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PHI-101 Intro to Philosophy

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Terms Definitions

Philosophy(philosophia) (BEB)

Logically disciplined, self-critical inquiry into the basic questions of life. “Philosophy” itself means “love of wisdom.” This “love” treasures pursuing, discovering, and analyzing and justifying wisdom. Although the word “philosophy” appears only once in the Bible, both Judaism and Christianity were considered philosophies in the Hellenistic world.

Logically disciplined, self-critical inquiry into the basic questions of life. “Philosophy” itself means “love of wisdom.” This “love” treasures pursuing, discovering, and analyzing and justifying wisdom. Although the word “philosophy” appears only once in the Bible, both Judaism and Christianity were considered philosophies in the Hellenistic world.
Logically disciplined, self-critical inquiry into the basic questions of life. “Philosophy” itself means “love of wisdom.” This “love” treasures pursuing, discovering, and analyzing and justifying wisdom. Although the word “philosophy” appears only once in the Bible, both Judaism and Christianity were considered philosophies in the Hellenistic world.
Philosophy (LXB) (g-philosophia)
This “love” treasures pursuing, discovering, and analyzing and justifying wisdom. Although the word “philosophy” appears only once in the Bible, both Judaism and Christianity were considered philosophies in the Hellenistic world.
The noun may refer to one’s worldview, while verbal forms (e.g., “philosophize”) refer to discourse about life’s biggest questions.

Worldview. A set of basic beliefs about the nature and meaning of the world and life. Includes beliefs about the basic questions about the world and life—including: What is real? What is knowledge and how can it be gained? What is truth? What do I believe about God? What is a human being? Is there life after death? How do we decide what is right and what is wrong? What is the meaning of human history?

Philosophy. Serious thinking and reflection on the most important and fundamental questions of life: How do we know truth? What is real? What is of value in human conduct? Branches of philosophy include the study of knowledge (epistemology), reality (metaphysics), and values (axiology).

Philosophy of Religion. Usually refers to a branch of philosophy that critically evaluates the beliefs, practices, and fundamental issues in religions. Investigates the nature and grounds of religious truth claims concerning the existence of God, the nature of religion, and life after death. Sometimes used as a synonym of apologetics.

Philosophy. Serious thinking and reflection on the most important and fundamental questions of life: How do we know truth? What is real? What is of value in human conduct? Branches of philosophy include the study of knowledge (epistemology), reality (metaphysics), and values (axiology).

Philosophy of Religion. Usually refers to a branch of philosophy that critically evaluates the beliefs, practices, and fundamental issues in religions. Investigates the nature and grounds of religious truth claims concerning the existence of God, the nature of religion, and life after death. Sometimes used as a synonym of apologetics.

Worldview. A set of basic beliefs about the nature and meaning of the world and life. Includes beliefs about the basic questions about the world and life—including: What is real? What is knowledge and how can it be gained? What is truth? What do I believe about God? What is a human being? Is there life after death? How do we decide what is right and what is wrong? What is the meaning of human history?
Philosophy (Intro to Christian Apologetics). Serious thinking and reflection on the most important and fundamental questions of life: How do we know truth? What is real? What is of value in human conduct? Branches of philosophy include the study of knowledge (epistemology), reality (metaphysics), and values (axiology).
Philosophy of Religion. Usually refers to a branch of philosophy that critically evaluates the beliefs, practices, and fundamental issues in religions. Investigates the nature and grounds of religious truth claims concerning the existence of God, the nature of religion, and life after death. Sometimes used as a synonym of apologetics.
Knowledge. Propositional knowledge is justified true belief. Used in a general sense as recognition or understanding of something.

Theism. A belief in a personal God, who is creator and ruler of the world yet involved in the world. An infinite, all-powerful, all-knowing, personal God exists and has created and sustains the universe. The term may also refer to the study of the existence and nature of God.

Theism. A belief in a personal God, who is creator and ruler of the world yet involved in the world. An infinite, all-powerful, all-knowing, personal God exists and has created and sustains the universe. The term may also refer to the study of the existence and nature of God.

Theistic arguments. Arguments for the existence of God, including the ontological argument, cosmological argument, the teleological argument, and the moral argument.

Atheism. The lack of belief in a divine being and/or the denial of the existence of a divine being or beings.

