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Romans Chapter 1

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Group Study of the Book of Romans Intro and Ch. 1

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Introduction to Romans

Theme:

Theme: Romans 1:16–17 states the overall theme of the book: the gospel of Christ is the power of God unto salvation to all who believe, and the righteous shall live by faith. From this theme Paul covers a variety of elements of Christian doctrine: sin, justification by faith, righteousness, grace, Law, and holiness.

Author and Date: According to Rom. 1:1, the human author was Paul. Paul, whose Hebrew name was Saul, was a devout, highly educated Jew who originally persecuted the Christians bitterly, but after a miraculous conversion experience he began to preach the gospel he once opposed. He became the chief apostle to the Gentiles, the greatest missionary of the early church, and the writer of much of the New Testament. Scholars have almost unanimously supported Pauline authorship of Romans. Paul dictated Romans to a Christian scribe named Tertius (Rom. 16:22). Apparently Phoebe, a worker in the church of Cenchrea, delivered the letter for Paul (Rom. 16:1–2).

The internal evidence strongly indicates Paul wrote Romans at Corinth in the region of Achaia, during his three month stay there while on his third missionary journey (Acts 20:2–3). He had preached the gospel all the way to Illyricum (north of Greece) but had not yet preached in Rome (Rom. 1:13; 15:19). At the time Paul wrote Romans he was staying with Gaius (Rom. 16:23); the Corinthian church had a member named Gaius whom Paul had baptized personally (1 Cor. 1:14). The city from which Paul wrote had a treasurer, which indicates it was a provincial capital or at least a large city (Rom. 16:1–2). Paul mentioned Cenchrea, the eastern seaport of Corinth, as though it were nearby (Rom. 16:1–2). Given this evidence, most scholars claim Paul wrote Romans during the winter of AD 57–58, placing the letter in the first half of Emperor Nero’s reign (AD 54–68), during a relatively peaceful, prosperous time for the city of Rome. This also makes Romans one of the first books of the New Testament to be written and among one of the earlier Pauline epistles.

Original Audience: Romans is addressed to the Christian believers in the city of Rome (Rom. 1:7). Rome was the largest, most important city in Paul’s world. At this time Rome had an estimated population of over 4,000,000, including a large Jewish population—large enough to support at least eleven synagogues. The traditional polytheistic religion of Rome was in a state of decay, and there were apparently a large number of Gentile “God-fearers” (individuals who attended the synagogue and conformed their lives to the moral commandments, though they had not officially become Jewish proselytes through circumcision). The church at Rome was apparently very large. Romans 16 indicates the believers met in several groups throughout the city. Paul’s comments suggest the church was strong and mature, and had existed for a number of years (Rom. 15:14, 23–24). Paul did not found the Roman church. Perhaps some of the Roman Jews present on the Day of Pentecost received the Holy Spirit and returned to Rome with the gospel (Acts 2:10). If not, then the Roman church probably came into existence as Christians migrated there from other parts of the Roman Empire, probably from churches Paul had established in Asia Minor. It seems a majority of the Roman church were Gentiles (Rom. 1:5; 11:13; 15:14–16). It appears, however, that there was a significant number of Jewish Christians in the church as well (Rom. 4:1; 9:10). Paul expected his readers to be familiar with the Old Testament, which suggests many in the church were Jews, Jewish proselytes, or Gentile “God-fearers” (Rom. 7:1).

Key Apostolic Insights: Romans presents the universal need for salvation and the solution to that need that only comes through Jesus Christ. Paul explored the key doctrines of original sin, justification by faith, and sanctification that inform our Pentecostal theology. A number of passages in the Book of Romans help us to understand the nature of the mighty God in Christ.

Notes

1:1 Paul introduced himself as a servant (the Greek word literally means a slave) of Jesus Christ. Paul described himself as called by God to be an apostle, a title which literally means one sent or a messenger.

1:3 The term “Son” refers to the manifestation of God in flesh. As a man, Jesus is the Son of God—the manifestation of God in flesh—because the Spirit of God caused the conception to take place in Mary’s womb. As to His divine nature, Jesus is the one God revealed in the Old Testament. As to His human nature, Jesus is David’s descendant, begotten of God and born of Mary.

