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1 Petrus 1

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1 Petrus 1 : 2.

Addisioneel

1:2a Ons lees hier van al drie die Persone van die Drie-eenheid: God die Vader, en God die Seun en God die Heilige Gees werk saam om ons verlossing te bewerkstellig. Die Vader het ons gekies lank voor ons Hom gekies het (Ef 1:4), die Seun het vir ons gesterf toe ons nog sondaars was (Rom 5:6–10), en die Heilige Gees werk in ons harte en lewens om verlossing te bring en ons so te verander dat ons sal wees soos God wil hê ons moet wees.

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Both ἐκλεκτοῖς and παρεπιδήμοις (parepidēmois, foreigners) can be either adjectival or substantive (see the second additional note on 1:1). These words are best understood as substantives in apposition, with parepidēmois in apposition to eklektois. As a substantive, parepidēmois refers to those who live in a place where they do not hold citizenship, even if residing there for an extended time. Taking parepidēmois in apposition to eklektois (the chosen who are also foreigners) highlights both the vertical and the horizontal dimensions of their identity as Christians. On the one hand, they are chosen with respect to God (the vertical dimension), but at the same time, they are foreigners with respect to their sociopolitical world (the horizontal dimension). Moreover, this description of people who are both chosen by God and foreigners in the place of their residence lends itself to the spiritual understanding of parepidēmos as describing the Christian’s earthly life as a temporary residence in this world, on the way to the Christian’s ultimate home in the realized kingdom of God (Achtemeier 1996: 82; W. Barclay 1976: 167–68; Beare 1970: 75; Best 1971: 70; Bigg 1956: 90; Blum 1981: 219; Clowney 1988: 228; Cranfield 1958: 14; Davids 1990: 46–47; Goppelt 1993: 67; Kelly 1969: 41; Michaels 1988: 6; Reicke 1964: 76; Stibbs 1979: 72).[2]

1.      According to the Foreknowledge of God the Father (1:2a)

The attribute of God primarily in Peter’s mind is his eternal foreknowledge, which effectively issues in the circumstances of history. These Asian Christians were chosen according to the foreknowledge (πρόγνωσις, prognōsis)—not simply the knowledge—of God the Father. In the NT the noun occurs in only one other verse in reference to Jesus, who was handed over for crucifixion by God’s will and foreknowledge (Acts 2:23). The verbal form proginōskō occurs twice in the NT in the active voice with God as subject (Rom. 8:29; 11:2), and in both occurrences with God’s people as the object of his foreknowledge. The NT understanding of God’s foreknowledge of his people indicates that God did not simply observe them or have information about them at some prior time in history. Instead, God chose them according to (κατά, kata), or consistent with, his plan and purpose long before God formed a people to be his own. First Peter 1:20 states that the redemptive role of Christ was also foreknown (proginōskō) to God before the creation of the world. Therefore, verses 2 and 20 express correlating thoughts that even before creation God had chosen both the people who would be redeemed and the agent who would redeem them. Regardless of whether one accepts the idea of individual election before creation, “the essential point is that Christians are in the church not merely by their own decision, but by the initiative of God who has called them” (Boring 1999: 55). Peter here instructs his readers that God’s divine initiative has operated in their lives even before they were aware of it. It is this purposeful plan of God, larger than an individual’s life, that forms the ultimate foundation for the hope and encouragement that Peter is about to offer.

Peter describes his readers’ relationship to God by referring to him as God the Father. Contrary to the popular idea that all people are entitled to call God “Father” because he is the Creator of all, Peter’s use of the term is anchored to two reference points. Of first importance, the God to whom Peter refers is the Father of the Lord Jesus Christ (1:3). God’s fatherly relationship to Christ is the theological foundation for his fatherly relationship to believers in Christ. Second, Peter develops and expands the father-child paradigm throughout his letter. The Christians to whom Peter writes have been regenerated, or reborn (ἀναγεννήσας, anagennēsas), by the imperishable seed of God’s word (1:3, 23). God has therefore become their Father, though in a different sense than he is the Father of Jesus Christ.

