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Luke: An Introduction and Commentary 6. Woe to the Lawyers (11:45–54)

Thus the blood of all the prophets would be required of them. Abel, of course, was the first martyr (Gen. 4:8; it is not clear why he should be called a prophet). Zechariah’s death was the last death of a prophet mentioned in the Old Testament, taking the books in their normal Hebrew order (2 Chr. 24:21f.). Jesus is saying that the blood of all those slain for their faithfulness to God will be required. It is laid at the door of this generation, because the people of the day fully share in the attitude that brought about the deaths of the prophets.

49 Therefore also the Wisdom of God said, ‘I will send them prophets and apostles, some of whom they will kill and persecute,’ 50 so that the blood of all the prophets, shed from the foundation of the world, may be charged against this generation, 51 from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zechariah, who perished between the altar and the sanctuary. Yes, I tell you, it will be required of this generation. 52 Woe to you lawyers! For you have taken away the key of knowledge. You did not enter yourselves, and you hindered those who were entering.”
Thus the blood of all the prophets would be required of them. Abel, of course, was the first martyr (; it is not clear why he should be called a prophet). Zechariah’s death was the last death of a prophet mentioned in the Old Testament, taking the books in their normal Hebrew order (.). Jesus is saying that the blood of all those slain for their faithfulness to God will be required. It is laid at the door of this generation, because the people of the day fully share in the attitude that brought about the deaths of the prophets.
The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2016). (). Wheaton: Standard Bible Society.Thus the blood of all the prophets would be required of them. Abel, of course, was the first martyr (; it is not clear why he should be called a prophet). Zechariah’s death was the last death of a prophet mentioned in the Old Testament, taking the books in their normal Hebrew order (.). Jesus is saying that the blood of all those slain for their faithfulness to God will be required. It is laid at the door of this generation, because the people of the day fully share in the attitude that brought about the deaths of the prophets.
Morris, L. (1988). Luke: an introduction and commentary (Vol. 3, pp. 224–225). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
The Bible Guide Cain and Abel (4:1–26)

It isn’t that God likes meat rather than grain. The point is that he prefers a cheerful offering to a grudging one. A sacrifice is only pleasing to God if it comes with love.

Abel brings select portions of the first young animals from his flocks—and finds joy in doing so. Cain brings some grain, but his heart is hostile. He is the first person in the Bible to pretend religion—but it gives him no pleasure.

Joyful sacrifice vs. begrudging religion
It isn’t that God likes meat rather than grain. The point is that he prefers a cheerful offering to a grudging one. A sacrifice is only pleasing to God if it comes with love.
Abel brings select portions of the first young animals from his flocks—and finds joy in doing so. Cain brings some grain, but his heart is hostile. He is the first person in the Bible to pretend religion—but it gives him no pleasure.
Knowles, A. (2001). The Bible guide (1st Augsburg books ed., p. 26). Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg.
Abel is a shepherd and Cain is a farmer. Both brothers bring offerings to the Lord suitable to their vocations. There is no indication in the text that one offering is inferior to the other
Hamilton, V. P. (1995). Genesis. In Evangelical Commentary on the Bible (Vol. 3, p. 15). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.
4:1 Cain (“acquisition”) is a type of the mere man of the earth. His religion was destitute of any adequate sense of sin, or need of atonement. This religious type is described in . Seven things are said of him: (1) he worships in self-will; (2) is angry with God; (3) refuses to bring a sin-offering; (4) murders his brother; (5) lies to God; (6) becomes a vagabond; (7) is, nevertheless, the object of the divine solicitude.
4:2 Abel (“exhalation,” or, “that which ascends”) is a type of the spiritual man. His sacrifice, in which atoning blood was shed (), was therefore at once his confession of sin and the expression of his faith in the interposition of a substitute ().
4:4 Type of Christ, the Lamb of God, the most constant type of the suffering Messiah—“the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world” (). A lamb fitly symbolizes the unresisting innocency and harmlessness of the Lord Jesus (; ; , ). This type is brought into prominence by contrast with Cain’s bloodless offering of the fruit of his own works, and proclaims, in the very infancy of the race, the primal truth that “without shedding of blood is no remission” (; ).
Scofield, C. I. (Ed.). (1917). The Scofield Reference Bible: The Holy Bible Containing the Old and New Testaments (p. 10). New York; London; Toronto; Melbourne; Bombay: Oxford University Press.
SIN (v7)
—> If Cain does well, sin loses it’s power. If Cain attempts to manage or control, it will be on him to rule over it.
Cain still retains the power of decision. Sin is now crouching demonlike at Cain’s door. A serpent in a garden and now sin at the door. What is Cain to do? The last portion of verse 8 may be read as a command (“you must master it”); an invitation (“you may master it”); or a promise (“you will master it”).
Hamilton, V. P. (1995). Genesis. In Evangelical Commentary on the Bible (Vol. 3, p. 15). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.
APP: Cain was severely punished for this murder. God judges all sins and punishes appropriately, bit out of vengeance, but because he desires to correct us and restore our fellowship with him. When you’re corrected, don’t resent it. Instead renew your fellowship with God. (Life app)
“There was no religion in Eden and there won’t be any in heaven; and in the mean time Jesus has died and risen to persuade us to knock it all off right now.” (Chapter 10 reunion)
Holman Bible Handbook Sin, Its Consequences, and God’s Saving Grace (Gen 3:1–10:32)

