Temptation of Christ
The Temptation of Christ
The Temptation of Christ
“耶穌被聖靈充滿，從約旦河回來，聖靈將他引到曠野， 四十天受魔鬼的試探。那些日子沒有吃甚麼；日子滿了，他就餓了。 魔鬼對他說：「你若是神的兒子，可以吩咐這塊石頭變成食物。」 耶穌回答說：「 經上 記着說：『人活着不是單靠食物， 乃是靠神口裏所出的一切話 。』」 魔鬼又領他上了 高山 ，霎時間把天下的萬國都指給他看， 對他說：「這一切權柄、榮華，我都要給你，因為這原是交付我的，我願意給誰就給誰。 你若在我面前下拜，這都要歸你。」 耶穌說：「 經上 記着說： 當拜主－你的神， 單要事奉他。」 魔鬼又領他到 耶路撒冷 去，叫他站在殿頂 上，對他說：「你若是神的兒子，可以從這裏跳下去； 因為 經上 記着說： 主要為你吩咐他的使者保護你； 他們要用手托着你， 免得你的腳碰在石頭上。」 耶穌對他說：「 經上 說：『不可試探主－你的神。』」 魔鬼用完了各樣的試探，就暫時離開耶穌。”
路加福音 4:1-13 CUNP-神
1 Then Jesus, being filled with the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, 2 being tempted for forty days by the devil. And in those days He ate nothing, and afterward, when they had ended, He was hungry.
3 And the devil said to Him, “If You are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread.”
4 But Jesus answered him, saying, “It is written, ‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.’ ”
5 Then the devil, taking Him up on a high mountain, showed Him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 6 And the devil said to Him, “All this authority I will give You, and their glory; for this has been delivered to me, and I give it to whomever I wish. 7 Therefore, if You will worship before me, all will be Yours.”
8 And Jesus answered and said to him, “Get behind Me, Satan! For it is written, ‘You shall worship the Lord your God, and Him only you shall serve.’ ”
9 Then he brought Him to Jerusalem, set Him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to Him, “If You are the Son of God, throw Yourself down from here. 10 For it is written:
‘He shall give His angels charge over you,
To keep you,’
‘In their hands they shall bear you up,
Lest you dash your foot against a stone.’ ”
12 And Jesus answered and said to him, “It has been said, ‘You shall not tempt the Lord your God.’ ”
13 Now when the devil had ended every temptation, he departed from Him until an opportune time.
The New King James Version. (1982). (). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
The Temptation of Jesus
1 And Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan and was led by the Spirit in the wilderness 2 forty days, being tempted by the devil. And he ate nothing during those days, and when* they were completed, he was hungry. 3 So the devil said to him, “If you are the Son of God, order this stone that it become bread!” 4 And Jesus replied to him, “It is written, ‘Man will not live on bread alone.’ ”
5 And he led him up and* showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 6 And the devil said to him, “I will give you all this domain and their glory, because it has been handed over to me, and I can give it to whomever I want. 7 So if you will worship before me, all this will be yours.” 8 And Jesus answered and* said to him, “It is written, ‘You shall worship the Lord your God, and serve only him.’ ”
9 And he brought him to Jerusalem, and had him stand on the highest point of the temple and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down from here, 10 for it is written,
‘He will command his angels concerning you,
to protect you,’
‘on their hands they will lift you up,
lest you strike your foot against a stone.’ ”
12 And Jesus answered and* said to him, “It is said, ‘You are not to put to the test the Lord your God.’ ” 13 And when* the devil had completed every temptation, he departed from him until a favorable time.
Jesus had not started His Ministry and therefore did not have any disciple yet. How would His disciples know of the temptation and what was said?
There was not OT scripture that prophesied His temptation?
The important words are:
Return from Jordan where Jesus was baptised and God openly affirmed to Him () that He is God’s beloved Son.
Temptations after filled with the Holy Spirit
HS lead Him to the place of temptation!
While there is
The three temptations
commencing with 3 powerful ‘If-you’s putting doubts on God’s words into our minds :
If you are the Son of God (3);
If You will worship me (7);
If you are the Son of God (9)
Fundamental needs of man: food, sex, money (or well being)
Authority or pride (power)
Testing God (unfaithfulness)
Jesus knew about these possible temptations (?)
Jesus knew about these possible temptations (?)
One of the temptation is a short cut to recovering the world as Jesus cried to His Father at Gethsemane (Mathew 26:36-46; ; - blood sweat described by Dr Luke)
Lessons to learn
Lessons to learn
1. Know God’s word - not by recitation alone but by understanding and meditating on it day and night! We are so forgetful, unless we mediate on it day and night, we will misunderstand! All of Jesus’ replies are from the Scriptures:
So He humbled you, allowed you to hunger, and fed you with manna which you did not know nor did your fathers know, that He might make you know that man shall not live by bread alone; but man lives by every word that proceeds from the mouth of the Lord.
b) Deu 6:13; 10:20
You shall fear the Lord your God and serve Him, and shall take oaths in His name.
c) Deu 6:16
(for the Lord your God is a jealous God among you), lest the anger of the Lord your God be aroused against you and destroy you from the face of the earth.
