OT 501 Lecture 4 January 17
January 17, 2008
Ethical Image of God:
Has to do with holiness, righteousness, truth
Kline: (quote read during the lecture) “The Bible includes functional, formal, and ethical components. Ethical glory is the reflection of the holiness, righteousness, and truth of God.” Only possible if one has put one’s faith in Who He really is. If one’s view of God is distorted or if one is not in touch with God, the ethical image of God will also be distorted.
State of simple righteousness
posse non peccare – to be able not to sin
condition Adam and Eve found themselves
State of confirmed righteousness
non posse peccare-- not able to sin
If Adam and Eve had not sinned … would’ve entered state of confirmed righteousness.
glorification of the body (very speculative)
Retention of the Image
The Physical / Formal Image is retained.
The Functional Image is retained as well (Rom 3:23).
The Ethical image is lost (all have sinned and fallen short… )
Distortions of the Image
Royal (Rev 11:18) – in their exercise of rule over the planet, people abuse and destroy it.
Priestly – Adam and Eve were priests of sort of watching over the Garden of Eden as a temple … as human we have failed in our care of the earth … and there are false priests.
Prophetic – there are false religions (e.g. Muhammad’s false revelation)
Warrior -- Jihad, Holy War (cherem) which means to set apart for destruction. There can only be Holy War where the Lord commands it. He only commands it where He is waging war. Have it in the conquest and in the eschaton Revelation 19. Jihadist are not waging holy war. There is also spiritual warfare. Ephesians 6. There is no neutral zone. Not a bad thing to pray for protection – because the enemy will try to get through to us.
“Just war” There is Holy warfare and there is war / warfare of judgment. Jeremiah 18 (Potter’s Wheel) … If I intend to bless and build up a nation and it turns away from me, I will judge that nation and vice versa. God judges all nations. Genesis 18:25-26. God raises up one nation to judge another.
Questions that should be asked to determine whether a war is just or not.
1) Is there suitable provocation?
2) Does the punishment fit the crime? Is it proportionate?
3) Is God bringing forth Judgment? Not always easy to determine.
OT: has a lot of this information because of the form of the kingdom in the OT is a nation-state.
NT: the form of the kingdom is the church and the church is in any nation.
e.g. the Iraq War … Saddam Hussein’s regime was an unjust regime … does that mean that USA is the apple of God’s eye? Just because the Lord raises up one nation to judge another doesn’t mean that nation is the “apple of God’s eye”. As in the case of Habakkuk, sometimes the nation God uses to judge another nation is even worse than the nation it is sent to judge.
Isaiah 2:12 … The Lord is set against everything that is proud and self-exalting – especially those who put their trust in their wealth and military power. Another example is the 911 crisis and the toppling of the twine towers. If God is going to judge a nation, he is probably going to judge it for reasons like those put forth in this verse.
Cause of Distortions
Hosea 9:10 (refers back to Num 25) Idolatry is a cause of distortion
Ps 135:15-18, Isaiah 6:9-10
Principle: We become what we worship!
2 Cor 3:18
OT Evidence of Human Composition
Gen 2:7 breath nesharah
It’s ambiguous whether the breath in Genesis 2:7 is the Holy Spirit or simply God’s breath.
Job 33:4 Elihu
Ezek 36:27 (important verse … we need the indwelling of the Holy Spirit to help us keep God’s commandments). NT Saints have the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in a way that OT Saints did not. In Rom 7 Paul is speaking of a man under the law … but we need the Holy Spirit to enable us to be obedient to the law of God.
Hebrew preposition that is used almost all the time is “al” … the Spirit of God came upon people but didn’t dwell within them. He came upon Saul, David, etc.
No one is called a “temple” in the OT either.
1 Thess 5:23
God’s Involvement in our Creation
Adam & Eve
Eph 2:10 (Good way to start the day is to ask the Lord to lead us into the works that we really ought to be doing … the works that he has prepared for us to do.
Jeremiah 1:4-5 (This statement is true of all of us)
Redemption / Restoration of Image
Loss of God’s Presence / Face: Once human beings enter into a sin state there is a separation from God as indicated in Gen 3:8. So, as a result, there is fear whenever the Lord is present. This is as it should be, because his holiness would consume us.
spirit / wind day
Kline takes this as the Spirit of the Day
In Akkadian umu1 day
This is a storm theophany. God appears as he does on Sinai. Read God at Sinai (chapter 5). Not that God comes in the cool of the day but rather as a storm theophany. The storm aspect hides the Lord for our sakes, because He is powerful and too awesome in his holiness for us to bear. Once Adam and Eve are in sin, the way God shows up is in a storm theophany.
