The two essential elements of Gnosticism are (a) cosmological dualism consisting of matter and spirit, the one evil and therefore not created directly by a good spirit, and the other good; and (b) esoteric knowledge, limited to those who are initiated into the gnosis, by which they are able to be “saved,” i.e., freed from evil material existence to enter into pure spiritual life. Both elements have seeming relationships with the Judeo-Christian Scriptures. Both, however, come into basic conflict with biblical doctrine. Matter is not evil in the Bible, but is God’s creation, and the “new earth” exists in the age to come alongside the “new heaven.” The body, likewise, is not evil, and salvation is not an escape from it. There is a resurrection body, as eternal as the soul. Jewish eschatology, like its Christian counterpart, knows nothing of salvation from the body, but rather of redemption of the body (cf. 1QM 12:9–15).