“You shall not tempt the Lord your God as you tempted Him in Massah.
2. Fear God!
Satan never gives up!
3. Satan never gives up!
2. Satan never gives up!
5. Jesus could not make any mistake. if He did, our salvation would be futile. We have made many mistakes even after being filled with the Holy Spirit. Jesus’ sacrifice cleansed us from sin and the bondage of sin that we can come to God and seek His forgiveness and most important of all yield to Him much more!
6. Jesus followed the HS leading Him to temptation. We often do not resist temptations nor even situation leading to temptations!
7. Jesus was hungry in His physical body but He was filled with the Holy Spirit - enabling Him to resist the enemy.
8. Holy Spirt does not protect you from sin. He guides you and remind you the words of God. It is your decision and your choice.
Comments from Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
Comments from Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
TEMPTATION OF JESUS. Within the NT a narrative account of the temptation of Jesus is given in all three Synoptic Gospels (; ; ). Reference is made to Jesus’ temptation in the letter to the Hebrews (; ), but it is otherwise passed over in silence by the NT literature.
In each of the Synoptics, the temptation narrative is an integral part of the introduction to the Gospels’ story about Jesus’ ministry. The three accounts agree among themselves as to the place of the temptation (“the wilderness,” Gk erēmon), the role of the Spirit in leading Jesus to this place, and a 40-day duration of time, but they otherwise differ among themselves as to the details of the narrative. The three accounts even identify the tempter in different fashions: “the tempter” (ho peirazōn) in Matt; “the Satan” (ho Satan) in Mark; and “the devil” (ho diabolos) in Luke.
A. The Synoptic Problem
Discussion as to the literary relationship among the three accounts is an integral part of the Synoptic problem. Proponents of the two-source theory generally hold that the Markan account enjoys literary priority vis-à-vis the other accounts, that Matthew’s account largely stems from the Q source, and that Luke’s account is a conflation of Markan and Q material. Other scholars would take issue with each of these three positions. Wilhelm Wilkens (1982), for example, has argued that the Matthean account is a creation of Matthew, who was then followed by Luke.
Scholars who admit the dependence of the Matthean and Lukan accounts upon Q disagree as to whether Matthew or Luke more faithfully reproduces the Q sequence of three temptations. The majority believe that the Matthean order (bread-temple-kingdoms) better reflects Q than does the Lukan order (bread-kingdoms-temple). That Matthew’s order is more logical, leading to the issue of sovereignty as its climax (), and that he juxtaposes the two similarly structured temptations (bread-temple) are among the principal reasons in favor of the Matthean sequence. On the other hand it is noted that Luke’s sequence has a topographical schema and brings the series of temptations to their conclusion in Jerusalem, features of the narrative which are consistent with Lukan interests and his redactional techniques.
The relatively simple Markan account () bears the imprint of Mark’s editorial work and is characterized by its christological context. In it, the Spirit of God appears as an overpowering force who drives Jesus into the wilderness, the place of temptation. Mention of the Spirit highlights the action of God (Jesus himself is not named in Mark’s account) and links the temptation to the account of Jesus’ baptism (1:9–11). Jesus is God’s agent in the confrontation with Satan.
Mark’s account is devoid of specific mention of fasting, which some infer from the final mention of angels who “minister” (diakoneō, a word whose primary meaning is “to serve at table”). Also, Mark does not identify any specific temptations. Rather, Jesus is described as being tempted during a period of “forty days and forty nights,” a span of time during which he is in the presence of wild beasts. These traits have led some scholars to see an allusion to Moses (; ) and/or the Exodus (; ; ; ) or, alternatively, to an Adam christology and/or a paradise motif (; see Mahnke 1978: 28–38). Since the account forms an integral part of Mark’s initial portrayal of Jesus, and “40” is a stylized number, some scholars take the account as a symbol of the struggle with Satan and the forces of evil which is characteristic of Jesus’ entire ministry.
In Matthew’s account, the temptation comes after a 40-day fast from food. An infinitive of purpose (peirasthēnai, “to be tempted,” 4:1) emphasizes that the temptation is part of the divine plan for Jesus. A conditional clause (“if [= “since”] you are the Son of God,” 4:3, 6) links the temptations to Jesus’ baptism (3:13–17). The three temptations form a single unit. Their form is that of a rabbinic scriptural disputation: various passages of the Scriptures are passed in review. The substance of the debate ultimately focuses on the meaning of Jesus’ sonship.
In their original context, the three scriptural passages cited by Jesus (; ; ) referred to the trials of Israel during the Exodus and are presented according to the sequence of these trials according to the book of Exodus. Thus, Matthew seems to present a contrast between the faithful response of Jesus as Son and the infidelity of Israel as Son (cf. in ). By respectively refusing the role of the wonder-worker, tempting God, and the assumption of political power, Jesus is presented as faithful to God’s word and faithfully responsive to his baptismal call. Each of the temptation episodes probably reflects Jewish-Christian debate within Matthew’s community and discussions between Jews and Christians relating to the role of Jesus.