Theistic arguments. Arguments for the existence of God, including the ontological argument, cosmological argument, the teleological argument, and the moral argument.
Atheism. The lack of belief in a divine being and/or the denial of the existence of a divine being or beings, thus one who does not believe in God is called an atheist.

Open theism. A recent view that God does not have foreknowledge of future human actions.

Naturalism. A philosophical view that nature is all that exists. Denies any supernatural being exists. The view that the physical universe is the whole of reality. Man is only a biochemical machine. Rejects the existence of a supernatural God or any transcendent spiritual reality.

Open theism. A recent view that God does not have foreknowledge of future human actions.
Theism. A belief in a personal God, who is creator and ruler of the world yet involved in the world. An infinite, all-powerful, all-knowing, personal God exists and has created and sustains the universe. The term may also refer to the study of the existence and nature of God.
Naturalism. A philosophical view that nature is all that exists. Denies any supernatural being exists. The view that the physical universe is the whole of reality. Man is only a biochemical machine. Rejects the existence of a supernatural God or any transcendent spiritual reality. Therefore the people that supports this view are called naturalist.
Pantheism. God and nature are the same. The whole of reality is identical with the Absolute. Particular items are only appearances. Since all is god, humans are gods also. Denies a transcendent personal God.

Pantheism. God and nature are the same. The whole of reality is identical with the Absolute. Particular items are only appearances. Since all is god, humans are gods also. Denies a transcendent personal God.

Panentheism. A view that God is in the universe and evolves with it. Differs from pantheism which says God is the universe. As the soul is in the body but is not equated with the body, so God is in the world but not equated with the world. Advocated by process theology.

Panentheism. A view that God is in the universe and evolves with it. Differs from pantheism which says God is the universe. As the soul is in the body but is not equated with the body, so God is in the world but not equated with the world. Advocated by process theology.

Deism. The belief in a God that created the universe but left it to run by fixed natural laws. God does not supernaturally intervene in the world either by miracle or divine revelation. Deists exalt reason over faith, revelation, and ethics. The early deists were rationalists (Herbert of Cherbury, 1583–1643) and the later deists were empiricists (Matthew Tindal, 1653–1733). As a movement, deism flourished in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Deism. The belief in a God that created the universe but left it to run by fixed natural laws. God does not supernaturally intervene in the world either by miracle or divine revelation. Deists exalt reason over faith, revelation, and ethics. The early deists were rationalists (Herbert of Cherbury, 1583–1643) and the later deists were empiricists (Matthew Tindal, 1653–1733). As a movement, deism flourished in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Therefore, one who believes that God created the world but has been uninvolved since is called a deist.
Gardner, H. L. (2010). Commending and Defending Christian Faith: An Introduction to Christian Apologetics (p. 460). College Press Publishing Co.
Gardner, H. L. (2010). Commending and Defending Christian Faith: An Introduction to Christian Apologetics (p. 460). College Press Publishing Co.

Polytheism. The belief in the existence of many gods and/or goddesses.

Polytheism. The belief in the existence of many gods and/or goddesses.

Monotheism. The belief that only one God exists.

Monotheism. The belief that only one God exists.

Agnostic. One who believes it is not possible to know if God exists. One who is undecided on the question of God’s existence.

Agnosticism. A view which professes inability to determine whether or not God exists. Literally means “no knowledge.” Some agnostics claim the evidence is insufficient for them to be able to decide the question of God’s existence while others claim that no one can decide this question so the only reasonable view is to suspend judgment.

Darwinism. The theory of naturalistic evolutionary development of biological life advocated by Charles Darwin (1809–1882) which holds that the mechanism for the survival of the fittest is made up of chance variations and natural selection. Social Darwinism applied the concept of naturalistic evolution to society, including family, religion, ethics, and social structures.

Agnostic. One who believes it is not possible to know if God exists. One who is undecided on the question of God’s existence.
Agnosticism. A view which professes inability to determine whether or not God exists. Literally means “no knowledge.” Some agnostics claim the evidence is insufficient for them to be able to decide the question of God’s existence while others claim that no one can decide this question so the only reasonable view is to suspend judgment.

