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Vindication of God

  1. The tragic unbelief of Israel (9:1-5)

1.1              The apostle’s sorrow (vs. 1-3)

1.2              The unbelievable unbelief (vs. 4-5)

1.3              The charge against God- Has His Word failed? (vs. 6a)

  1. The vindication of God (9:6b-11:36)

     

      2.1 – “For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel”- Issue of Election

2.1.1        Abraham’s real children (6b-9) “it is not children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as descendents”

2.1.2        Isaacs’s son Jacob and the reversal of primogeniture (vs. 10-13) “God’s “prothesis kat’ eklogen” must stand, not because of works, but because of His call”.

2.1.2.1              Charge of God’s injustice- Rebuttal #1 God is Free to show mercy and compassion to whom He will  ( 9:14-18)

                        Vs. 16  “So it depends not upon mans’ will,…cf. Jam.                                                1:18

                        Vs. 18  “So then He has mercy upon whomever He,.

2.1.2.2              Charge of God’s injustice- Rebuttal #2- God’s Freedom As the  Master Potter (9:19-29)

                       

                       

2.1.2.2.1        The audacity of questioning the Master Potter (vs. 20-21) cf. Is. 45:9

2.1.2.2.2        God has endured with much patience the vessels of  wrath made for destruction (vs. 22-26)

-          desiring to show His wrath

-          to make known His power

-          in order to make known the riches of his glory for the vessels of mercy

            vs. 23b “which he prepared

                        beforehand for glory”

            vs. 24 “whom He called, Jew/Gentile

                        Gentile- Hos. 2:25; 2:1

                        Jew- Is. 10:24, Hos. 2:1, Is. 1:9

2.1.2.2.3   God’s preserves a Jewish remnant in the midst of

                 Jewish unbelief (vs. 27-29)

2.2              Israel’s Unbelief/Rejection of the Messiah (9:30-10:21)

            Gentiles who did not pursue righteousness have attained it, that is a                         righteousness through faith; but that Israel who pursued the righteousness

            Which is based on law did not succeed in fulfilling that law (vs. 30)  Why?

2.2.1        Because they did not pursue through faith, but as if it were based on works (vs. 32a)

2.2.2        Because they stumbled over the “stumbling stone” (vs. 32b-33)

            Vs. 33 a composite of Is. 28:16, Is. 8:14, Is. 28:16  cf. Mt. 21:42,44

                        Acts. 4:11, I Peter 2:4,6-8

[ My heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved[10:1

2.2.3        Because their religious zeal is misguided (10:2-4)

2.2.3.1              “They did not subject themselves to the r. of God (10:2-4

                        “not knowing about the r. that comes from God

           

            “seeking to establish their own r.

2.2.3.2              For Christ is the “telos” of the law for r. to everyone who   believes (10:4)

           

           

2.2.3.2.1        The accessibility of the “word of faith” contrasted  with the Mosaic legislation (vs. 5-13) cf.  II Cor.       3:12f, Hebrews 8:7f

                                    Vs. 5  Leviticus 18:5 –“the man who practices                                   the righteousness which is based on the law                                             shall live by that r.” cf. Romans 3:19-20,28

                                   

                                    Vs. 6-13   Dt. 30:11-14  “r. based on faith                                          speaks thus”

                                                Vs. 6   “Do not say in your heart,`                                                       Who will ascend into heaven? (that is                                                             to bring Christ down?)

                                                Vs. 7. “or `Who will descend into the                                                             abyss? (that is to bring Christ up from                                                             the dead).

                                                Vs. 8 “It says, “The word is near you,                                                             in your mouth and in your heart- the                                                   word of faith which we are preaching”

                                                            Confess with your mouth that                                                            Jesus is Lord

                                                                        Believe with your heart that                                                                           God raised Him from the                                                                                dead, you will be saved (vs. 9)

                                                                        Believing results in r.

                                                                        Confession results in                                                                                       salvation (Vs. 10)                                                                   

                                                                        Vs. 11-12 The Good News is                                                                          open to all  (Is. 28:16) for the                                                                          same Lord is Lord of all,                                                                                  abounding in riches for all                                                                           who call upon Him.

