-type of document.  Team 1 operating in Kabul will target the poor in the poorest slums in order to cultivate an underground church among the poorer class of Pashtuns.  Humanitarian and medical aid will be coordinated by Operation Afghanistan through existing care groups already existent and from sponsoring churches who donate to the Operations within Afghanistan.  Finally, Team 3 operating in Kandahar will outreach to all classes of people as they come in contact with them through their native business, which Operation Afghanistan will purchase and provide the funds for.  Kandahar was picked because it is the second largest urban center next to Kabul in the Pashtun provinces.

       After the phase two of insertion is complete, then Phase three of cultivation can commence.  Cultivation will follow the experiences of research found successful to reaching closed Muslim people groups.  When we say closed Muslim people groups we are talking about Muslim groups that have made their culture an Islamic culture that is rivaled by no other culture throughout the country.  In Nigeria, there are roughly 48% Christians and 48% Muslims, this would be considered an open Muslim group, since leaving the Muslim culture does not mean you are completely ostracized from the country culture, instead in Nigeria you can go and become a part of the other half of the population.  However, in Afghanistan there is no other culture than an Islamic one, therefore, if you leave Islam, then you leave the national culture and as has been shown earlier in this paper, Christians often have to seek refuge in other countries to escape death.  In closed Muslim people groups, an emphasis needs to be made on remaining in the culture, while not ascribing to the Muslim heathen doctrines.  This method is highly researched and recognized as valuable in closed Muslim groups in the Islampur case study.  Missiologist call this type of contextualization principle "C5." [32]  Some of these principles mean that Christians call themselves Muslims (literally meaning: submitting to God) and Christians participating in the 5 prayers a day, Ramadan fast, and worshipping in the Mosques[33] on Friday (and having an additional study on Sundays), reading the true parts of the Qu'ran to spring into the Old and New Testament studies, and finally perhaps using the Qu'ran as a bridge to reaching Muslims for Christ.  These C5 Christians do stand a danger of syncretism[34], but the following guidelines could be followed to prevent this: the constant reminder that salvation is only through Jesus Christ, new believers are baptized and meet regularly with other believers and take communion, new believers study the Old and New Testaments in their own language, new believers must renounce all occultism and harmful folk Islamic practices, the Qu'ran, Muhammed, and traditional Muslim theology are critically examined and modified or rejected in light of Biblical truth, and high emphasis is put on Christian converts to display the fruit of the Spirit and other such spiritual growth.[35]                

       In conclusion of this discussion, an emphasis will be made for new converts to remain in the Islamic culture of the nation in order for the gospel to flourish.  Some of the new converts will be thrown out of his family and this is all right, the Operation will relocate him within the country, perhaps to another team, or he will be able to seek refuge outside of the country.  In all, the missionaries will need to concentrate fully and let the new converts know of the persecution that is imminent and promised in the Bible, but also it must be made known how this persecution can only lead to the victory of the gospel.[36]

       The final phase of this strategy is for the sponsoring of a congress similar to that of DAWN ministries where all of the leaders of house churches come together in Kabul to strategize church planting within and without of their urban centers.  This is when the urban congregations start planning to reach out into the countryside.

Conclusion

       This paper has walked through the demographics of Afghanistan and the history that affects the present proposed strategy at hand.  The research of current missionary work has been a great help in condensing the proposed strategy to methods that work for the Muslim people and especially the Pashtuns in Afghanistan.  The strategy to reach the Pashtun people consists of four phases.  The first phase dealt with the preparatory necessities of any mission, our Lord says, "And whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come after me, cannot be my disciple.  For which of you, intending to build a tower, sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost, whether he have sufficient to finish it?"[37]  The second phase dealt with the immersing and incarnation-aspect of the mission.  The third phase dealt with the execution of the mission and finally sowing and reaping of the harvest that is plentiful in the land.  The most important part of Phase 3 is the communication and appealing and begging to the "Lord of the Harvest."[38]  The final phase is the phase of recovery or sustaining of passions focused in a calculated projection.  As disciples, we are called to reproduce and the newly established churches in Afghanistan must reach out and reproduce, lest their fire is blown out under the mighty winds and wiles of the devil.