Secularism. A viewpoint, attitude, or lifestyle that ignores or denies God and bases cultural values and standards on naturalism.

Secular Humanism. A worldview holding that human beings have the highest value in the universe. Denies the existence of any supernatural Being. Human values are not God-given but are based on human beings themselves and are relative and subject to change. Stresses reason, science, education, and art.

Secularism. A viewpoint, attitude, or lifestyle that ignores or denies God and bases cultural values and standards on naturalism.

Cosmology. The study of the origin and nature of the universe.

Secular Humanism. A worldview holding that human beings have the highest value in the universe. Denies the existence of any supernatural Being. Human values are not God-given but are based on human beings themselves and are relative and subject to change. Stresses reason, science, education, and art.
Cosmology. The study of the origin and nature of the universe.

Cosmological argument. The existence of the universe demands a theistic cause. An argument for the existence of God from the effect (the universe) to the cause (God).

Cosmological argument. The existence of the universe demands a theistic cause. An argument for the existence of God from the effect (the universe) to the cause (God).

Creation. The view that God created the physical universe out of nothing by an act of his will. He created the physical world and life forms. God created human beings after his own image.

Creation. The view that God created the physical universe out of nothing by an act of his will. He created the physical world and life forms. God created human beings after his own image.

Ex Nihilo. Literally “out of nothing.” Refers to the concept that God created the physical universe without preexisting material. Before the creation matter did not exist.

Immanence. God is actively involved in the universe and in human history.

Incarnation. God became man in the person of Jesus of Nazareth.

Ex Nihilo. Literally “out of nothing.” Refers to the concept that God created the physical universe without preexisting material. Before the creation matter did not exist. *But says otherwise

Natural Theology. Attempt to gain knowledge of God from the natural world and human nature apart from special revelation. See General Revelation.

Natural Theology. Attempt to gain knowledge of God from the natural world and human nature apart from special revelation. See General Revelation.

Reason. The mental ability to think logically and draw inferences from evidence and to evaluate arguments. Ability to make judgments.

Reason. The mental ability to think logically and draw inferences from evidence and to evaluate arguments. Ability to make judgments.
Immanence. God is actively involved in the universe and in human history.
Incarnation. God became man in the person of Jesus of Nazareth.

Reincarnation. The belief that after death a person’s soul or spark of life is reborn in the next life in another form—god, person, animal, or plant. This reincarnation continues successively according to karma (one reaps what one sows) until final purification is achieved and the wheel of reincarnation is escaped.

Inspiration. Guidance by Holy Spirit ensured that the writers of Scripture wrote the truth that God wanted written—without error or omission of necessary truth. The word used in 2 Timothy 3:16 is literally “God-breathed.” What the inspired writers wrote is God’s Word written.

Reincarnation. The belief that after death a person’s soul or spark of life is reborn in the next life in another form—god, person, animal, or plant. This reincarnation continues successively according to karma (one reaps what one sows) until final purification is achieved and the wheel of reincarnation is escaped.

Theology. The study of God and his truth. See Biblical theology and Systematic theology.

Systematic theology. A study of biblical teaching organized topically. Draws upon philosophical theology, biblical theology, and historical theology to give a comprehensive study of God and his relations with his creatures.

Theology. The study of God and his truth.

Bibliology. A comprehensive study of the doctrine of Scripture.

Biblical theology. Study of the biblical teaching as it unfolds in each portion of the biblical text rather than organizing it under topics, for example, theology of the prophets or Pauline theology.

Bibliology. A comprehensive study of the doctrine of Scripture.
Biblical theology. Study of the biblical teaching as it unfolds in each portion of the biblical text rather than organizing it under topics, for example, theology of the prophets or Pauline theology.
Systematic theology. A study of biblical teaching organized topically. Draws upon philosophical theology, biblical theology, and historical theology to give a comprehensive study of God and his relations with his creatures.
Inspiration. Guidance by Holy Spirit ensured that the writers of Scripture wrote the truth that God wanted written—without error or omission of necessary truth. The word used in is literally “God-breathed.” What the inspired writers wrote is God’s Word written.

Inerrancy. Characterized by being without error and completely truthful in all it teaches. Often used interchangeably with infallibility.