With this prepositional phrase, “chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father,” Peter reminds his readers that the God who took the initiative in their lives has drawn them into an intimate, loving, and redemptive relationship with him, but also one in which God claims supreme authority over their lives. Such a reminder is apt at times when Christians are troubled by the circumstances in which they find themselves, confused about how to live, and tempted to doubt God’s goodness or faithfulness.

2.      By the Consecration of the Spirit (1:2b)

These chosen, who are foreigners of the Asian “Diaspora,” have also been chosen ἐν ἁγιασμῷ πνεύματος (en hagiasmō pneumatos, by the consecration, or sanctification, of the Spirit). A few questions concerning syntax and sense arise among commentators: (1) Is the en locative or instrumental? (2) Does pneumatos refer to the human spirit or the Holy Spirit? (3) Is the sense of hagiasmō to be understood as a transformation of character (what theologians call sanctification) or a setting apart for a purpose (consecration)?

Following Selwyn (1958: 119), Grudem (1988: 52) takes the phrase en hagiasmō pneumatos to be locative, in the sense that the whole existence of the chosen foreigners “is being lived ‘in’ the realm of the sanctifying work of the Spirit.” Selwyn takes the location to be the inner person, where the “inward part of the sacrament of baptism” occurs. Both Selwyn and Grudem take the whole of verse 1 as the governing thought of these three prepositional phrases, but if eklektois is the more specific

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unto obedience—the result or end aimed at by God as respects us, the obedience which consists in faith, and that which flows from faith; “obeying the truth through the Spirit” (1Pe 1:22). Ro 1:5, “obedience to the faith,” and obedience the fruit of faith.[4]

a. Foreknowledge

“According to the foreknowledge of God the Father.” Most translators favor linking the word elect to the three prepositional clauses:

according to the foreknowledge of God the Father,

through the sanctifying work of the Spirit,

for obedience to Jesus Christ

and sprinkling by his blood.9

A few translations follow the Greek word order verbatim: “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the elect who are sojourners of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, according to the foreknowledge of God the Father.”10 But the force of the sentence focuses attention on the expression elect, because the concept foreknowledge is directly related to election.

What is foreknowledge? It is much more than the ability to predict future events. It includes the absolute sovereignty of God in determining and implementing his decision to save sinful man.11 The word foreknowledge appears in Peter’s Pentecost sermon, where he declares to his Jewish audience that Jesus “was handed over to you by God’s set purpose and foreknowledge” (Acts 2:23). Peter implies that God worked according to his sovereign plan and purpose which he had made in advance.

Paul also refers to foreknowledge. The verb foreknow occurs in Romans 8:29, “For those God foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the likeness of his Son.” Paul indicates that the concepts foreknowledge and predestination go together. Foreknowledge and predestination were acts of God before the creation of this world (see Eph. 1:4–5). The prefixes fore- and pre- in the phrase foreknew and predestined (Rom. 8:29) denote as much.

Returning to Peter’s first epistle, we note that Peter, writing about Christ, mentions the teaching of election when he says, “He was chosen [foreknown] before the creation of the world” (1:20).

With perfect ease Peter weaves the doctrine of the Trinity into the cloth of his epistle. Within the Christian community, that doctrine was accepted and understood, so that the writers of the New Testament had no need to introduce, explain, or defend it against possible Jewish attacks.12

Peter speaks of God the Father, the Spirit, and Jesus Christ (see also Eph. 1:3–14). The order he chooses is arbitrary, for he is interested not in sequence but in the function each person of the Trinity performs. God the Father foreknows and chooses the sinner. By describing God as Father, Peter implies that the people God has chosen and whom Peter calls “elect” are indeed God’s children. They are highly privileged because they are parties to the covenant God has made with his people:

“I will be a Father to you,

and you will be my sons and daughters,

says the Lord Almighty.” [II Cor. 6:18]

Note that God’s elect “have been chosen [elected] according to the foreknowledge of God the Father.” How is man’s election realized? It is effected through the power of the Holy Spirit, who cleanses the elect from sin.

b. Sanctification

Peter writes his epistle to the elect “who have been chosen … through the sanctifying work of the Spirit.” When Peter speaks of the sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit, he delineates the difference between a holy God and a sinful man. The Spirit is at work when he makes man holy and acceptable in the sight of God; sinful man, however, cannot enter the presence of a holy God unless God through his Spirit sanctifies him.