1:4 Christ’s resurrection from the dead declared to all He was indeed the Son of God. Supernatural power effected the Resurrection, specifically the power of the Spirit of holiness. The Spirit of holiness is none other than Christ’s own holy, divine nature, for He raised Himself from the dead. Verses 3–4 contrast Christ’s humanity (according to the flesh) with His deity (according to the spirit of holiness). Christ’s “spirit of holiness” is the Holy Spirit—the two phrases are linguistically equivalent. The dead is plural in Greek, denoting the resurrection of Christ’s body was only the first of many physical resurrections to take place by the power of His Spirit (Rom. 8:11; 1 Cor. 15:20–23).

1:5 Grace is the unmerited favor of God. God bestowed this grace upon Paul in order to produce obedience to the faith—“the obedience of faith” (Rom. 16:26). Faith here does not mean doctrine but belief itself. From the outset, the Book of Romans makes clear that genuine faith will always produce, and cannot be separated from, obedience.

1:7 The greeting phrase here is typical of Paul’s epistles. It is not a reference to Trinitarianism; if it were, then why does it omit the Holy Spirit? Rather, the greeting emphasizes the necessity of not only acknowledging God as Creator and Father (which the Jews and many pagans did) but also acknowledging God’s revelation in Christ. It emphasizes God’s provision of salvation comes only through Christ. The definite article “the” does not appear in Greek before Lord Jesus Christ. So v. 7 literally says, “Grace to you and peace from God our Father and Lord Jesus Christ.” The Greek conjunction here is kai, which can mean even as well as and, depending on the context; so the phrase could actually mean from God our Father, even the Lord Jesus Christ. When we compare Rom. 1:7 with similar phrases elsewhere in Paul’s epistles, we find a strong indication that Paul meant to identify God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ as the same being (2 Thess. 1:12; 1 Tim. 5:21; 2 Tim. 4:1; and Titus 2:13). This is especially clear because Granville Sharp’s rule applies to the Greek text of these verses: If two nouns of the same number, gender, and case are connected by kai and if the first noun has the definite article but the second does not, then both nouns refer to the same thing.

1:16 By using the negative phrase Paul perhaps meant to stress he actually gloried in the gospel. Certainly it meant he was not disappointed in or embarrassed by the gospel. It would not shame him to preach the gospel even in intellectual, powerful, worldly Rome. He had this confidence, for he knew by experience how powerful the gospel was. Specifically, the gospel embodies the supernatural power of God unto salvation. Salvation covers all of God’s provision for the whole man—body, soul, and spirit—in the past, present, and future. It includes justification, sanctification, and glorification. The present tense indicates salvation is not predicated merely upon a one-time profession of faith but upon a continual relationship of faith. The gospel came first to the Jew, then to the Gentile. The text literally reads, the Greek, meaning Greek speakers. For the Jews in Paul’s day this term was more or less equivalent to Gentile, since Greek was the language of commerce throughout their world. The designation of Jew first does not indicate preference, for God shows no partiality (Rom. 2:11), but simply states the historical fact of temporal order: Christ, justification by faith, and the baptism of the Holy Spirit came to the Jews first. In the plan of God, however, the gospel has now extended to the Gentiles also.

1:17 Paul restated the truth that salvation comes by faith. The gospel reveals God’s righteousness to those who have faith. This revelation occurs “from faith to faith.” It is based on faith and revealed to those with faith. From start to finish it is a product of faith. All aspects of salvation, from initial justification to progressive sanctification to ultimate glorification, come by faith in God and not by human works. The Christian life progresses from one step of faith to another; it is a life characterized by continual faith. To establish that justification by faith was not a new concept, Paul quoted Hab. 2:4. The just means the righteous—one who is in correct legal status before God. This standing comes through faith, not works.

1:18 Just as the righteousness of God is revealed to the believer (Rom. 1:17), so the wrath of God is revealed against the unbeliever. We should not associate divine wrath with the sinfulness that often accompanies human anger, such as vindictiveness, bitterness, or personal hatred. Rather, God’s wrath is His judicial attitude in relation to sin. God’s hatred of sin is a necessary part of His love for man because sin damages, perverts, and destroys man.