Infallibility. Incapable of error. Often used interchangeably with inerrancy. Some use infallible to mean the Bible is able to accomplish its purpose. Some say the Bible is infallible in matters of faith and morals but has errors in history and science.

Inerrancy. Characterized by being without error and completely truthful in all it teaches. Often used interchangeably with infallibility.
Infallibility. Incapable of error. Often used interchangeably with inerrancy. Some use infallible to mean the Bible is able to accomplish its purpose. Some say the Bible is infallible in matters of faith and morals but has errors in history and science.

Revelation. The knowledge God has disclosed about himself and his will. Special revelation discloses knowledge of God and his will through supernaturally guided messengers. General revelation is the disclosure of God through nature.

Revelation. The knowledge God has disclosed about himself and his will. Special revelation discloses knowledge of God and his will through supernaturally guided messengers. General revelation is the disclosure of God through nature.

Special revelation. The communication of knowledge of God and his will through supernaturally informed messengers (prophets and apostles) recorded in Scripture and through Christ.

Special revelation. The communication of knowledge of God and his will through supernaturally informed messengers (prophets and apostles) recorded in Scripture and through Christ.

General revelation. The knowledge of God available to all persons apart from the Bible in the natural universe and man. Also called natural theology. Distinguished from special revelation.

General revelation. The knowledge of God available to all persons apart from the Bible in the natural universe and man. Also called natural theology. Distinguished from special revelation.

Trinitarianism. The theistic view of God as consisting of one God in three separate, coequal, and coeternal persons—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

Unitarianism. A religious worldview that denies the trinity, holding that God is a unity. Jesus is viewed as a good human being who is a model for us to follow but not God in flesh. Embraces nearly all spiritual paths as equally valid.

Trinitarianism. The theistic view of God as consisting of one God in three separate, coequal, and coeternal persons—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Unitarianism. A religious worldview that denies the trinity, holding that God is a unity. Jesus is viewed as a good human being who is a model for us to follow but not God in flesh. Embraces nearly all spiritual paths as equally valid.
Enlightenment. A seventeenth- and eighteenth-century philosophical and cultural movement emphasizing the autonomy of human reason and skepticism of traditional authorities. Often hostile to Christianity. Led to modern scientific naturalism and rationalism.

Enlightenment. A seventeenth- and eighteenth-century philosophical and cultural movement emphasizing the autonomy of human reason and skepticism of traditional authorities. Often hostile to Christianity. Led to modern scientific naturalism and rationalism.

Science. A systematic search for knowledge based on empirical research, including investigation, experimentation, verification, and organization. Usually divided into natural sciences (physics, chemistry, geology, and biology) and social sciences (economics, sociology, anthropology, psychology, and political science).

Evolution. Can mean a process of change. Usually means the biological theory that all life developed by natural processes gradually from simpler life forms. Macroevolution or the general theory of evolution is the “amoeba-to-man” development. The origin of the universe, life, and human beings are usually viewed as accomplished by natural processes. Microevolution refers to development within species.

Science. A systematic search for knowledge based on empirical research, including investigation, experimentation, verification, and organization. Usually divided into natural sciences (physics, chemistry, geology, and biology) and social sciences (economics, sociology, anthropology, psychology, and political science).
Enlightenment. A seventeenth- and eighteenth-century philosophical and cultural movement emphasizing the autonomy of human reason and skepticism of traditional authorities. Often hostile to Christianity. Led to modern scientific naturalism and rationalism.

Intelligent Design. Scientific evidence that the natural universe manifests a degree of complexity that requires an intelligent Designer. Naturalistic explanations cannot account for the natural world.

Scientific Naturalism. The view that the physical world is the only reality and scientific knowledge is the only valid knowledge.

Scientific Naturalism. The view that the physical world is the only reality and scientific knowledge is the only valid knowledge.
Evolution. Can mean a process of change. Usually means the biological theory that all life developed by natural processes gradually from simpler life forms. Macroevolution or the general theory of evolution is the “amoeba-to-man” development. The origin of the universe, life, and human beings are usually viewed as accomplished by natural processes. Microevolution refers to development within species.
Darwinism. The theory of naturalistic evolutionary development of biological life advocated by Charles Darwin (1809–1882) which holds that the mechanism for the survival of the fittest is made up of chance variations and natural selection. Social Darwinism applied the concept of naturalistic evolution to society, including family, religion, ethics, and social structures.