2.2.4   Because Israel resisted the Good News (10:14-21)

                        2.2.4.1 The Good News was proclaimed (vs. 14-18) cf. Acts 13:46f

                       

2.2.4.2 The Good News was understood (vs. 19-21)

2.2               Vindication of God- Part Three (11:1-36)

2.3.1 The Apostle Paul’s conversion proves God has not rejected His people           whom He foreknew (vs. 1-2)  cf. Acts 2:23; I Peter 1:2,20 Rom. 8:29

            Amos 3:2  use of “yada” as communicating more than just cognitive             awareness; notice as well the affirmation of chapter 11 vs. 4 “I have      kept for myself”

2.3.2 (vs. 3-10) God’s preservation of a remnant in the idolatrous days of     Elijah proves His fidelity. In the present day a remnant chosen by       grace exists (“by grace, it is no longer by works, otherwise grace          would no longer be grace), while the remaining Jews            were hardened             (vs. 3-10).

                       

                        2.3.2.1  Is. 29:10, Dt. 29:4

                        2.3.2.2 Psalms 69::22-23

God’s strategic plan for world evangelization confirms His commitment to Israel and demonstrates His mercy to the Gentiles.

2.3.3  (vs.11-16)Israel’s trespass sets the stage for Gentile evangelization,    which in turn   generates Jewish jealousy.  If Israel’s trespass means      riches for world, how much more will their full inclusion mean!  The lesson of the “first fruits” and the “roots” (Numbers 15:17-        21)  proves God salvific interest in the Jews.

2.3.4.  (vs. 17-24) The Lessons from the natural and wild olive tree.

2.3.4.1              Warning against Gentile pride  “stand in awe”, “stand fast only through faith” (Hab. 2:4  pride contradicts the meaning of faith) vs. 20

2.3.4.2              Warning against Gentile pride-Jewish root system supports you, (Rom. 15:27, John 4:22)  vs.18

                  Vs. 22 “Behold the goodness and severity of God                                   

2.3.4.3              Hope of Jewish revival and restoration-“God has                               the power to graft them in again”

2.3.5        (vs. 25-32) The Hardening of Israel is partial and is limited in                        duration. “a hardening has come upon part of Israel, until the        full number of the Gentiles come in, and so all Israel will be                   saved.

2.3.5.1              (vs. 26)  Is. 59:20

2.3.5.2              (vs. 27)  Jere. 31:33  Is. 27:9

2.3.5.3              (vs. 28-29)  God follows through with His promises to Abraham  (Genesis 12:1-3)

2.3.5.4              (vs.30-31) God’s impartiality

2.3.6   (vs. 33-36) The glorious doxology                                                                                           

ἐκλεκτός (24)

Adjective, accusative    elect (7)
  Matt 24:22    And if those days had not been cut short, no human being * would be saved. But for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short.
  Matt 24:24    For false christs and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.
  Matt 24:31    And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. *
  Mark 13:20    And if the Lord had not cut short the days, no human being * would be saved. But for the sake of the elect, whom he chose, he shortened the days.
  Mark 13:22    • False christs and false prophets will arise and perform signs and wonders, to lead astray, if possible, the elect.
  Mark 13:27    And then he will send out the angels and gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of heaven.
  2 Tim 2:10    Therefore I endure everything for the sake of the elect, that they also may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory.

Adjective, dative

elect (2)

  1 Pet 1:1    Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who are elect exiles of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cap-padocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
  2 John 1    The elder to the elect lady and her children, whom I love in truth, and not only I, but also all who know the truth,

Adjective, genitive

elect (5)

  Luke 18:7    And will not God give justice to his elect, who cry to him day and night? • Will he delay long over them?
  Rom 8:33    Who shall bring any charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies.
  1 Tim 5:21    In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus and of the elect angels I charge you to keep these rules without prejudging, doing nothing from partiality.
  Titus 1:1    Paul, a servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ, for the sake of the faith of God’s elect and their knowledge of the truth, which accords with godliness,
  2 John 13    The children of your elect sister greet you.

Substantive, accusative

elect (7)

  Matt 24:22    And if those days had not been cut short, no human being * would be saved. But for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short.
  Matt 24:24    For false christs and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.
  Matt 24:31    And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. *
  Mark 13:20    And if the Lord had not cut short the days, no human being * would be saved. But for the sake of the elect, whom he chose, he shortened the days.
  Mark 13:22    • False christs and false prophets will arise and perform signs and wonders, to lead astray, if possible, the elect.
  Mark 13:27    And then he will send out the angels and gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of heaven.
  2 Tim 2:10    Therefore I endure everything for the sake of the elect, that they also may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory.