Let this paper be finally concluded with the Word of our Lord:

" That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it."[39] 

      

Bibliography

 

Bergen, Peter L.  The Osama bin Laden I know: An Oral History of Al-Qaeda’s Leader. 

 

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       https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html [Last

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       Asia."  http://www.5talents.com/world/asia/asia_businessmen_fellowship.htm 

       [Accessed February 25, 2008].

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       http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/RMOI-

       6FS3NH?OpenDocument&rc=3&cc=afg [Published online on August 30, 2005].

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       [Accessed February 25, 2008].

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       Kidnappings Killed.”  Associated Press.   

       http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,297140,00.html [September 18, 2007].

Franks, Tommy R.  American Soldier.  New York: Harper Collins, 2004.

Friends Afghan Concern.  "Aid Groups."  http://afghanistan.quaker.org/AidOrgs.htm

       [Accessed February 25, 2008].

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       Constitution."  CNS News.  http://www.cnsnews.com/ViewForeignBureaus.

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       by Cybercast News Service on February 07, 2008].

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       http://www.radioafghan.com/ [accessed February 25, 2008].

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       http://www.operationworld.org/country/afgh/owtext.html [Paternoster Publishing,

       published online by Global Mapping International, 2001].

Joshua Project: A Ministry of the U.S. Center for World Mission.  “Pashtun, Southern

 

       Afghani of Afghanistan.”  People-in-Country Profile.    

 

       http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=107909&rog3=AF [accessed

       February 25, 2008].

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      Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2004.

Moreau, Scott A., and Corwin, Gary R., and McGee, Gary B.  Introducing World

 

       Missions: A Biblical, Historical, and Practical Survey.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 2004.

Rasanavagam, Angelo.  Afghanistan: A Modern History: Monarchy, Despotism or

 

       democracy? The Problems of Governance in the Muslim Tradition.  New York, I.B.

       Tauris, 2003.

Tanner, Stephen.  Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the Fall

  

       of the Taliban.  New York: De Capo Press, 2002.

Tarzi, Amin.  "Afghan Case Shows Constitution Contradictions."  RFE/RL: ISN ETH

       Zurich.  http://www.isn.ethz.ch/news/sw/details.cfm?ID=15217 [published March  

       23, 2006].

U.S. State Department, “Background Note: Afghanistan.” Bureau of South and Central

       Asian Affairs.  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5380.htm [last updated December

       2007].

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       Version.  Chattanooga: AMG Publishers, 1991.


----

       [1] Moreau, Scott A., and Corwin, Gary R., and McGee, Gary B.  Introducing World Missions: A Biblical, Historical, and Practical Survey.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 2004.

       [2] DAWN is an acronym meaning 'Discipling A Whole Nation.'  Dawn Ministries.  “Discipling A Whole Nation.” http://www.dawnministries.org/ [accessed February 25, 2008].

       [3]  Ibid.

      [4] Central Intelligence Agency.  “Afghanistan.” The World Fact book. 

 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html [Last updated on 12 February 2008].

      [5] Johnstone, Patrick J. St. G.  “Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.”  Operation World. 

http://www.operationworld.org/country/afgh/owtext.html [Paternoster Publishing, published online by Global Mapping International, 2001].Also see Wycliff's website for more information.

       [6] Central Intelligence Agency.  “Afghanistan.” The World Fact book. 

 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html [Last updated on 12 February 2008].

       [7] Careful Study of DAWN's omission of Afghanistan from its Arab-Turkic World outreach makes this clear.

      [8] Note that Pakistani Pashtuns are called Northern Pashtuns, while Afghan Pashtuns are called Southern Pashtuns. 