1:20 All have an opportunity to know from the visible creation two of God’s invisible qualities: His eternal power and His Godhead (deity, divine nature). If the pagan will observe nature and reflect on it, he will realize creation has a Creator. Furthermore, this Creator must have great power—in fact, He must be divine. By contemplating God’s creation, the pagan can discover many aspects of God’s character, such as wisdom, order, and goodness. Consequently, no human being has an excuse for failure to serve God. If a person will act on the knowledge of God available to him, by worshiping God and seeking after Him, God will lead him to a saving knowledge.

1:21 The first sins were refusal to worship and unthankfulness—in short, indifference to God. Because of this attitude, people harbored vain, futile thoughts and began to lose the light they had. Their hearts were foolish, which here denotes lack of spiritual discernment or moral judgment rather than lack of intelligence. If one does not act on truth, he will lose it. If man refuses to walk in the light he possesses, that light will grow dim and then be extinguished.

1:24 Idolatry leads to uncleanness or sexual impurity. Because of idolatry, “God also gave them up.” A form of this phrase appears three times in this passage. God did not force them to sin, but because of their sin He allowed them to progress farther into sin. He no longer restrained them by divine grace but allowed them the freedom they demanded. Of course, this freedom to sin actually resulted in bondage, degradation, and damnation. Specifically, God gave them up to the sinful desires of their hearts. Without God as the source of morality, they began to indulge in sexual impurity, degrading their own bodies.

1:25 Idolatry is the worship of created things, so worship of the body through lustful indulgence in sexual immorality is a logical development from idolatry. The idolater worships images of men and animals until finally he begins to worship his own body.

1:26 Because men persisted in lusts, God gave them up to vile affections or shameful lusts. When man discards moral law, eventually nothing seems wrong to him. When man has indulged in his natural, sinful lusts without restraint, eventually he explores unnatural vices to satiate his jaded appetite.

1:27 The passage unambiguously describes, and just as clearly categorizes, lesbianism (v. 26) and male homosexuality (v. 27) as sinful. It does not indicate that homosexual lusts can be natural for some people, but labels all such desires and activities as vile, unnatural, and shameful. Nature itself bears witness that homosexual desires and actions are sinful. From the biblical, social, and biological points of view, homosexuality is unnatural and wrong. This does not mean that an individual homosexual is necessarily more evil than any other sinner; he may retain a degree of morality in other areas. The increasing incidence of this sin is primarily an indication of the increasing breakdown of society as a whole, not just the individual. Those who participate in these indecent activities receive in themselves the due payment or penalty for their perversion.

1:28 The Greek word for reprobate literally means not standing the test, unqualified, worthless, and base. By this point, the distinctions between right and wrong are confused or lost. After indulging in all kinds of sinful desires, men eventually lose even the morality taught by nature and conscience. They no longer think the things they commit are wrong. Since they did not want to retain the knowledge of God, He allowed them to lose all sense of morality, which caused them to do all kinds of evil things. Once someone reaches the place where he loses the distinctions between right and wrong, he no longer knows enough to repent and be saved. He is incapable of listening to nature and conscience because his mind has become so distorted. It is still possible, however, for him to come to a realization of right and wrong through the preaching of the Word of God and the convicting power of the Spirit of God.

Theme: states the overall theme of the book: the gospel of Christ is the power of God unto salvation to all who believe, and the righteous shall live by faith. From this theme Paul covers a variety of elements of Christian doctrine: sin, justification by faith, righteousness, grace, Law, and holiness.
Johnston, Robin, and Lee Ann Alexander, eds. Apostolic Study Bible: King James Version: Notes. Standard Edition. Hazelwood, MO: Word Aflame Press, 2014. Print.
Author and Date:

Author and Date:

Author and Date: According to Rom. 1:1, the human author was Paul. Paul, whose Hebrew name was Saul, was a devout, highly educated Jew who originally persecuted the Christians bitterly, but after a miraculous conversion experience he began to preach the gospel he once opposed. He became the chief apostle to the Gentiles, the greatest missionary of the early church, and the writer of much of the New Testament. Scholars have almost unanimously supported Pauline authorship of Romans. Paul dictated Romans to a Christian scribe named Tertius (Rom. 16:22). Apparently Phoebe, a worker in the church of Cenchrea, delivered the letter for Paul (Rom. 16:1–2).