Job 3:15 is another example of this.
The Presence of God brings salvation.
Moses’ radiant face Ex 34:29-32 Dt 34:7
Aaronic blessing Num 6:25-26
shalom (peace) … the peace is not simply the absence of conflict, but it is also wholeness. This is the inner wholeness that only the Spirit of God can produce. (2 Cor 3:18)
OT Healings: These come about where the Lord shows up and does something.
Signs and wonders Exodus 7:3 (first use of the words in the Bible). These have a destructive aspect but they also have a deliverance aspect.
When Jesus does signs and wonders the same things are there. This is most evident when Jesus is casting out demons.
Elijah 1 Kg 17:24
Elisha 2 Kg 5
The Hebrew word for temple is heycal
Essential idea of temple is that it’s a residence (it’s a place where God lives).
2 Sam 7:2
War à temple building
David is saying that God has helped me win these wars, so I need to build a house for Him. This follows the ANE practice of kings going off to war and then returning to build temples to their Gods. house - bayit
house, temple, dwelling, tabernacle, mishhan, bayit
1 Cor 6:19
2 Peter 3:16-17
1 Cor 3:16-17
Pattern: Prophet wages war, builds temple.
After the fall, if God is going to establish any type of temple presence among his people, then it must be by warfare.
Consecration of the Temple
Mosaic (Ex 40:34-35)
1 Kings 8:10-11
1 Kings 9:3
The “name” of the Lord parallels the presence of the Lord
The name indicates the essential nature of the Lord. (also indicates ownership, authority, etc.) When Jesus invites us to ask “in his name” … He is inviting us to ask in his essential nature. (Rev 3:12; John 16:24)
God, Heavenly Temple, & Second Adam.
When we look at the way God entered His tabernacle and compare it with Acts 2:1-4. We see in Acts 2:1-4 a storm theophany and a consecrating of the temple. The Lord shows that he is pleased to enter those (the temple) who have gathered in the upper room. True with Moses, David, Jesus etc.
Hebrews 9:4 informs us that
The gold jar of the Manna Ex 16:32-33
Aaron’s staff that had budded Num 17:10
Stone Tablets of Law Ex. 25:16, Deut 31:26
All of these prefigure NT realities (they are typology)
Manna John 6:25-29 (Jesus is the true manna of which we have all partaken)
Priestly 1 Peter 2:5,9 (we are now a royal priesthood)
Torah Jer 31:33 (the law is written in our hearts)
Gen 22:14 Abraham calls the place Yahweh Yireh … which means literally Yahweh will see to it … Then we read on the Mount of the Lord “it will be provided” … the passive form of the verb “to see”. The same form is used when the Lord appears in theophany. So, this verse could be translated “on the mountain of the Lord He will appear”. Then later on he appeared to David (2 Chronicles 3:1) The Mountain we are talking about is Moriah which incidentally is where later on the temple will be built.
ancillary – from latin word meaning nurse
Threshing floor – the temple is built on a threshing floor … theme that occurs throughout the bible in relation to judgment. The process of separating the wheat from the chaff is also found in the ancient world. The harvested grain is spread out on hard packed earth or rock. Then you have your threshing sledge (boards fitted together … on the other side studded with stones). You stand on the sledge which is pulled around by an ox. The random action of the sledge being pulled over the grain would separate the grain from the chaff. Take what results and toss it into a light breeze. The grain would fall to the ground and the chaff would be blown away. This becomes metaphor for judgment.
Examples in ANE – Wise King Dan El in Ugaritic lore … sits on threshing floor to decide cases.
Garden-Temple Analogy (handout)
All of the examples cited highlight the fact that it’s appropriate to look at the Garden of Eden as a temple of sorts. A temple is essentially a place where God dwells!! Is this what Jesus alludes to in his remarks to the Samaritan woman at the well?
John 7:38-39 – Just as Eden has river flowing from it, we have living water flowing from our midst. Trees bore fruit and we too bear fruit. Leaves are for healing and the Lord brings healing through us.