Methodological naturalism. A view of the scientific method which believes that science gives a naturalistic explanation of all phenomena. Any supernatural explanation is unscientific.

Classical apologetic. A method of defending Christianity that first rationally establishes the existence of God by natural theology, then presents evidences for the truth of Christianity.

Methodological naturalism. A view of the scientific method which believes that science gives a naturalistic explanation of all phenomena. Any supernatural explanation is unscientific.

Materialism. In philosophy refers to the view that the physical material world is all that exists. No nonmaterial reality exists.

Metanarrative. A comprehensive explanation of all that exists.

Materialism. In philosophy refers to the view that the physical material world is all that exists. No nonmaterial reality exists.
Metanarrative. A comprehensive explanation of all that exists.
Classical apologetic. A method of defending Christianity that first rationally establishes the existence of God by natural theology, then presents evidences for the truth of Christianity.
Intelligent Design. Scientific evidence that the natural universe manifests a degree of complexity that requires an intelligent Designer. Naturalistic explanations cannot account for the natural world.

Teleological argument. An argument for the existence of God based on order and design in the universe. The purposeful design and fine tuning of the universe necessary to support intelligent life and the intricate and irreducible complexity of biological systems point to an intelligent Designer and can’t be accounted for by an accident or chance. Design demands a Designer.

Miracle. An event in the physical world, worked by the direct power of God, intended as a sign. Miracles are called powers, wonders, and signs in the New Testament. Supersedes the observed uniform pattern of the natural world. Not accountable by natural secondary causes.

Teleological argument. An argument for the existence of God based on order and design in the universe. The purposeful design and fine tuning of the universe necessary to support intelligent life and the intricate and irreducible complexity of biological systems point to an intelligent Designer and can’t be accounted for by an accident or chance. Design demands a Designer.

Knowledge. Propositional knowledge is justified true belief. Used in a general sense as recognition or understanding of something.

Evil, Problem of. The problem of reconciling the existence of evil (both moral and natural) in the world with the existence of an all-powerful and loving God. The intellectual problem of evil includes the logical or deductive problem of evil which holds that the existence of evil refutes the existence of God and the evidential or probabilistic problem of evil which holds that evil makes the existence of God unlikely. The emotional problem of evil holds feelings of abandonment by God because of suffering and tragic experiences.

Miracle. An event in the physical world, worked by the direct power of God, intended as a sign. Miracles are called powers, wonders, and signs in the New Testament. Supersedes the observed uniform pattern of the natural world. Not accountable by natural secondary causes.
Evil, Problem of. The problem of reconciling the existence of evil (both moral and natural) in the world with the existence of an all-powerful and loving God. The intellectual problem of evil includes the logical or deductive problem of evil which holds that the existence of evil refutes the existence of God and the evidential or probabilistic problem of evil which holds that evil makes the existence of God unlikely. The emotional problem of evil holds feelings of abandonment by God because of suffering and tragic experiences.

Original sin. The classical view advocated by Augustine, Luther, and Calvin teaches that every person is born inheriting the guilt of Adam’s sin, and his or her spiritual nature is corrupted and without free will so that the person is unable to believe or obey the gospel unless the Holy Spirit intervenes and grants them grace and faith. The Arminian view holds that humans inherit the consequences of Adam’s sin but not the guilt, and they believe human free will was not destroyed by the fall.

Original sin. The classical view advocated by Augustine, Luther, and Calvin teaches that every person is born inheriting the guilt of Adam’s sin, and his or her spiritual nature is corrupted and without free will so that the person is unable to believe or obey the gospel unless the Holy Spirit intervenes and grants them grace and faith. The Arminian view holds that humans inherit the consequences of Adam’s sin but not the guilt, and they believe human free will was not destroyed by the fall.

Theodicy. An answer given attempting to explain the presence of evil in a world created and sustained by an all-powerful, all-wise, and all-loving God.

Theodicy. An answer given attempting to explain the presence of evil in a world created and sustained by an all-powerful, all-wise, and all-loving God.

Universalism. The view that eventually all will be saved. Rejects the teaching that some people will be eternally lost in hell.