The internal evidence strongly indicates Paul wrote Romans at Corinth in the region of Achaia, during his three month stay there while on his third missionary journey (Acts 20:2–3). He had preached the gospel all the way to Illyricum (north of Greece) but had not yet preached in Rome (Rom. 1:13; 15:19). At the time Paul wrote Romans he was staying with Gaius (Rom. 16:23); the Corinthian church had a member named Gaius whom Paul had baptized personally (1 Cor. 1:14). The city from which Paul wrote had a treasurer, which indicates it was a provincial capital or at least a large city (Rom. 16:1–2). Paul mentioned Cenchrea, the eastern seaport of Corinth, as though it were nearby (Rom. 16:1–2). Given this evidence, most scholars claim Paul wrote Romans during the winter of AD 57–58, placing the letter in the first half of Emperor Nero’s reign (AD 54–68), during a relatively peaceful, prosperous time for the city of Rome. This also makes Romans one of the first books of the New Testament to be written and among one of the earlier Pauline epistles.

Original Audience:

Original Audience: Romans is addressed to the Christian believers in the city of Rome (Rom. 1:7). Rome was the largest, most important city in Paul’s world. At this time Rome had an estimated population of over 4,000,000, including a large Jewish population—large enough to support at least eleven synagogues. The traditional polytheistic religion of Rome was in a state of decay, and there were apparently a large number of Gentile “God-fearers” (individuals who attended the synagogue and conformed their lives to the moral commandments, though they had not officially become Jewish proselytes through circumcision). The church at Rome was apparently very large. Romans 16 indicates the believers met in several groups throughout the city. Paul’s comments suggest the church was strong and mature, and had existed for a number of years (Rom. 15:14, 23–24). Paul did not found the Roman church. Perhaps some of the Roman Jews present on the Day of Pentecost received the Holy Spirit and returned to Rome with the gospel (Acts 2:10). If not, then the Roman church probably came into existence as Christians migrated there from other parts of the Roman Empire, probably from churches Paul had established in Asia Minor. It seems a majority of the Roman church were Gentiles (Rom. 1:5; 11:13; 15:14–16). It appears, however, that there was a significant number of Jewish Christians in the church as well (Rom. 4:1; 9:10). Paul expected his readers to be familiar with the Old Testament, which suggests many in the church were Jews, Jewish proselytes, or Gentile “God-fearers” (Rom. 7:1).

Key Apostolic Insights:

Key Apostolic Insights: Romans presents the universal need for salvation and the solution to that need that only comes through Jesus Christ. Paul explored the key doctrines of original sin, justification by faith, and sanctification that inform our Pentecostal theology. A number of passages in the Book of Romans help us to understand the nature of the mighty God in Christ.

Romans 1:1 KJV 1900
1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,
Romans 1:1 KJV 1900
1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

1:1 Paul introduced himself as a servant (the Greek word literally means a slave) of Jesus Christ. Paul described himself as called by God to be an apostle, a title which literally means one sent or a messenger.

Romans 1:3 KJV 1900
3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;
Romans 1:3 KJV 1900
3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;

1:3 The term “Son” refers to the manifestation of God in flesh. As a man, Jesus is the Son of God—the manifestation of God in flesh—because the Spirit of God caused the conception to take place in Mary’s womb. As to His divine nature, Jesus is the one God revealed in the Old Testament. As to His human nature, Jesus is David’s descendant, begotten of God and born of Mary.

Romans 1:4 KJV 1900
4 And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:
Romans 1:4 KJV 1900
4 And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:

1:4 Christ’s resurrection from the dead declared to all He was indeed the Son of God. Supernatural power effected the Resurrection, specifically the power of the Spirit of holiness. The Spirit of holiness is none other than Christ’s own holy, divine nature, for He raised Himself from the dead. Verses 3–4 contrast Christ’s humanity (according to the flesh) with His deity (according to the spirit of holiness). Christ’s “spirit of holiness” is the Holy Spirit—the two phrases are linguistically equivalent. The dead is plural in Greek, denoting the resurrection of Christ’s body was only the first of many physical resurrections to take place by the power of His Spirit (Rom. 8:11; 1 Cor. 15:20–23).

Romans 1:5 KJV 1900
5 By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name:
Romans 1:5 KJV 1900
5 By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name:

1:5 Grace is the unmerited favor of God. God bestowed this grace upon Paul in order to produce obedience to the faith—“the obedience of faith” (Rom. 16:26). Faith here does not mean doctrine but belief itself. From the outset, the Book of Romans makes clear that genuine faith will always produce, and cannot be separated from, obedience.