      [9] Johnstone, Patrick J. St. G.  “Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.”  Operation World. http://www.operationworld.org/country/afgh/owtext.html [Paternoster Publishing, published online by Global Mapping International, 2001].

     [10] Joshua Project: A Ministry of the U.S. Center for World Mission.  “Pashtun, Southern Afghani of Afghanistan.”  People-in-Country Profile http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=107909&rog3=AF [accessed February 25, 2008].

       [11] U.S. State Department, “Background Note: Afghanistan.” Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs.  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5380.htm [last updated December 2007].

       [12] Tanner, Stephen.  Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the Fall of the Taliban.  New York: De Capo Press, 2002.

       [13] Rasanavagam, Angelo.  Afghanistan: A Modern History: Monarchy, Despotism or democracy? The Problems of Governance in the Muslim Tradition.  (New York, I.B. Tauris, 2003.)

       [14] Ibid

       [15]  Bergen, Peter L.  The Osama bin Laden I know: An Oral History of Al-Qaeda’s Leader.  New York: Free Press, 2006.

       [16] Ibid.

       [17] Franks, Tommy R.  American Soldier.  New York: Harper Collins, 2004.

       [18] Johnstone, Patrick J. St. G.  “Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.”  Operation World. http://www.operationworld.org/country/afgh/owtext.html [Paternoster Publishing, published online by Global Mapping International, 2001].

 

      [19]  http://www.dancewithshadows.com/society/afghanistan-south-korea-evangelists.asp

      [20] FOX News Network.  “Afgan Officials: Taliban Leader Behind South Korean Kidnappings Killed.”  Associated Press.http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,297140,00.html [September 18, 2007].

      [21] A list of those organizations can be found here: Friends Afghan Concern.  "Aid Groups."  http://afghanistan.quaker.org/AidOrgs.htm [accessed February 25, 2008].

        

     [22] Goodenough, Patrick.  "Afghan Blasphemy Death Sentence Shows Islam's Role in  

Constitution."  CNS News.  http://www.cnsnews.com/ViewForeignBureaus.asp?Page=/ForeignBureaus/archive/200802/INT20080207a.html [Published online by Cybercast News Service on February 07, 2008].

      [23] Tarzi, Amin.  "Afghan case shows constitution contradictions."  RFE/RL: ISN ETH Zurich.  http://www.isn.ethz.ch/news/sw/details.cfm?ID=15217 [published March 23, 2006].

        [24] GMF, INC.  "Voice of Christ."  http://www.masih.tv/ [accessed February 25, 2008]. And HHM, INC.  "Radio Word of Life: Afghan Christian Radio." http://www.radioafghan.com/ [accessed February 25, 2008].

       [25] Christian Children's Fund (CCF).  "Children and Youth Education: Afghanistan." http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/RMOI-6FS3NH?OpenDocument&rc=3&cc=afg [Published online on August 30, 2005].

      [26] Christian Business Directory Websites.  "Christian Businessmen Fellowship Websites in Asia." http://www.5talents.com/world/asia/asia_businessmen_fellowship.htm [accessed February 25, 2008].

       [27] Letham, Robert.  The Holy Trinity: In Scripture, History, Theology, and Worship.   (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2004.) See pp. 442-446

      [28] Winter, Ralph D. and Hawthorne, Steven C.  Perspectives on the World Christian Movement: A Reader.  3rd edition.  (Pasadena: William Cary Library, 1999.)   Chapter 95

       [29]  Ibid.

      

       [30] Ibid.

       [31] Ibid. Chapter 124, article 5

       [32] Ibid. Chapter 97

   

      [33] Ibid.  Chapter 104, the vision is for Mosques to become Messianic Mosques

     

      [34] Ibid.  See Chapter 96 for C1 to C6 spectrum

      [35] Ibid. Chapter 97

     [36] Ibid.  Chapter 30 

     [37] Luke 14:27-28

     [38] Matthew 9:38

     [39] Matthew 16:18, emphasis mine, KJV

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