Peter is not alone in teaching the sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit. Paul writes virtually the same thing to the church in Thessalonica: “From the beginning God chose you to be saved through the sanctifying work of the Spirit and through belief in the truth” (II Thess. 2:13).

The original Greek indicates that the sanctifying work of the Spirit is a continuing activity or process rather than a completed act that results in a state of perfected holiness.13 In this process man does not remain passive while the Spirit is active. Man is also deeply involved. Peter exhorts the believers, “But just as he who called you is holy, so be holy in all you do; for it is written: ‘Be holy, because I am holy’ ” (1:15–16).

c. Obedience and sprinkling

Why does the Spirit sanctify the elect? Peter says that it is “for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood.” He repeats his reference to obedience in subsequent verses of this chapter: “As obedient children, do not conform to the evil desires you had when you lived in ignorance” (v. 14); “Now that you have purified yourselves by obeying the truth, so that you have sincere love for your brothers, love one another deeply, from the heart” (v. 22).

In the Greek Peter actually says, “for obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ.”14 With the terms obedience and sprinkling Peter refers to the confirmation of the covenant that God made with the people of Israel (see Exod. 24:3–8). Moses read the Book of the Covenant to the people. “They responded, ‘We will do everything the Lord has said; we will obey’ ” (v. 7). Then Moses sprinkled blood on the people and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that the Lord has made with you in accordance with all these words” (v. 8). The writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews comments that Jesus shed his blood to take away the sins of God’s people (9:18–28; 12:24).15

Peter declares that through Jesus’ sacrificial death on the cross, he redeemed and purchased the elect (compare 1:18–19). Thus, in summary, the Triune God has given them three distinct privileges: God the Father foreknows them, God the Spirit sanctifies them, and Jesus Christ cleanses them from sin through the sprinkling of his blood. Although the shedding of blood has taken place once for all, its significance has lasting effect and is an enduring process.16 Jesus Christ continues to cleanse us from sin.

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Doctrinal Considerations in 1:1–2

Peter, who was an unschooled fisherman (Acts 4:13) from Galilee and the former leader of the Jerusalem church, now writes a letter to Christians living in Asia Minor. He begins his letter with an address in which he teaches the readers basic Christian truths: the doctrine of election and the doctrine of the Trinity.

Peter addresses his epistle to “God’s elect … who have been chosen.” He reveals that election is God’s work, that God wants a people for himself, and that the Triune God cares for his elect.

The doctrine of election provides genuine comfort and enormous encouragement for God’s people. By electing his people, God demands a thankful response from them. He expects them to obey his commands and to do his will. Nevertheless, he knows our weaknesses and frailty and realizes that we fall occasionally into sin. Therefore, he has made available the sanctifying power of the Spirit and the lasting effect of the sprinkling of Christ’s blood.

There is a fountain filled with blood,

Drawn from Immanuel’s veins;

And sinners, plunged beneath that flood,

Lose all their guilty stains.

—William Cowper

Greek Words, Phrases, and Constructions in 1:2

πρόγνωσιν θεοῦ πατρός—the genitive is subjective. That is, πρόγνωσις (foreknowledge) belongs to God the Father and in harmony with it he reveals himself to his people.

ἁγιασμῷ πνεύματος—the ending -μος of the noun ἁγιασμός (sanctification) expresses progressive activity. The dative case can either be instrumental or refer to sphere. Scholars prefer the instrumental dative. The case of πνεύματος (Spirit) is the subjective genitive (“the sanctifying power belonging to the Spirit”).