Romans 1:7 KJV 1900
7 To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

1:7 The greeting phrase here is typical of Paul’s epistles. It is not a reference to Trinitarianism; if it were, then why does it omit the Holy Spirit? Rather, the greeting emphasizes the necessity of not only acknowledging God as Creator and Father (which the Jews and many pagans did) but also acknowledging God’s revelation in Christ. It emphasizes God’s provision of salvation comes only through Christ. The definite article “the” does not appear in Greek before Lord Jesus Christ. So v. 7 literally says, “Grace to you and peace from God our Father and Lord Jesus Christ.” The Greek conjunction here is kai, which can mean even as well as and, depending on the context; so the phrase could actually mean from God our Father, even the Lord Jesus Christ. When we compare Rom. 1:7 with similar phrases elsewhere in Paul’s epistles, we find a strong indication that Paul meant to identify God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ as the same being (2 Thess. 1:12; 1 Tim. 5:21; 2 Tim. 4:1; and Titus 2:13). This is especially clear because Granville Sharp’s rule applies to the Greek text of these verses: If two nouns of the same number, gender, and case are connected by kai and if the first noun has the definite article but the second does not, then both nouns refer to the same thing.

Romans 1:16 KJV 1900
16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.

1:16 By using the negative phrase Paul perhaps meant to stress he actually gloried in the gospel. Certainly it meant he was not disappointed in or embarrassed by the gospel. It would not shame him to preach the gospel even in intellectual, powerful, worldly Rome. He had this confidence, for he knew by experience how powerful the gospel was. Specifically, the gospel embodies the supernatural power of God unto salvation. Salvation covers all of God’s provision for the whole man—body, soul, and spirit—in the past, present, and future. It includes justification, sanctification, and glorification. The present tense indicates salvation is not predicated merely upon a one-time profession of faith but upon a continual relationship of faith. The gospel came first to the Jew, then to the Gentile. The text literally reads, the Greek, meaning Greek speakers. For the Jews in Paul’s day this term was more or less equivalent to Gentile, since Greek was the language of commerce throughout their world. The designation of Jew first does not indicate preference, for God shows no partiality (Rom. 2:11), but simply states the historical fact of temporal order: Christ, justification by faith, and the baptism of the Holy Spirit came to the Jews first. In the plan of God, however, the gospel has now extended to the Gentiles also.

Romans 1:17 KJV 1900
17 For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith.

1:17 Paul restated the truth that salvation comes by faith. The gospel reveals God’s righteousness to those who have faith. This revelation occurs “from faith to faith.” It is based on faith and revealed to those with faith. From start to finish it is a product of faith. All aspects of salvation, from initial justification to progressive sanctification to ultimate glorification, come by faith in God and not by human works. The Christian life progresses from one step of faith to another; it is a life characterized by continual faith. To establish that justification by faith was not a new concept, Paul quoted Hab. 2:4. The just means the righteous—one who is in correct legal status before God. This standing comes through faith, not works.

Romans 1:18 KJV 1900
18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness;

1:18 Just as the righteousness of God is revealed to the believer (Rom. 1:17), so the wrath of God is revealed against the unbeliever. We should not associate divine wrath with the sinfulness that often accompanies human anger, such as vindictiveness, bitterness, or personal hatred. Rather, God’s wrath is His judicial attitude in relation to sin. God’s hatred of sin is a necessary part of His love for man because sin damages, perverts, and destroys man.

Romans 1:20 KJV 1900
20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:

1:20 All have an opportunity to know from the visible creation two of God’s invisible qualities: His eternal power and His Godhead (deity, divine nature). If the pagan will observe nature and reflect on it, he will realize creation has a Creator. Furthermore, this Creator must have great power—in fact, He must be divine. By contemplating God’s creation, the pagan can discover many aspects of God’s character, such as wisdom, order, and goodness. Consequently, no human being has an excuse for failure to serve God. If a person will act on the knowledge of God available to him, by worshiping God and seeking after Him, God will lead him to a saving knowledge.

Romans 1:21 KJV 1900
21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.