Substantive, genitive

elect (3)

  Luke 18:7    And will not God give justice to his elect, who cry to him day and night? • Will he delay long over them?
  Rom 8:33    Who shall bring any charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies.
  Titus 1:1    Paul, a servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ, for the sake of the faith of God’s elect and their knowledge of the truth, which accords with godliness,

ἐκλογή (4)

Noun, accusative    election (3)
  Rom 9:11    though they were not yet born and had done nothing either good or bad— in order that God’s purpose of election might continue, not because of works but because of his call—
  Rom 11:28    • As regards the gospel, they are enemies of God for your sake. But as regards election, they are beloved for the sake of their forefathers.
  2 Pet 1:10    Therefore, brothers, be all the more diligent to make your calling and election sure, for if you practice these qualities you will never fall.

Noun, nominative

elect

  Rom 11:7    What then? Israel • failed to obtain what it was seeking. • The elect obtained it, but the rest were hardened,

 (5)

Definite Article, accusative    elect (2), election
  Matt 24:31    And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. *
  Mark 13:27    And then he will send out the angels and gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of heaven.
  Rom 11:28    • As regards the gospel, they are enemies of God for your sake. But as regards election, they are beloved for the sake of their forefathers.

Definite Article, genitive

elect (2)

  Luke 18:7    And will not God give justice to his elect, who cry to him day and night? • Will he delay long over them?
  2 John 13    The children of your elect sister greet you.

     Chosen
  Luke 9:35    And a voice came out of the cloud, saying, “This is my Son, my Chosen One; listen to him!”

αἱρετίζω (1)

Verb, aorist, active, indicative    chosen
  Matt 12:18    “ Behold, my servant whom I have chosen, my beloved with whom my soul is well pleased. I will put my Spirit upon him, and he will proclaim justice to the Gentiles.

ἀκρογωνιαῖος (2)

Adjective, accusative    chosen
  1 Pet 2:6    For it stands in Scripture: “Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a cornerstone chosen and precious, and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame.”

Noun, accusative

chosen

  1 Pet 2:6    For it stands in Scripture: “Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a cornerstone chosen and precious, and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame.”

ἐκλέγομαι (10)

Verb, aorist, deponent, indicative    chosen (5)
  Luke 10:42    but one thing is necessary. • Mary has chosen the good portion, which will not be taken away from her.”
  John 13:18    I am not speaking of all of you; I know whom I have chosen. But • the Scripture will be fulfilled, ‘He who ate my bread has lifted his heel against me.’
  Acts 1:2    until the day when he was taken up, after he had given commands through the Holy Spirit to the apostles whom he had chosen.
  Acts 1:24    And they prayed and said, “You, Lord, who know the hearts of all, show which one of these two you have chosen
  James 2:5    Listen, my beloved brothers, has not God chosen those who are poor in the world to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom, which he has promised to those who love him?

Verb, aorist, middle, indicative

chosen (5)

  Luke 10:42    but one thing is necessary. • Mary has chosen the good portion, which will not be taken away from her.”
  John 13:18    I am not speaking of all of you; I know whom I have chosen. But • the Scripture will be fulfilled, ‘He who ate my bread has lifted his heel against me.’
  Acts 1:2    until the day when he was taken up, after he had given commands through the Holy Spirit to the apostles whom he had chosen.
  Acts 1:24    And they prayed and said, “You, Lord, who know the hearts of all, show which one of these two you have chosen
  James 2:5    Listen, my beloved brothers, has not God chosen those who are poor in the world to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom, which he has promised to those who love him?

ἐκλεκτός (8)

Adjective, accusative    chosen (2)
  Rom 16:13    Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord; also his mother, who has been a mother to me as well.
  1 Pet 2:4    As you come to him, • a living stone rejected by men but in the sight of God chosen and precious,

Adjective, nominative

chosen (5)

  Matt 22:14    For many are called, but few are chosen.”
  Luke 23:35    And the people stood by, watching, but the rulers scoffed at him, saying, “He saved others; let him save himself, if he is the Christ of God, his Chosen One!”
  Col 3:12    Put on then, as God’s chosen ones, holy and beloved, compassion, kindness, humility, meekness, and patience,
  1 Pet 2:9    But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.
  Rev 17:14    They will make war on the Lamb, and the Lamb will conquer them, for he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those with him are called and chosen and faithful.”

Substantive, nominative

Chosen

  Luke 23:35    And the people stood by, watching, but the rulers scoffed at him, saying, “He saved others; let him save himself, if he is the Christ of God, his Chosen One!”