Universalism. The view that eventually all will be saved. Rejects the teaching that some people will be eternally lost in hell.
Gardner, H. L. (2010). Commending and Defending Christian Faith: An Introduction to Christian Apologetics (p. 460). College Press Publishing Co.
Gardner, H. L. (2010). Commending and Defending Christian Faith: An Introduction to Christian Apologetics (p. 460). College Press Publishing Co.
How are we Christian supposed to do Philosophy, according to Paul:
In the only explicit use of the word “philosophy” in the Bible (), a point of contrast is made between pagan and Christian philosophy. Paul wants the Colossians to develop philosophy according to Christ, not according to empty deceit, human tradition, or “the elemental spirits of the universe.” In contrast to empty philosophy based on pagan deceit and human tradition, Christ is himself the fullness of deity dwelling bodily—a sound foundation for wisdom and philosophy.

In the only explicit use of the word “philosophy” in the Bible (Col 2:8–10), a point of contrast is made between pagan and Christian philosophy. Paul wants the Colossians to develop philosophy according to Christ, not according to empty deceit, human tradition, or “the elemental spirits of the universe.” In contrast to empty philosophy based on pagan deceit and human tradition, Christ is himself the fullness of deity dwelling bodily—a sound foundation for wisdom and philosophy

De Vries, P. H. (1988). Philosophy. In Baker encyclopedia of the Bible (Vol. 2, p. 1686). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.
Romans 2:1-
1 Corinthians 2:6-16

2 And I, brethren, when I came to you, did not come with excellence of speech or of wisdom declaring to you the testimony of God. 2 For I determined not to know anything among you except Jesus Christ and Him crucified. 3 I was with you in weakness, in fear, and in much trembling. 4 And my speech and my preaching were not with persuasive words of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power, 5 that your faith should not be in the wisdom of men but in the power of God.

Spiritual Wisdom

6 However, we speak wisdom among those who are mature, yet not the wisdom of this age, nor of the rulers of this age, who are coming to nothing. 7 But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, the hidden wisdom which God ordained before the ages for our glory, 8 which none of the rulers of this age knew; for had they known, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.

9 But as it is written:

“Eye has not seen, nor ear heard,

Nor have entered into the heart of man

The things which God has prepared for those who love Him.”

10 But God has revealed them to us through His Spirit. For the Spirit searches all things, yes, the deep things of God. 11 For what man knows the things of a man except the spirit of the man which is in him? Even so no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God. 12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might know the things that have been freely given to us by God.

13 These things we also speak, not in words which man’s wisdom teaches but which the Holy Spirit teaches, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 14 But the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. 15 But he who is spiritual judges all things, yet he himself is rightly judged by no one. 16 For “who has known the mind of the LORD that he may instruct Him?” But we have the mind of Christ.

2 And I, brethren, when I came to you, did not come with excellence of speech or of wisdom declaring to you the testimony of God. 2 For I determined not to know anything among you except Jesus Christ and Him crucified. 3 I was with you in weakness, in fear, and in much trembling. 4 And my speech and my preaching were not with persuasive words of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power, 5 that your faith should not be in the wisdom of men but in the power of God.
Spiritual Wisdom
6 However, we speak wisdom among those who are mature, yet not the wisdom of this age, nor of the rulers of this age, who are coming to nothing. 7 But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, the hidden wisdom which God ordained before the ages for our glory, 8 which none of the rulers of this age knew; for had they known, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.
9 But as it is written:
“Eye has not seen, nor ear heard,

2 And I, brethren, when I came to you, did not come with excellence of speech or of wisdom declaring to you the testimony of God. 2 For I determined not to know anything among you except Jesus Christ and Him crucified. 3 I was with you in weakness, in fear, and in much trembling. 4 And my speech and my preaching were not with persuasive words of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power, 5 that your faith should not be in the wisdom of men but in the power of God.

Spiritual Wisdom

6 However, we speak wisdom among those who are mature, yet not the wisdom of this age, nor of the rulers of this age, who are coming to nothing. 7 But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, the hidden wisdom which God ordained before the ages for our glory, 8 which none of the rulers of this age knew; for had they known, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.

9 But as it is written:

“Eye has not seen, nor ear heard,

Nor have entered into the heart of man

The things which God has prepared for those who love Him.”