ῥαντισμὸν αἵματος—because of the -μος ending, the noun ῥαντισμός (sprinkling) denotes progress. The noun is qualified by the word αἵματος (blood) which points to the genitive case of Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. This genitive is subjective (“of Jesus Christ”) and as such relates only to αἵματος and not to ὑπακοήν (obedience). If the genitive of Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ is linked to ὑπακοήν, it is objective (“to Jesus Christ”). But a possible occurrence of the subjective and objective genitive in the same clause is difficult to explain. Therefore, I favor the use of the subjective genitive in the last part of this clause.

πληθυνθείν—this is the aorist passive in the optative mood from the verb πληθύνω (I multiply). The use of the passive indicates that God is the implied agent. The aorist is ingressive. And the optative connotes a wish (compare Dan. 4:1 LXX).

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1:1-2. Opskrif en groet. Soos dit gebruiklik was in die briefvorm van daardie tyd, stel die skrywer homself bekend en vermeld die ontvangers van die brief in die eerste verse. Hy is Petrus (Rots) en is die apostel (die gevolmagtigde getuie) van Jesus wat die Christus (Gesalfde) van God is. Die ontvangers is deur God die Vader self uitverkies om sy kinders te wees; deur die Gees lei die verkiesing tot gehoorsaamheid wat eintlik niks anders is nie as die geloof in Jesus Christus. Daarom kom dit tot uitdrukking in die doop waar die bloed (dood) van Jesus Christus toegeëien word, en dit lei tot ’n nuwe verhouding met God. Die werking van Vader, Gees en Seun beklemtoon die eenheid van God in sy heilsoptrede, alhoewel hier nog nie werklik sprake is van ’n triniteitsleer nie. Dit is eers later geformuleer. In die wêreld is die gelowiges vreemdelinge, ’n term wat ook gebruik word vir die Jode wat verstrooid oor die wêreld woon. As Christene is hulle ’n minderheid wat in talle opsigte nie tuis is in die toestande wat in die wêreld heers nie. Die vyf Romeinse provinsies waar hulle woon, strek oor die grootste deel van Klein-Asië (die huidige Turkye). Oor hierdie gelowiges kan die skrywer dan die bekende seëngroet van genade en vrede uitspreek. Hierdie Joodse groet het in die Christendom ’n geykte seëngroet geword. Dit druk die barmhartige toewending van God tot die mens uit. Vrede word moontlik vir hulle wat met God versoen is, en daarom met hulle medemens versoen kan word.[7]

2 Nou volg die vermelding van drie besondere weldade wat die gelowiges deelagtig geword het. Die bewerker van die weldade is die drie-enige God, Vader, Seun en Heilige Gees.

Hulle is uitverkies volgens die voorkennis van God die Vader. Volgens die Ou Testament is Israel van alle ander volke onderskei deurdat hulle die besondere volk is wat deur God as sy eiendom uitverkies is (Dt 14:2; Jes 45:4). Hierdie hoedanigheid word nou oorgedra op die gemeente van Christus, die nuwe volk van God (vgl. 2:9–10). In die wêreld swerf hulle soos vreemdelinge maar hulle kan van een ding verseker bly: hulle is die eiendom van God. In sy ewige voorkennis het Hy hulle uitverkies en dus ook verordineer om sy eiendom te wees (vgl. Rm 8:29–30; Hd 2:23). Ook ken Hy die begin en die einde van hulle vreemdelingskap en sal Hy hulle daarin bewaar.

