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Acts 2:1-13

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Verse 1

The Book of the Acts 1. The Descent of the Spirit (2:1–4)

The day of Pentecost was so called because it fell on the fiftieth day after the presentation of the first sheaf to be reaped of the barley harvest, that is, the fiftieth day from the first Sunday after Passover (pentēkostos being the Greek word for “fiftieth”).

The Book of the Acts 1. The Descent of the Spirit (2:1–4)

The day of Pentecost was so called because it fell on the fiftieth day after the presentation of the first sheaf to be reaped of the barley harvest, that is, the fiftieth day from the first Sunday after Passover (pentēkostos being the Greek word for “fiftieth”). Among Hebrew- and Aramaic-speaking Jews it was known as “the feast of weeks”4 (Ex. 34:22a; Deut. 16:10) and also as “the day of the firstfruits” (Num. 28:26; cf. Ex. 23:16a) because on that day “the firstfruits of wheat harvest” (Ex. 34:22a) were presented to God.

Verse 2

This suggests that the Pentecost in Acts 2—the coming of the Holy Spirit and the conversion of three thousand souls (Acts 2:41)—was also an anticipation of a greater harvest to come.

Verse 2

Thomas, D. W. H. (2011). Acts. (R. D. Phillips, P. G. Ryken, & D. M. Doriani, Eds.) (p. 28). Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing.Verse 2
Acts Veni Sancte Spiritus

This suggests that the Pentecost in Acts 2—the coming of the Holy Spirit and the conversion of three thousand souls (Acts 2:41)—was also an anticipation of a greater harvest to come.

This suggests that the Pentecost in —the coming of the Holy Spirit and the conversion of three thousand souls ()—was also an anticipation of a greater harvest to come.
This suggests that the Pentecost in —the coming of the Holy Spirit and the conversion of three thousand souls ()—was also an anticipation of a greater harvest to come.

Verse 2

Thomas, D. W. H. (2011). Acts. (R. D. Phillips, P. G. Ryken, & D. M. Doriani, Eds.) (p. 28). Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing.
Acts Veni Sancte Spiritus

First, there was the sound of a “rushing mighty wind” (Acts 2:2). It is not immediately apparent to us in the English text, but the word for “spirit,” “wind,” and “breath” is the same word in both Hebrew (ruach) and Greek (pneuma)

Thomas, D. W. H. (2011). Acts. (R. D. Phillips, P. G. Ryken, & D. M. Doriani, Eds.) (p. 28). Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing.
The Book of the Acts 1. The Descent of the Spirit (2:1–4)

When Ezekiel, by divine command, prophesied to the wind and called it to blow on the dead bodies in the valley of his vision, it was the breath of God that breathed into them and filled them with new life (Ezek. 37:9–14). And, probably with an allusion to Ezekiel’s vision, Jesus said to Nicodemus, “The wind blows where it pleases, and you hear the sound of it, but you do not know whence it comes or whither it goes; so it is with every one who is born of the Spirit” (John 3:8).

Verse 3

The Book of the Acts 1. The Descent of the Spirit (2:1–4)

John the Baptist had foretold how the Coming One would carry out a baptism with wind and fire (Luke 3:16–17).

Acts Veni Sancte Spiritus

Fire, like wind, was a symbol of the presence of God. A pillar of fire led the church through the wilderness (Ex. 13:21–22), and it was a burning bush that symbolized God’s presence to Moses (Ex. 3:2–5). Furthermore, the fact that the tongues were “divided,” rather than singular, suggests that whereas the presence of God in the old covenant was localized (in the temple), it was now to be a factor for every believer to know and experience personally—every believer will be a temple of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 6:19; 1 Peter 4:14)

The Book of the Acts 1. The Descent of the Spirit (2:1–4)

As in the burning bush, fire denotes the divine presence (Ex. 3:2–5).

Acts Tongues

The barrier of human languages (Babel’s curse) was, for a moment at least, broken down.

The Book of the Acts 2. The Crowd’s Amazement (2:5–13)

The event was nothing less than a reversal of the curse of Babel.

Genesis 10 ESV
These are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood. The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. From these the coastland peoples spread in their lands, each with his own language, by their clans, in their nations. The sons of Ham: Cush, Egypt, Put, and Canaan. The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan. Cush fathered Nimrod; he was the first on earth to be a mighty man. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord. Therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the Lord.” The beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. From that land he went into Assyria and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah; that is the great city. Egypt fathered Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim (from whom the Philistines came), and Caphtorim. Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth, and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites dispersed. And the territory of the Canaanites extended from Sidon in the direction of Gerar as far as Gaza, and in the direction of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha. These are the sons of Ham, by their clans, their languages, their lands, and their nations. To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, children were born. The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram. The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. Arpachshad fathered Shelah; and Shelah fathered Eber. To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan. Joktan fathered Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, Obal, Abimael, Sheba, Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan. The territory in which they lived extended from Mesha in the direction of Sephar to the hill country of the east. These are the sons of Shem, by their clans, their languages, their lands, and their nations. These are the clans of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, in their nations, and from these the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood.

Verse 4

Acts Tongues

True, Paul does urge the Ephesians to “be filled with the Spirit” (Eph. 5:18), but this is rightly interpreted as exhorting believers to “keep on being filled with the Spirit” rather than a concession to a second-blessing phenomenon.

Acts Tongues

The apostolic commission was an unrepeatable and foundational ministry that served to establish the New Testament covenant community (Eph. 2:20).

Acts Tongues

The apostolic commission was an unrepeatable and foundational ministry that served to establish the New Testament covenant community (Eph. 2:20). The supernatural signs performed by the apostles served to testify to this unique and divine commission. Thus the signs that accompanied the apostles in their unrepeatable, foundational ministry were also themselves unrepeatable, temporary, and time-specific to the apostolic age.

Verse 5-8

The Book of the Acts 2. The Crowd’s Amazement (2:5–13)

The Jews who were resident in Jerusalem on this occasion were to a large extent pilgrims from various lands of the dispersion who had come to the holy city to celebrate the festival of Pentecost.

Verse 9-11

The Book of the Acts 2. The Crowd’s Amazement (2:5–13)

Parthia, Media, Elam (Elymais), and Mesopotamia lay east of the Euphrates; the Jews in those parts spoke Aramaic.

East
Why might there be Jews in this region? (Babylonian captivity)
The Book of the Acts 2. The Crowd’s Amazement (2:5–13)

As for those living in Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, there is ample evidence of the large Jewish communities in those areas of Asia Minor.

North
The Book of the Acts 2. The Crowd’s Amazement (2:5–13)

Those visitors who came from Egypt and “the districts of Libya around Cyrene” belonged to another very populous sector of the Jewish dispersion. Jews had lived continuously in Egypt since the early years of the sixth century B.C.

West
What is a proselyte?
Cretans and Arabs
Cretans are from Crete, an Island in the Mediterranean. Arabs were to the south.

Application

Indwells
1 Corinthians 6:19 ESV
Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God? You are not your own,
1 corinthians
Empowers
John 14:12 ESV
“Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever believes in me will also do the works that I do; and greater works than these will he do, because I am going to the Father.
Teaches
John 14:26 ESV
But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you.
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