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Exodus Institutes: Hebrews 1.5-14

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The Role of Angels in the Bible

The Pillar New Testament Commentary: The Letter to the Hebrews I. Introduction: God’s Final Word to Us in His Son, 1:1–4

In the Old Testament angels played a role in revelation and redemption (Exod. 3:2; Isa. 63:9). Further, it was believed that the law had been mediated to Moses through angels (Acts 7:38–39; Gal. 3:19), a notion shared by the writer of Hebrews and his readers: the law was ‘the message spoken through angels’ (2:2)

In the Old Testament angels played a role in revelation and redemption (; ).
Further, it was believed that the law had been mediated to Moses through angels (; ), a notion shared by the writer of Hebrews and his readers: the law was ‘the message spoken through angels’ (2:2).
Angels are considered the most authoritative voice to God’s people.
Angels are so impressive that mankind tends to want to worship them when they show up.
Paul warns against Angel worship in
And in Paul says his gospel is more authoritative than the words of an angel. And why? because he received his gospel from Christ. Who is greater than angels.
So the rest of Hebrews chapter one is concerned with Christ superiority over angels

Christ is Superior to the Angels

As we look at we will see that it has a very significant structure.
verses 5-14 are broken up into three movements
The author presents three pairs of Old Testament passages, together with a climactic final quotation of .

First Movement: Superior Relationship (1:5)

The first pair (; ) proclaims the Son’s superiority to angels because of his unique relationship to the Father ().

Second Movement: Superior Position (1:6-7)

The second (; ) draws attention to the positive but inferior position and ministry of angels (), and the the superiority of the Son as one worthy of worship.

Third Movement: Superior Status (1:8-12)

The third pair of texts (; ) focusses on the Son’s eternal, unchanging nature ()

Climatic End (1:13)

the three movements come to a climatic end in verse 13 when the author quotes

First Movement: Superior Relationship (1:5)

Believers are the ones who are united to Christ, not angels. We are the ones given the morning star, the credential for rule, by Jesus himself.
Believers are the ones who will be put over nations. As Paul says, “don’t you realize that you will judge angels? (1 Cor 6.3)
Hebrews 1:5 ESV
5 For to which of the angels did God ever say, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”? Or again, “I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son”?
This verse sets up the rest of the chapter
For*
Verse 5 stars with the word for, which introduces a reason statement
The author speaker is providing the grounds or basis for a previous statement.
The speaker is providing the grounds or basis for a previous statement or group of statements.
The previous statement is verses 1-5 and the 8 Christological statments
8 Christological Statements
Heir of all things
Creator of the world
Radiance of the glory of God
Exact imprint of his nature
upholds the universe
Made purification for sins
Sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high
Much superior to angels
So the author wants to prove this divine resume in the following verses.

Verses 5–12 consist of ‘three movements’. The author presents three pairs of Old Testament passages, together with a climactic final quotation of Psalm 110:1. Each has an introductory formula directing attention to angels,127 while the three units draw a contrast between them and the Son.

The author presents three pairs of Old Testament passages, together with a climactic final quotation of . Each has an introductory formula directing attention to angels,127 while the three units draw a contrast between them and the Son.
The author presents three pairs of Old Testament passages, together with a climactic final quotation of .
So Verse five is made up of two OT quotes

The first pair (Ps. 2:7; 2 Sam. 7:14) proclaims the Son’s superiority to angels because of his unique relationship to the Father (Heb. 1:5). The second (Ps. 97:7; 104:4) draws attention to the positive but inferior position and ministry of angels (Heb. 1:6–7), while the third pair of texts (Ps. 45:6–7; 102:25–27) focusses on the Son’s eternal, unchanging nature (Heb. 1:8–12)

The second (; ) draws attention to the positive but inferior position and ministry of angels (),
The third pair of texts (; ) focusses on the Son’s eternal, unchanging nature ()
The first is psalm 2.7 and the second is from 7.14
Hebrews 1:5 ESV
5 For to which of the angels did God ever say, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”? Or again, “I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son”?
According to Jewish thought, a person’s name revealed his essential nature and could express rank and dignity. Jesus had the name “Son” from all eternity, and it is the name he will always keep, as the perfect tense of the phrase “the name he has inherited” indicates.
Psalm 2:7 ESV
7 I will tell of the decree: The Lord said to me, “You are my Son; today I have begotten you.
What do we learn about this “SON” in psalm 2?
It is a royal Psalm - the Son is a king
What do we learn about this SON from other NT quotations of ?
Psalm two is often quoted in the NT.
acts 4:24-28 (Quotes ps 2.1-2 only)
Acts shows us that this psalm is indeed about Christ, and specifically about his crucifixion
is individually quoted three times in the NT. Once here in Hebrew 1 and again in Hebrew 5 and Acts 13
Hebrews 5:5 ESV
5 So also Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”;
What do we learn about the Son here?
That his Sonship is connected to his exaltation as high priest.
What is this? (ascension)
Christ is at the right hand of God interceding for us as high priest.
Ok lets look at acts 13
Acts 13:32–33 ESV
32 And we bring you the good news that what God promised to the fathers, 33 this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus, as also it is written in the second Psalm, “ ‘You are my Son, today I have begotten you.’
here we see that the Sonship of Christ is connected directly to his resurrection.
So when the author quotes psalms 2 we see that Jesus fulfills this psalm through his death (acts 4) and his resurrection
He also quotes