Judgment Tree (Rev 22:2 there is a tree of life but not of judgment because the cross has served that purpose)
1 Peter 2:24
Divine Temple Abandonment: The Lord just allowed Eden to degenerate into common real estate. The idea is primordially associated with judgment. The notion is that without the presence of the Lord a temple is no longer a temple.
ANE also had the idea that gods could abandon the temple.
Sumarians had city laments. Inscrutable fate accounted for the downfall of kingdoms.
Assyria … temple is sim
Tukulti-Ninurta Epic (1240 BC) chronicles how the Assyrian King is the emperor and the Babylonian king is the vassal who rebels against Assyria. The gods then abandon the Babylonian temple.
Individual Abandonment is possible as well
Ezekiel 8:6 … the reasons for temple abandonment is shown to Ezekiel.
Ezekiel 10:19, 11:22-23 … Ezekiel sees the glory of the Lord depart from the simple and settle East of Jerusalem on the Mount of Olives.
Notice the pattern is similar:
1) There have been indictments
2) There has been temple / city abandonement
3) There is the session East of Jerusalem
We also see Jesus (the glory of the Lord incarnate) do this … Mt. 23:1-36; 23:39; 29:1, 3
1) The indictments are there (23:1-36)
2) He leaves the temple
3) In verse 3 he is on the Mount of Olives
The Lord abandons Eden, Solomonic Temple, Temple in Jesus’ day, then establishes his dwelling place with the church (true believers) etc. E
1 Sam 16:14 … here the Spirit of the Lord departs from Saul.
When there is true worship going on, an evil spirit doesn’t like it. It will leave. This is what is going on when David plays for Saul. Psalm 22:3 … God inhabits the praises of his people. So there is warfare going on in this incident and David wins out. The evil spirit departs.
1 Sam 16:14
The Cherubim – their Identity in Scripture as discerned from Ezekiel
The “Four Living Creatures” in Ezekiel and Revelation
Walter Eichardt (Ezekiel commentary)
half human / half bestial attributes loads them with all the powers of both species
Doug Stuart (Ezekiel commentary)
man chief over all, lion chief of wild animals, ox chief of domesticated animals, eagle chief of birds of the air … intelligence, strength, ferocity, freedom, etc. all wrapped up
Another way of understanding them … polemic against the Babylonian pantheon (I.G. Matthews)
Marduk – Ox (sky god)
Nergal -- Lion (underworld god)
Ninurta – eagle (god of war and the hunt)
Nabu – human (the announcer or revealer)
Babylonians had Cherubim … placed them to guard temples & palaces … takes us back to Gen 3:24
Seraphim in Isaiah & Revelation
Dr. Niehus suggests that the creatures in Revelation are actually Seraphim.
Holy, Holy, Holy is the trisagion 3x holy.
Temple guardianship is one role, but they also seem to support the Lord’s throne.
Exodus 25:17-22 parallels 37:6-9
1 Kings 6:23 Solomon makes a couple of Cherubim.
1 Kings 8:6, 10-11
“one who is enthroned above the Cherubim”
1 John 4:4
2 John 6:2
2 Kings 19:15
Psalms 80:1, 99:1
1 Kings 6:29,32
Since we have Cherubim guarding Eden, and the temple in heaven … Do we have them guarding us?
Hebrews 1:14; Acts 12:15; Matthew 18:10 … These verses seem to suggest guardian angels exist for each one of us. Not a bad idea to preach on this and draw people’s attention to what they really look like.
In the ancient world there is the idea that there was a primordial archetypal heavenly city. Which is the heavenly anu, which is the dwelling place of God and the souls of men made perfect. There is also the notion of the earthly anu. The heavenly city has a temple or palaces of the gods. The earthly city has the temples or palaces of the gods. The heavenly city has the gods. The earthly city has the idols or images of the gods.
From the heavenly city the instructions from the gods comes forth for the people to obey and live. Exquisitely portrayed in Isaiah 2:1-5; Micah 4:1-5. The nations will stream to the city of the Lord because the torah is going forth from it. Heavenly Jerusalem is a reality.
Heavenly city as archetype.
Heavenly city as theophanic image.
Primordial heavenly city.
Heavenly temple as archetype
Heavenly image as archetype.