10 But God has revealed them to us through His Spirit. For the Spirit searches all things, yes, the deep things of God. 11 For what man knows the things of a man except the spirit of the man which is in him? Even so no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God. 12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might know the things that have been freely given to us by God.

13 These things we also speak, not in words which man’s wisdom teaches but which the Holy Spirit teaches, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 14 But the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. 15 But he who is spiritual judges all things, yet he himself is rightly judged by no one. 16 For “who has known the mind of the LORD that he may instruct Him?” But we have the mind of Christ.

Nor have entered into the heart of man
The things which God has prepared for those who love Him.”
10 But God has revealed them to us through His Spirit. For the Spirit searches all things, yes, the deep things of God. 11 For what man knows the things of a man except the spirit of the man which is in him? Even so no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God. 12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might know the things that have been freely given to us by God.
13 These things we also speak, not in words which man’s wisdom teaches but which the Holy Spirit teaches, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 14 But the natural man does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. 15 But he who is spiritual judges all things, yet he himself is rightly judged by no one. 16 For “who has known the mind of the LORD that he may instruct Him?” But we have the mind of Christ.
1 Corinthians 1:18-25

Christ the Power and Wisdom of God

18 For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. 19 For it is written:

“I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,

And bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.”

20 Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 21 For since, in the wisdom of God, the world through wisdom did not know God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe. 22 For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; 23 but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, 24 but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.

Christ the Power and Wisdom of God

18 For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. 19 For it is written:

“I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,

And bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.”

20 Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 21 For since, in the wisdom of God, the world through wisdom did not know God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe. 22 For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; 23 but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, 24 but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.

Romans 1:18-32

18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, 19 because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them. 20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse, 21 because, although they knew God, they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful, but became futile in their thoughts, and their foolish hearts were darkened. 22 Professing to be wise, they became fools, 23 and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man—and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things.

God’s Wrath on Unrighteousness

18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, 19 because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them. 20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse, 21 because, although they knew God, they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful, but became futile in their thoughts, and their foolish hearts were darkened. 22 Professing to be wise, they became fools, 23 and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man—and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things.

24 Therefore God also gave them up to uncleanness, in the lusts of their hearts, to dishonor their bodies among themselves, 25 who exchanged the truth of God for the lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

26 For this reason God gave them up to vile passions. For even their women exchanged the natural use for what is against nature. 27 Likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust for one another, men with men committing what is shameful, and receiving in themselves the penalty of their error which was due.

28 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a debased mind, to do those things which are not fitting; 29 being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil-mindedness; they are whisperers, 30 backbiters, haters of God, violent, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, 31 undiscerning, untrustworthy, unloving, unforgiving, unmerciful; 32 who, knowing the righteous judgment of God, that those who practice such things are deserving of death, not only do the same but also approve of those who practice them.

Christ the Wisdom and Power of God

18 For the word of the cross is folly to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. 19 For it is written,

“I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,

and the discernment of the discerning I will thwart.”

20 Where is the one who is wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the debater of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world? 21 For since, in the wisdom of God, the world did not know God through wisdom, it pleased God through the folly of what we preach to save those who believe. 22 For Jews demand signs and Greeks seek wisdom, 23 but we preach Christ crucified, a stumbling block to Jews and folly to Gentiles, 24 but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 25 For the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.

Two specific philosophies are mentioned in the NT:

18 For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. 19 For it is written:

“I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,

And bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.”

20 Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 21 For since, in the wisdom of God, the world through wisdom did not know God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe. 22 For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; 23 but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, 24 but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.

18 For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. 19 For it is written:

“I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,

And bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.”

20 Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 21 For since, in the wisdom of God, the world through wisdom did not know God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe. 22 For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; 23 but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, 24 but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.

Christ the Power and Wisdom of God

18 For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. 19 For it is written:

“I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,

And bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.”

20 Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 21 For since, in the wisdom of God, the world through wisdom did not know God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe. 22 For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; 23 but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, 24 but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.

1 Corinthians 1:18–25 NKJV
For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. For it is written: “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, And bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.” Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? For since, in the wisdom of God, the world through wisdom did not know God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe. For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.

Christ the Power and Wisdom of God

18 For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. 19 For it is written:

“I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,

And bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.”