The pattern of sin and its consequences set in the garden is replayed throughout Genesis in the accounts of Cain, the generation of the flood, and the men of Sodom. The fall means that we humans are predisposed to sin. Though God punishes sin, sin does not thwart God’s ultimate, gracious purpose for His human creation. Embedded in the curse was the gleam of a promise that the offspring of the woman would someday lead the human race to triumph (3:15).

The consequences of sin became clear in the second generation when Cain, the oldest son, killed Abel his brother (4:8). Just as his parents had been expelled from the presence of God in the garden (3:23), so now Cain was expelled from human society to undertake a nomadic life in the east (4:16). Embedded in the curse was the gleam of grace, the “mark on Cain” (4:15), symbolizing God’s protection.

Sin and Consequences The pattern of sin and its consequences set in the garden is replayed throughout Genesis in the accounts of Cain, the generation of the flood, and the men of Sodom. The fall means that we humans are predisposed to sin. Though God punishes sin, sin does not thwart God’s ultimate, gracious purpose for His human creation. Embedded in the curse was the gleam of a promise that the offspring of the woman would someday lead the human race to triumph (3:15).
The consequences of sin became clear in the second generation when Cain, the oldest son, killed Abel his brother (4:8). Just as his parents had been expelled from the presence of God in the garden (3:23), so now Cain was expelled from human society to undertake a nomadic life in the east (4:16). Embedded in the curse was the gleam of grace, the “mark on Cain” (4:15), symbolizing God’s protection.
Dockery, D. S., Butler, T. C., Church, C. L., Scott, L. L., Ellis Smith, M. A., White, J. E., & Holman Bible Publishers (Nashville, T. . (1992). Holman Bible Handbook (p. 124). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
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“...and to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks a better word than the blood of Abel”
and to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks a better word than the blood of Abel
The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2016). (). Wheaton: Standard Bible Society.
- The sprinkled blood sums up the sacrificial act of Jesus. It recalls the sprinkled blood which ratified the old covenant (cf. 9:19), and at once establishes the superiority of Christ’s offering. It has a voice, which speaks in totally different style from the voice at Sinai. The blood speaks of deeper things than itself, for it proclaims a new way of approach to God. The rsv describes the voice as speaking more graciously than Abel’s blood, but the word used (kreitton) is the theme song of this epistle, i.e. ‘better’. Already Abel’s sacrifice has been mentioned in 11:4, where he is said to be still speaking through his faith.
Guthrie, D. (1983). Hebrews: An Introduction and Commentary (Vol. 15, p. 264). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
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By faith Abel offered to God a more acceptable sacrifice than Cain, through which he was commended as righteous, God commending him by accepting his gifts. And through his faith, though he died, he still speaks.
The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2016). (). Wheaton: Standard Bible Society
—>Three men stand out to illustrate various aspects of faith. First to be mentioned is the sacrificial faith of Abel. The Genesis account does not in fact refer to the faith of Abel. It simply states that Abel brought of the firstlings of his flock and of their fat portions (). No indication is given of the reason why his offering proved more acceptable. The only hint is that Cain is told that if he did well he too would be accepted (), which suggests that it had much to do with Abel’s attitude and manner of life.
Guthrie, D. (1983). Hebrews: An Introduction and Commentary (Vol. 15, p. 230). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
—>No suggestion is made as to the method God used to signify acceptance of Abel’s gift. The writer simply says God bearing witness by accepting his gifts, for the Genesis account is no more specific. Yet in some way both Abel and Cain knew God’s judgment on their gifts. Acceptance of the gifts is clearly linked with approval as righteous, which in turn is linked with the more acceptable sacrifice. The righteousness spoken of seems to consist of a right attitude of mind which is pleasing to God.
No suggestion is made as to the method God used to signify acceptance of Abel’s gift. The writer simply says God bearing witness by accepting his gifts, for the Genesis account is no more specific. Yet in some way both Abel and Cain knew God’s judgment on their gifts. Acceptance of the gifts is clearly linked with approval as righteous, which in turn is linked with the more acceptable sacrifice. The righteousness spoken of seems to consist of a right attitude of mind which is pleasing to God.
Guthrie, D. (1983). Hebrews: An Introduction and Commentary (Vol. 15, p. 230). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
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