1:21 The first sins were refusal to worship and unthankfulness—in short, indifference to God. Because of this attitude, people harbored vain, futile thoughts and began to lose the light they had. Their hearts were foolish, which here denotes lack of spiritual discernment or moral judgment rather than lack of intelligence. If one does not act on truth, he will lose it. If man refuses to walk in the light he possesses, that light will grow dim and then be extinguished.

Romans 1:24 KJV 1900
24 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves:

1:24 Idolatry leads to uncleanness or sexual impurity. Because of idolatry, “God also gave them up.” A form of this phrase appears three times in this passage. God did not force them to sin, but because of their sin He allowed them to progress farther into sin. He no longer restrained them by divine grace but allowed them the freedom they demanded. Of course, this freedom to sin actually resulted in bondage, degradation, and damnation. Specifically, God gave them up to the sinful desires of their hearts. Without God as the source of morality, they began to indulge in sexual impurity, degrading their own bodies.

Romans 1:25 KJV 1900
25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.
rom 1.2

1:25 Idolatry is the worship of created things, so worship of the body through lustful indulgence in sexual immorality is a logical development from idolatry. The idolater worships images of men and animals until finally he begins to worship his own body.

Romans 1:26 KJV 1900
26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature:

1:26 Because men persisted in lusts, God gave them up to vile affections or shameful lusts. When man discards moral law, eventually nothing seems wrong to him. When man has indulged in his natural, sinful lusts without restraint, eventually he explores unnatural vices to satiate his jaded appetite.

Romans 1:27 KJV 1900
27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet.

1:27 The passage unambiguously describes, and just as clearly categorizes, lesbianism (v. 26) and male homosexuality (v. 27) as sinful. It does not indicate that homosexual lusts can be natural for some people, but labels all such desires and activities as vile, unnatural, and shameful. Nature itself bears witness that homosexual desires and actions are sinful. From the biblical, social, and biological points of view, homosexuality is unnatural and wrong. This does not mean that an individual homosexual is necessarily more evil than any other sinner; he may retain a degree of morality in other areas. The increasing incidence of this sin is primarily an indication of the increasing breakdown of society as a whole, not just the individual. Those who participate in these indecent activities receive in themselves the due payment or penalty for their perversion.

Romans 1:28 KJV 1900
28 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;

1:28 The Greek word for reprobate literally means not standing the test, unqualified, worthless, and base. By this point, the distinctions between right and wrong are confused or lost. After indulging in all kinds of sinful desires, men eventually lose even the morality taught by nature and conscience. They no longer think the things they commit are wrong. Since they did not want to retain the knowledge of God, He allowed them to lose all sense of morality, which caused them to do all kinds of evil things. Once someone reaches the place where he loses the distinctions between right and wrong, he no longer knows enough to repent and be saved. He is incapable of listening to nature and conscience because his mind has become so distorted. It is still possible, however, for him to come to a realization of right and wrong through the preaching of the Word of God and the convicting power of the Spirit of God.

Romans 1:22–32 KJV 1900
22 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, 23 And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things. 24 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: 25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen. 26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature: 27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet. 28 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient; 29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers, 30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, 31 Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful: 32 Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.

22 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,

23 And vchanged the glory of the uncorruptible God into wan image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and wfourfooted beasts, and creeping things.

24 Wherefore xGod also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, yto dishonour their own bodies between themselves:

25 Who changed zthe truth of God into aa lie, and worshipped and served the creature ||more than the Creator, who is bblessed for ever. Amen.

26 For this cause xGod gave them up unto cvile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature:

27 And likewise also dthe men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their elust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet.

28 And even as they did not flike ||to retain God in their knowledge, xGod gave them over to ||a reprobate mind, to do those things gwhich are not convenient;

29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, hiwickedness, hcovetousness, ijkmaliciousness; full of kenvy, murder, debate, deceit, lmalignity; mwhisperers,

m

30 Backbiters, nhaters of God, odespiteful, hpproud, pboasters, qinventors of evil things, pdisobedient to parents,

r

31 Without understanding, covenantbreakers, ||swithout natural affection, simplacable, unmerciful:

32 Who knowing tthe judgment of God, that they which commit such things uare worthy of death, not only do the same, but ||xhave pleasure in them that do them.

Romans 1:29–32 KJV 1900
29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers, 30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, 31 Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful: 32 Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.
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