ἐκλογή (3)

Noun, accusative    chosen (2)
  Rom 11:5    So too at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace.
  1 Thess 1:4    For we know, brothers loved by God, that he has chosen you,

Noun, genitive

chosen

  Acts 9:15    But the Lord said to him, “Go, for he is a chosen instrument of mine to carry my name before • the Gentiles and kings and the children of Israel.

θέλω (1)

Verb, aorist, active, indicative    chosen
  1 Cor 15:38    But God gives it a body as he has chosen, and to each kind of seed its own body.

κατά (1)

Preposition, accusative    chosen
  Rom 11:5    So too at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace.

λαγχάνω (1)

Verb, second aorist, active, indicative    chosen
  Luke 1:9    according to the custom of the priesthood, he was chosen by lot to enter • the temple of the Lord and burn incense.

λαμβάνω (1)

Verb, present, passive, nominative    chosen
  Heb 5:1    For every high priest chosen from among men is appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins.

 (3)

Definite Article, accusative    chosen (2)
  Rom 16:13    Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord; also his mother, who has been a mother to me as well.
  1 Thess 1:4    For we know, brothers loved by God, that he has chosen you,

Definite Article, dative

chosen

  Acts 10:41    not to all the people but to us who had been chosen by God as witnesses, who ate and drank with him after he rose from the dead.

προχειροτονέω (1)

Verb, perfect, passive, dative    chosen
  Acts 10:41    not to all the people but to us who had been chosen by God as witnesses, who ate and drank with him after he rose from the dead.

συνεκλεκτός (2)

Adjective, nominative    chosen
  1 Pet 5:13    She who is at Babylon, who is likewise chosen, sends you greetings, and so does Mark, my son.

Substantive, nominative

chosen

  1 Pet 5:13    She who is at Babylon, who is likewise chosen, sends you greetings, and so does Mark, my son.

πωρόω (6)

Verb, aorist, active, indicative    hardened
  John 12:40    “He has blinded their eyes and hardened their heart, lest they see with their eyes, and understand with their heart, and turn, and I would heal them.”

Verb, aorist, passive, indicative

hardened (2)

  Rom 11:7    What then? Israel • failed to obtain what it was seeking. • The elect obtained it, but the rest were hardened,
  2 Cor 3:14    But their minds were hardened. For to this day, when they read the old covenant, that same veil • • remains unlifted, because only through Christ is it taken away.

Verb, perfect, middle, nominative

hardened

  Mark 6:52    for they did not understand about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened.

Verb, perfect, passive, accusative

hardened

  Mark 8:17    And Jesus, aware of this, said to them, “Why are you discussing the fact that you have no bread? Do you not yet perceive or understand? Are your hearts hardened?

Verb, perfect, passive, nominative

hardened

  Mark 6:52    for they did not understand about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened.

πώρωσις (1)

Noun, nominative    hardening
  Rom 11:25    • Lest you be wise in your own conceits, I want you to understand this mystery, brothers : a partial hardening has come upon Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in.

σκληρύνω (8)

Verb, aorist, passive, subjunctive    hardened
  Heb 3:13    But exhort one another every day, as long as it is called “today,” that none of you may be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin.

Verb, present, active, indicative

hardens

  Rom 9:18    So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills.

Verb, present, active, subjunctive

harden (3)

  Heb 3:8    do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion, on the day of testing in the wilderness,
  Heb 3:15    As it is said, “Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion.”
  Heb 4:7    again he appoints a certain day, “Today,” saying through David so long afterward, in the words • already quoted, “Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts.”

Verb, second aorist, active, subjunctive

harden (3)

  Heb 3:8    do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion, on the day of testing in the wilderness,
  Heb 3:15    As it is said, “Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion.”
  Heb 4:7    again he appoints a certain day, “Today,” saying through David so long afterward, in the words • already quoted, “Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts.”

HARDENED

Yet Pharaoh’s heart was hardened,     Ex 7:13     2388

and Pharaoh’s heart was hardened,     Ex 7:22     2388

he hardened his heart and did not listen     Ex 8:15     3513

But Pharaoh’s heart was hardened,     Ex 8:19     2388

hardened his heart this time also,     Ex 8:32     3513

But the heart of Pharaoh was hardened,     Ex 9:7     3513

And the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart,     Ex 9:12     2388

he sinned again and hardened his heart     Ex 9:34     3513

Pharaoh’s heart was hardened,     Ex 9:35     2388

for I have hardened his heart and the     Ex 10:1     3513

But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart,     Ex 10:20     2388

But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart,     Ex 10:27     2388

yet the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart,     Ex 11:10     2388

The Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh,     Ex 14:8     2388

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