The Lukan sequence of the three temptations represents a more natural geographic movement, from the wilderness to the temple. The final episode is set in Jerusalem, a center of Lukan interest. The three temptations are bracketed by the “Son of God” motif (4:3, 9), which links the temptation narrative not only to the baptismal scene (3:21–22) but also with the genealogy (3:23–28). The temptations highlight the true identity and function of Jesus.
For Luke, the 40-day period is one of temptation and of fasting. Luke’s redactional interests are apparent in his reworking of the Markan material. The additional reference to the Spirit (4:1) is in keeping with an emphasis throughout Luke-Acts. The fasting sets the scene for the first of the three specific temptations. The devil’s departure “until an opportune time” () may anticipate the role of Satan in the Passion () and may suggest that the period of Jesus’ earthly ministry was free from Satan (Conzelmann 1960: 28).
Best, E. 1965. The Temptation and the Passion: The Markan Soteriology. SNTSMS 2. Cambridge.
Collins, R. F. 1974. The Temptation of Jesus. Melita Theologica 26: 32–45.
Conzelmann, H. 1960. The Theology of St. Luke. Trans. G. Buswell. New York.
Dupont, J. 1968. Les tentations de Jésus au desert. StudNeot 4. Bruges.
Gerhardson, B. 1966. The Testing of God’s Son ( and par.) ConBNT 2/1. Lund.
Mahnke, H. 1978. Die Versuchungsgeschichte im Rahmen der synoptischen Evangelien. BBET 9. Frankfurt.
Neugebauer, F. 1986. Jesu Versuchung: Wegenscheidung am Anfang. Tübingen.
Stegemann, W. 1985. Die Versuchung Jesu im Mattaeusevangelium. , . EvT 45: 29–44.
Wilkens, W. 1982. Die Versuchung Jesu nach Matthaeus. NTS 28: 479–89.
Raymond F. Collins
Collins, R. F. (1992). Temptation of Jesus. In D. N. Freedman (Ed.), The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (Vol. 6, pp. 382–383). New York: Doubleday.
Comments (Faithlife Study Bible)
Comments (Faithlife Study Bible)
4:1–13 Like Matthew, Luke records Jesus’ wilderness temptation following His baptism.
The temptation accounts in Luke and Matthew are nearly identical, with only a few minor variations (compare ; ). Luke’s Gospel has a different ordering for the second and third temptations, placing the temptation of power before the temptation to test God. Luke also abbreviates the quotation from (). In vv. 6–7, Luke elaborates on the devil’s dominion (compare ). In contrast to Matthew’s account, which concludes with angels ministering to Jesus, Luke’s temptation account concludes on an ominous note ().
4:1 in the wilderness In the ot, the wilderness is the place where God meets with His appointed messengers, such as Moses at the burning bush () and on Mount Sinai (). The wilderness also is where God tests the Israelites on their journey to the promised land ().
4:2 forty days Recalls Moses’ 40 days on Mount Sinai, the Israelites’ 40 years of wandering, and Elijah’s 40 days in the wilderness of Horeb. Jesus also was on earth for 40 days before His ascension. () While there is no explanation why forty is used time and time again, there are many such occurrences and are unlikely to be coincidences. 40 appears also in the lame being healed by Peter and John in . It seems the key is the 40 days the 12 spies went to Canaan and the 40 years the Israelites spent in the wilderness. Numbers 13:21-24
the devil The Greek word used here, diabolos, is used in the Septuagint (the ancient Greek translation of the ot) to render the Hebrew word satan, which means “the accuser” or “the adversary.” This term appears infrequently in the ot. It is used for the accuser of Joshua the high priest (), for the inciter of David to conduct a census (), and for the spiritual being in (see and note). Here diabolos refers to an evil, spiritual figure—synonymous with satan in Mark’s synopsis of Jesus’ temptation (see note on ).
he ate nothing See note on .
4:3 If you are the Son of God This identity is affirmed explicitly in .
4:4 It is written Jesus refutes each of the devil’s temptations by quoting Scripture. Here he quotes .
4:5 in a moment of time The precise meaning here is uncertain. Some kind of visionary experience might be involved, but the text does not indicate this.
4:6 I will give The devil uses language reminiscent of the ancient Israelite belief that the nations were under the control of evil foreign powers (see and note).
4:7 will worship before me See and note.
4:8 Worship the Lord your God Jesus’ reply comes from .
4:9 highest point Probably refers to a high point on the front of the temple, rather than a point overlooking the Kidron Valley. If the devil is encouraging Jesus to make a public display, the side of the temple facing the city is a more likely setting.
4:10 He will command his angels concerning you In vv. 10–11, the devil quotes , perhaps mocking Jesus’ use of Scripture. Both lines are taken out of context; the psalm clearly is not about angels protecting people who jump off buildings. Rather, the sense is that Yahweh’s protection is so near and careful that His angels could even stop people from hurting their feet while walking.
4:12 to the test Jesus quotes , which refers back to the Israelites testing Yahweh in .
4:13 until a favorable time Unlike Luke, Matthew’s and Mark’s temptation accounts report angels ministering to Jesus at this point (; ). Luke adds that the devil will return. This might refer to .