Die Gees is die bewerker van hulle afsondering vir die Here sodat hulle ’n lewe kan lei wat “heilig” genoem kan word. Hier is ’n bedekte toespeling op die doop waardeur ons gereinig en deur die Heilige Gees geheilig word (vgl. 1 Kor 6:11). Die afsondering deur die Gees is die praktiese deurvoering van die uitverkiesing en dit kry gestalte in die lewe van gehoorsaamheid. Deur aan God gehoorsaam te bly, kan die vreemdelinge in die wêreld heilig en afgesonder lewe. Die bewerker van die heilige lewe is egter nie hulleself nie maar die Heilige Gees.

Elkeen wat hiertoe geroepe is, het die besprenkeling met die bloed van Jesus Christus nodig. Op grond van die Ou-Testamentiese agtergrond kan hierdie uitdrukking meer as een betekenis hê. Dit kan verwys na die reiniging van sonde deur die bloed. Soos onder die ou verbond die bloed van diere van sonde gereinig het, so reinig die bloed van Christus onder die nuwe verbond (vgl. Nm 19:9 en Heb 9:13–14). Dit kan ook verwys na die verbondsluiting deur die besprekeling van die bloed (vgl. Eks 24:3–8 en Heb 9:19 ev.). Dit kan ook ’n toespeling bevat op die priesterwyding waardeur hy vir die diens van God afgesonder word en ook vrye toegang tot God verkry (vgl. Eks 29:21; Lv 8:13; en Heb 10:19–22). Wat die bloed van diere onder die ou verbond moes doen, dit het die bloed van Christus onder die nuwe verbond gedoen. Die opvallende in ons teks is egter dat die reiniging deur die bloed nie voorop staan nie, maar laaste. Die volgorde wil te kenne gee dat die besprekeling deur die bloed deel is van die proses van heiligmaking. Dit behels dus meer as die versoening as ’n eenmalige gebeurtenis. Daagliks het die gelowige opnuut die vergifnis van sonde deur die bloed van Christus nodig. Dit moet hom begelei tot aan die end van sy verblyf as vreemdeling op die aarde (vgl. 1 Jh 1:7).

Die begroeting word afgesluit met die bede dat die lesers mag toeneem in die ondervinding van die genade en vrede wat die vader aan sy kinders skenk deur die Seun en die werking van die Heilige Gees. Wat die vorm betref, kom die bede ooreen met die seënbede in die briewe van Paulus. In die woord “genade” lê daar ’n toespeling op die Griekse groet, en in “vrede” ’n toespeling op die Joodse groet. Hierdie samevoeging dui moontlik daarop dat die ontvangers van die brief bekeerlinge uit die heidendom sowel as uit die Jodedom was.

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1:2      Who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father. NIV This verse mentions all three members of the Trinity—God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit. All members of the Trinity work to bring about our salvation and provide a threefold assurance to believers. Because of his grace and love, the Father chose us before we chose him (Ephesians 1:4). Jesus Christ the Son died for us while we were still sinners, gaining our salvation by shedding his blood (Romans 5:6–10). The Holy Spirit applies Christ’s sacrifice to our lives, bringing us the benefits of salvation, cleansing us, and setting us apart (sanctifying us) for God’s service (2 Thessalonians 2:13).

Although Christians are “strangers in the world” (1:1), they take comfort in the fact that they are “God’s elect,” God’s chosen. At one time, only the nation of Israel could claim to be God’s; but through Christ, all believers—Jews and Gentiles—are his chosen people.

But how are God’s people “chosen”? Don’t people make their own choices? While doctrines of election, predestination, and God’s choice of believers have generated fierce doctrinal differences among Christians, most of these differences come from theological and philosophical points of view about what the Bible means. God alone originates and accomplishes our salvation because of his grace. We do nothing to earn it. God’s choice of each believer is based on

•     his gracious mercy, so there is no room for our pride. Sinners deserve nothing but wrath; God’s mercy alone offers salvation.

•     his decision in eternity past, so there is no room for us to doubt our salvation or our future in heaven. Nothing that happens in time can change God’s promises to us.

•     his sovereign control, so there is no room for fatalism. Some are saved, some are not, yet this does not make God unjust, for God owes mercy to no one. We should marvel not that he withholds mercy from some, but that he gives grace to any.