20 Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 21 For since, in the wisdom of God, the world through wisdom did not know God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe. 22 For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; 23 but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, 24 but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men

Christ the Power and Wisdom of God

18 For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. 19 For it is written:

“I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,

And bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.”

20 Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 21 For since, in the wisdom of God, the world through wisdom did not know God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe. 22 For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; 23 but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, 24 but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.

Christ the Power and Wisdom of God

18 For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. 19 For it is written:

“I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,

And bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.”

20 Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 21 For since, in the wisdom of God, the world through wisdom did not know God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe. 22 For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; 23 but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, 24 but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.

1 Corinthians 1:18–25 NKJV
For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. For it is written: “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, And bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.” Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? For since, in the wisdom of God, the world through wisdom did not know God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe. For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.
1 Corinthians 1:18–25 NKJV
For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. For it is written: “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, And bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.” Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? For since, in the wisdom of God, the world through wisdom did not know God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe. For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.
1 Corinthians 1:18-25
Two specific philosophies are mentioned in the NT:
1 Corinthians 1:18-25
Two specific philosophies are mentioned in the NT:
1 Corinthians 1:18-25
Two specific philosophies are mentioned in the NT:
Two specific philosophies are mentioned in the NT:
Two specific philosophies are mentioned in the NT:
Epicureanism and Stoicism ().

Epicureanism and Stoicism (Acts 17:18).

Epicureans followed the teachings of Epicurus (342?–270 BC), an Athenian philosopher who had taught practical ways of achieving a pleasant life through moderate behavior and stable human relationships. He believed that human beings are merely material objects produced by chance combinations of atoms—small, indestructible material pieces.

Epicureans followed the teachings of Epicurus (342?–270 BC), an Athenian philosopher who had taught practical ways of achieving a pleasant life through moderate behavior and stable human relationships. He believed that human beings are merely material objects produced by chance combinations of atoms—small, indestructible material pieces.

Stoics also emphasized moderate living, but they believed that there is an ultimate purpose in the world.

Stoics also emphasized moderate living, but they believed that there is an ultimate purpose in the world. This purposefulness is established by an all-pervading substance called “Logos” or reason.
However, like Epicureans, Stoics were materialists, believing all things to be made of matter including humans, the divine, and the Logos (which they sometimes treated as God).
Philosophy in the Graeco-Roman World

the noun may refer to one’s worldview, while verbal forms (e.g., “philosophize”) refer to discourse about life’s biggest questions.

The noun may refer to one’s worldview, while verbal forms (e.g., “philosophize”) refer to discourse about life’s biggest questions.
The Lexham Bible Dictionary Philosophy in the Graeco-Roman World

Philosophy in the Graeco-Roman World

Philosophy in the Graeco-Roman World
The Lexham Bible Dictionary Philosophy in the Graeco-Roman World

In the Graeco-Roman world, “philosophy was divided into three sciences: physics, ethics, and logic”

In the Graeco-Roman world, “philosophy was divided into three sciences: physics, ethics, and logic” In this broad sense, philosophy encompassed nearly every endeavor of human inquiry in the ancient world.
The Lexham Bible Dictionary Philosophy in the Graeco-Roman World

Plato (428 BC–348 BC), the father of the Western philosophical tradition, covered subjects such as cosmology (Timaeus), politics (Republic), rhetoric (Phaedrus), and the afterlife (Phaedo). Aristotle (384 BC–322 BC) similarly applied his efforts across a broad spectrum, contributing to biological classification (History of Animals, Parts of Animals), physics (Physics), and logic (Organon), among other things.

Plato (428 BC–348 BC), the father of the Western philosophical tradition, covered subjects such as cosmology (Timaeus), politics (Republic), rhetoric (Phaedrus), and the afterlife (Phaedo). Aristotle (384 BC–322 BC) similarly applied his efforts across a broad spectrum, contributing to biological classification (History of Animals, Parts of Animals), physics (Physics), and logic (Organon), among other things. There is also Socrates (469 BC–399 BC), Plato’s teacher.
Philosophy in the NT
Paul warned the Philippians to no let themselves to be deceived.
In the Graeco-Roman world, “philosophy was divided into three sciences: physics, ethics, and logic”
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