13 He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son

2 sam 7 13-14
This speaks of the dividic covenant
2 Samuel 7:14 ESV
14 I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. When he commits iniquity, I will discipline him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men,
That God would give David an everlasting throne.
2 Samuel 7:13–14 ESV
13 He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. When he commits iniquity, I will discipline him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men,
So Hebrews is showing Jesus’ supiriority over the angels by stating that
he never called an angel his son
Throne and rule
He never promised to be a father to angels
Throne

Second Movement: Superior Position (1:6-7)

Not only is Jesus the Son of God thus superior
But he is also superior in his position in that the angels themselves worship the Son.
Hebrews 1:6 ESV
6 And again, when he brings the firstborn into the world, he says, “Let all God’s angels worship him.”
What does he mean when he says firstborn into the world?
early heresy says Jesus was created
But he is also superior in his position in that the angels themselves worship the Son.
New creation?
Heaven?
New creation?
He quotes deut. 32:43 which helps us understand the context of this worship
Deuteronomy 32:43 ESV
43 “Rejoice with him, O heavens; bow down to him, all gods, for he avenges the blood of his children and takes vengeance on his adversaries. He repays those who hate him and cleanses his people’s land.”
Jesus is worshiped as he is positioned at the right hand of the father in heaven.
However, through the gospel and his spirit heaven and earth are fused together like they never were before Christ.
And where the gospel goes so goes the rule and reign of Christ, thus bringing new creation.
He is the first born of the new creation
So he shows the position of the Son as one worthy of worship, he then shows the position of angels as ones who serve.
Hebrews 1:7 ESV
7 Of the angels he says, “He makes his angels winds, and his ministers a flame of fire.”
In part, this verse speaks of God’s use of angels over the natural world

Third Movement: Superior Status (1:8-12)

The author then quotes both and
Hebrews 1:8 ESV
8 But of the Son he says, “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, the scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom.
once at the end in verse
Hebrews 1:13 ESV
13 And to which of the angels has he ever said, “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet”?
hebrews 1
Hebrews 1:9 ESV
9 You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions.”
Hebrews 1:10 ESV
10 And, “You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands;
Hebrews 1:11 ESV
11 they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment,
Hebrews 1:12 ESV
12 like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end.”

Climatic End (1:13)

Hebrews 1:13 ESV
13 And to which of the angels has he ever said, “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet”?
is God’s favorite verse in the bible

1st Speech: Jesus’ Divine Sonship

According to Jewish thought, a person’s name revealed his essential nature and could express rank and dignity. Jesus had the name “Son” from all eternity, and it is the name he will always keep, as the perfect tense of the phrase “the name he has inherited” indicates.

This verse is quoted or alluded to 23 times in the NT. It is quoted in 11 out of 27 NT books, and by 7 of the 9 NT authors.
Why is this God’s favorite verse, and why is it quoted more often than any other verse?
It gets to the heart of the gospel
The gospel is God’s grand story that he is telling, and it is good news for us!
jesus is on the throne, and he will not be defeated!
Hebrews 1:5 ESV
5 For to which of the angels did God ever say, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”? Or again, “I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son”?
Psalm 2:7 ESV
7 I will tell of the decree: The Lord said to me, “You are my Son; today I have begotten you.
Psalm two is often quoted in the NT.
Acts shows us that this psalm is indeed about Christ, and specifically about his crucifixion
is individually quoted three times
2 Samuel 7:13 ESV
13 He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.
Acts 13:32 ESV
32 And we bring you the good news that what God promised to the fathers,
2 Samuel 7:14 ESV
14 I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. When he commits iniquity, I will discipline him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men,
Acts 13:33 ESV
33 this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus, as also it is written in the second Psalm, “ ‘You are my Son, today I have begotten you.’
Acts 13.33
Acts 13:33 ESV
33 this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus, as also it is written in the second Psalm, “ ‘You are my Son, today I have begotten you.’
Hebrews 5:5 ESV
5 So also Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”;
Acts 13:32–33 ESV
32 And we bring you the good news that what God promised to the fathers, 33 this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus, as also it is written in the second Psalm, “ ‘You are my Son, today I have begotten you.’
acts 13
Son’s Rule over creation
Jesus inherits rulership and dominion, angles do not. Angels are ministering spirits who serve the human believers who inherit salvation and are adopted into YHWH’s family.
Believers are the ones who are united to Christ, not angels. We are the ones given the morning star, the credential for rule, by Jesus himself.
Believers are the ones who will be put over nations. As Paul says, “don’t you realize that you will judge angels? ()
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