•     his love for us as provided in Christ, so there is no room for apathy. God’s incredible love for us should make us change our way of life and be willing to serve, honor, and glorify God alone.

Being “chosen” according to God’s foreknowledge in no way removes the necessity for people to choose to follow him. The fact that God knows all events and decisions beforehand, even ordains them beforehand, does not mean that he forces the actions of his creatures, leaving them no choice.

The word translated “foreknowledge” means more than simply that God knew ahead of time who would respond to his call. It goes much deeper, into God’s grace, sovereignty, and authorship of salvation (see Numbers 16:5; Deuteronomy 7:6–8; Amos 3:2). God’s choice has more to do with his love and generosity. First, God’s foreknowledge means that he took the initiative and chose people before they had done anything to deserve it. Second, God had intimate knowledge of these future believers; he knew who would believe, and he knew them personally. These chosen ones were known by God the Father as a father knows his children, except that God knew about them from eternity past. God is not trapped in time—what he knows is from eternity past into eternity future. Third, God makes his choice effective by the presence of the Holy Spirit in those who believe, resulting in obedience.

They were chosen, but not against their own will. When the time came, they would accept the gospel message. In 1:20, Peter described Christ as being “chosen before the creation of the world.” God chose Christ, knew Christ intimately, and did not force Christ to pay the penalty for sin. Christ freely accepted the task assigned to him by the Father.

The Greek wording leaves open the possibility that the phrase “according to the foreknowledge of God” modifies “God’s elect, strangers in the world, scattered …” If Peter meant this, he was telling these scattered and persecuted believers that God knew their situations and he had known this from the beginning of time. Everything was happening in accordance with God’s foreknowledge—he was not surprised.

Salvation and assurance rest in the free and merciful choice of almighty God; no trials or persecutions can take away the eternal life he gives to those who believe in him.

Through the sanctifying work of the Spirit. NIV These people are God’s chosen only because of his grace and mercy and through the sanctifying work of the Spirit. (Paul used the same phrase in 2 Thessalonians 2:13.) Only the Spirit can draw people to a saving relationship with God. “The man without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned” (1 Corinthians 2:14 niv). The Spirit comes to the chosen people to sanctify them. Sanctification refers to the process of Christian growth through which the Holy Spirit makes us like Christ. We are set apart by God for his special use. We experience the inner transformation whereby the Spirit changes us. The Spirit draws us from sin toward obedience. He does that by reminding us of our new status in Christ (Romans 8:15–17; John 14:20) and by using Scripture to strengthen and guide us (John 17:17). Only the Holy Spirit can help us reach that goal; we cannot, in our own power, become like Christ. Sanctification is a gradual, lifelong process that will be completed when we see Christ face-to-face (1 John 3:2).

For obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood. NIV The result of the chosen status of God’s people and their sanctification is obedience to the gospel, which proclaims the saving act of Jesus Christ. Sprinkling by his blood refers to the initial cleansing of each believer because of Christ’s blood shed on the cross (Hebrews 10:22) and to the day-to-day cleansing from sin through Christ’s blood (1 John 1:7). The constant cleansing from sin available to us because of Christ’s sacrifice enables us to obey God faithfully.

In these first two verses of his letter, Peter has already used decidedly Jewish, Old Testament terminology and applied it to New Testament believers. Many in Peter’s audience were Jewish Christians, familiar with his references:

•     The Old Testament Jews had been scattered from their homeland; Christians are scattered and awaiting return to their homeland in heaven (1:1).

•     The Old Testament Jews had been called God’s chosen and elect people (Isaiah 43:20); Christians are God’s chosen and elect people, sanctified and willing to obey.

