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Matthew 21.33 thru 43 Exegetical

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Matthew 21:33-43

“The parable of the hired workers in the vineyard”


Parallelism w/OT Reading:

  • Isaiah is against Israel as a whole (a man of Judah)
  • This is directed against the religious leaders
  • Not that the vineyard is going to be destroyed but taken away from it’s current leadership         
    • What is it that is the role of the pastor?
      • And who are you-the congregation?
        • You are God’s vineyard/property!
        • Not that you want to kill Jesus?

Matthew 21:33 "Hear another parable. A man was a master of a house who planted a

:Allhn parabolh.n avkou,sateÅ a;nqrwpoj h=n oivkodespo,thj o[stij evfu,teusen avmpelw/na

  • Third Declension

vineyard and put a hedge around it and he dug in it a trough/winepress in it and he built a tower and let it out/leased

kai. fragmo.n auvtw/| perie,qhken kai. w;ruxen evn auvtw/| lhno.n kai. wv|kodo,mhsen pu,rgon kai.


it to tenant farmers, and went into another country.

evxe,deto auvto.n gewrgoi/j kai. avpedh,mhsenÅ

  • Tenant farmers with absentee landowners were not uncommon


34 And when the time of fruits drew near, he sent his servants to the

o[te de. h;ggisen o` kairo.j tw/n karpw/n( avpe,steilen tou.j dou,louj auvtou/ pro.j tou.j

  • Lots of Aorist indicatives

tenants to get his fruits.

gewrgou.j labei/n tou.j karpou.j auvtou/Å

35 And taking his slaves the tenants beat one, killed another, and

kai. labo,ntej oi` gewrgoi. tou.j dou,louj auvtou/ o]n me.n e;deiran( o]n de. avpe,kteinan( o]n de.

  • Relative pronoun “de” over and over

stoned another.


36 Again he sent other slaves, more than the first. And they did more of same to them.

pa,lin avpe,steilen a;llouj dou,louj plei,onaj tw/n prw,twn( kai. evpoi,hsan auvtoi/j w`sau,twjÅ

  • Genitive of comparison

37 Finally he sent his son to them, saying, 'They will respect my son.'

u[steron de. avpe,steilen pro.j auvtou.j to.n ui`o.n auvtou/ le,gwn\ evntraph,sontai to.n ui`o,n mouÅ

“to be shamed” in future ind. passive

                                                                                                becomes transitive=respect

Passive verb can become direct object

  • This is the key to the parable
    • This is what the pastor must do-help the people to respect the Son
      • Christology
      • This is at the heart of what we do

38 But when the tenants saw the son, they said to themselves, 'This is the heir. Come, let

oi` de. gewrgoi. ivdo,ntej to.n ui`o.n ei=pon evn e`autoi/j\ ou-to,j evstin o` klhrono,moj\ deu/te

us kill him and let us have his inheritance.'

avpoktei,nwmen auvto.n kai. scw/men th.n klhronomi,an auvtou/(

aor subjunctive

39 And they took him and threw him out of the vineyard and they killed him.

kai. labo,ntej auvto.n evxe,balon e;xw tou/ avmpelw/noj kai. avpe,kteinanÅ

40 Therefore whenever the owner of the vineyard comes, what will he do to those tenants?"

o[tan ou=n e;lqh| o` ku,rioj tou/ avmpelw/noj( ti, poih,sei toi/j gewrgoi/j evkei,noijÈ

41 They said to him, "He will destroy those wretches and let out the

le,gousin auvtw/|\ kakou.j kakw/j avpole,sei auvtou.j kai. to.n avmpelw/na evkdw,setai a;lloij

vineyard to other tenants who will repay him the fruits in their times."

gewrgoi/j( oi[tinej avpodw,sousin auvtw/| tou.j karpou.j evn toi/j kairoi/j auvtw/nÅ

  • This is said by the very ones He is talking about!
    • He is not destroying the vineyard but it needs new leadership
    • The apostles and those after them will work the vineyard and give Him the fruits

42 Jesus said to them, "Did you never read in the Scriptures: "' The stone which the

Le,gei auvtoi/j o` VIhsou/j\ ouvde,pote avne,gnwte evn tai/j grafai/j\ li,qon o]n avpedoki,masan oi`

  • Psalm 118 (often sited in NT), 1 Peter, and Acts 4

building guys rejected became unto the head of a corner; this was the Lord's doing, and it

oivkodomou/ntej( ou-toj evgenh,qh eivj kefalh.n gwni,aj\ para. kuri,ou evge,neto au[th kai. e;stin

is marvelous in our eyes'?

qaumasth. evn ovfqalmoi/j h`mw/nÈ

43 Therefore I say this to you, the reigning of God will be taken from you and will be

dia. tou/to le,gw u`mi/n o[ti avrqh,setai avfV u`mw/n h` basilei,a tou/ qeou/ kai. doqh,setai e;qnei

given to a people producing its fruits.

poiou/nti tou.j karpou.j auvth/jÅ

Verse 45: When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard his parables, they knew that about them he was speaking. 46 And although they were seeking to arrest him, they feared the crowds, because they held him to be a prophet.

  • It is about the responsibilities of the vineyard workers and they did not give the fruits to the master of the vineyard (God)
  • Invite the congregation to pray for me to always know the Son and be able to teach to others respect and understanding
    • You are God’s vineyard, so rejoice!
    • He planted you, He nurtures you, but He also sends workers to tend to you
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