•     In the Old Testament, three ceremonies involved the sprinkling of blood on the people. First, through Moses, God had sealed his first covenant with the Old Testament Jews by the sprinkling of blood, both on the altar and on the people (Exodus 24:3–8); Christians are metaphorically sprinkled with the spilled blood of the Savior, sealing God’s new covenant with them (Luke 22:20). Second, the ordination of priests (Exodus 29:21); Peter called the Christians a royal priesthood (2:9), indicating each individual believer’s access to God. Third, the purification ceremony of a leper who had been healed of the dread disease (Leviticus 14:6–7); Christians also have been cleansed from a deadly disease, the defilement of sin, by Christ’s shed blood (Hebrews 9:14).

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[1]Van Wil Vosloo, a. V. R. F. J. (1997, c1993). Die Bybel in Praktyk (Nuwe Vertaling) (1 Pet 1:2). Vereeniging: Christelike Uitgewersmaatskappy.

[2]Jobes, K. H. (2005). 1 Peter. Baker exegetical commentary on the New Testament (67). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

NT New Testament

[3]Jobes, K. H. (2005). 1 Peter. Baker exegetical commentary on the New Testament (68). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

[4]Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., Fausset, A. R., Brown, D., & Brown, D. (1997). A commentary, critical and explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments. On spine: Critical and explanatory commentary. (1 Pet 1:2). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

9 With variations, these translations include KJV, NKJV, NASB, RSV, NAB, NEB, NIV, JB, GNB, MLB, and Moffatt.

10 See, e.g., RV, ASV.

11 Lothar Coenen writes that the purpose of election is to show “in the midst of world history God’s sovereign acts, his grace, and the seriousness of his demands. The doctrine of election is thus an indissoluable part of the knowledge of God’s holiness, uniqueness, and unconditioned sovereignty.” NIDNTT, vol. 1, p. 538.

12 Donald Guthrie observes that none of the New Testament writers “sees the need to speculate about such a doctrine.” New Testament Theology (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity, 1981), p. 112.

13 Refer to D. Edmond Hiebert, First Peter: An Expositional Commentary (Chicago: Moody, 1984), p. 38.

14 Some translations follow the exact word order of the Greek (KJV, RV, ASV, NKJV). The NEB has the reading “hallowed to his service by the Spirit, and consecrated with the sprinkled blood of Jesus Christ.”

15 Consult F. J. A. Hort, The First Epistle of St. Peter (London: Macmillan, 1898; Minneapolis: Klock and Klock, 1976), p. 23. Compare Vincent Taylor, Jesus and His Sacrifice (London: Macmillan, 1937), p. 137. Also see Selwyn, The First Epistle of St. Peter, p. 120; Guthrie, New Testament Theology, p. 474.

16 Refer to S. Greijdanus, De Brieven van de Apostelen Petrus en Johannes, en de Brief van Judas, Kommentaar op het Nieuwe Testament series (Amsterdam: Van Bottenburg, 1929), p. 33.

[5]Kistemaker, S. J., & Hendriksen, W. (1953-2001). Vol. 16: New Testament commentary : Exposition of the Epistles of Peter and the Epistle of Jude. Accompanying biblical text is author's translation. New Testament Commentary (35). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.

LXX Septuagint

[6]Kistemaker, S. J., & Hendriksen, W. (1953-2001). Vol. 16: New Testament commentary : Exposition of the Epistles of Peter and the Epistle of Jude. Accompanying biblical text is author's translation. New Testament Commentary (38). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.

[7]van Zyl, A. (1997, c1993). Die Bybel verklaar : 1983-vertaling. Verklarings oorspronklik in 1989 uitgegee saam met die Bybelteks onder die titel: Verklarende Bybel. (1 Pet 1:1). Kaapstad: Lux Verbi.

[8]Die briewe van Petrus -- Die brief van Judas. 1998, c1977 (1 Pet 1:2). Kaapstad: N.G. Kerk-Uitgewers.

NIV Scripture quotations marked NIV are taken from the Holy Bible, New International Version®. NIV®. Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan Publishing House. All rights reserved.

[9]Barton, B. B. (1995). 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude. Life application Bible commentary (21). Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House Pub.

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