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The Challenge to the King

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I. The Political Challenge (15-22)

Matthew 22:15–22 NASB95
15 Then the Pharisees went and plotted together how they might trap Him in what He said. 16 And they sent their disciples to Him, along with the Herodians, saying, “Teacher, we know that You are truthful and teach the way of God in truth, and defer to no one; for You are not partial to any. 17 “Tell us then, what do You think? Is it lawful to give a poll-tax to Caesar, or not?” 18 But Jesus perceived their malice, and said, “Why are you testing Me, you hypocrites? 19 “Show Me the coin used for the poll-tax.” And they brought Him a denarius. 20 And He said to them, “Whose likeness and inscription is this?” 21 They said to Him, “Caesar’s.” Then He said to them, “Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s; and to God the things that are God’s.” 22 And hearing this, they were amazed, and leaving Him, they went away.
Matthew 22:15-22

A. Setting Their Trap (15-17)

Matthew 22:15–17 NASB95
15 Then the Pharisees went and plotted together how they might trap Him in what He said. 16 And they sent their disciples to Him, along with the Herodians, saying, “Teacher, we know that You are truthful and teach the way of God in truth, and defer to no one; for You are not partial to any. 17 “Tell us then, what do You think? Is it lawful to give a poll-tax to Caesar, or not?”
Plotted (17),
15-
The Pharisees were the supremely orthodox, who resented the payment of the tax to a foreign king as an infringement of the divine right of God. The Herodians were the party of Herod, king of Galilee, who owed his power to the Romans and who worked hand in glove with them.
Barclay, W. (2001). The Gospel of Matthew (Third Ed., p. 318). Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press.
Barclay, W. (2001). The Gospel of Matthew (Third Ed., p. 318). Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press.
Barclay, W. (2001). The Gospel of Matthew (Third Ed., p. 318). Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press.
Herodians-followers of Herod’s family
Plotted (17), Baited (16), Sprung (17)
Believer’s Bible Commentary I. Rendering to Caesar and to God (22:15–22)

If Jesus answered, “No,” He would not only antagonize the Herodians, but would be accused of rebellion against the Roman government. The Pharisees would have hustled Him off and pressed charges against Him. If He said, “Yes,” He would run afoul of the Jews’ intense nationalistic spirit. He would lose much support among the common people—support which so far hindered the leaders in their efforts to dispose of Him.

Barclay, W. (2001). The Gospel of Matthew (Third Ed., p. 318). Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press.
Baited (16) — complementing Jesus to set Him up for a fall. They didn’t really believe these things were true of Jesus.
Baited (16) — complementing Jesus to set Him up for a fall
Sprung (17)
The Gospel of Matthew, Volume 2 Human and Divine Right (Matthew 22:15–22)

There were, in fact, three regular taxes which the Roman government exacted. There was a ground tax; a man must pay to the government one-tenth of the grain and one-fifth of the oil and wine which he produced; this tax was paid partly in kind, and partly in a money equivalent. There was income tax, which was one per cent of a man’s income. There was a poll tax; this tax had to be paid by every male person from the age of fourteen to the age of sixty-five, and by every female person from the age of twelve to sixty-five; it amounted to one denarius—that is what Jesus called the tribute coin—and was the equivalent of the usual day’s wage for a working man. The tax in question here is the poll tax

C. Springing Their Trap (17)

B. Reversing Their Trap (18-22)

[Speedy Gonsalas - see all the ]
Matthew 22:18 NASB95
18 But Jesus perceived their malice, and said, “Why are you testing Me, you hypocrites?
Matthew 22:
Matthew 22:18–22 NASB95
18 But Jesus perceived their malice, and said, “Why are you testing Me, you hypocrites? 19 “Show Me the coin used for the poll-tax.” And they brought Him a denarius. 20 And He said to them, “Whose likeness and inscription is this?” 21 They said to Him, “Caesar’s.” Then He said to them, “Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s; and to God the things that are God’s.” 22 And hearing this, they were amazed, and leaving Him, they went away.
C. Reversing Their Trap (19-22)
Matthew 22:19–22 NASB95
19 “Show Me the coin used for the poll-tax.” And they brought Him a denarius. 20 And He said to them, “Whose likeness and inscription is this?” 21 They said to Him, “Caesar’s.” Then He said to them, “Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s; and to God the things that are God’s.” 22 And hearing this, they were amazed, and leaving Him, they went away.
vs. 17 - “or” , vs 21 - “and”
F. Amazing
We owe taxes to our governments What do we owe to God for the services that He has rendered?
vs 21 - “and”
We owe taxes to our governments What do we owe to God for the services that He has rendered?

II. The Theological Challenge (23-33)

Matthew 22:
Matthew
Matthew 22:15–33 NASB95
15 Then the Pharisees went and plotted together how they might trap Him in what He said. 16 And they sent their disciples to Him, along with the Herodians, saying, “Teacher, we know that You are truthful and teach the way of God in truth, and defer to no one; for You are not partial to any. 17 “Tell us then, what do You think? Is it lawful to give a poll-tax to Caesar, or not?” 18 But Jesus perceived their malice, and said, “Why are you testing Me, you hypocrites? 19 “Show Me the coin used for the poll-tax.” And they brought Him a denarius. 20 And He said to them, “Whose likeness and inscription is this?” 21 They said to Him, “Caesar’s.” Then He said to them, “Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s; and to God the things that are God’s.” 22 And hearing this, they were amazed, and leaving Him, they went away. 23 On that day some Sadducees (who say there is no resurrection) came to Jesus and questioned Him, 24 asking, “Teacher, Moses said, ‘If a man dies having no children, his brother as next of kin shall marry his wife, and raise up children for his brother.’ 25 “Now there were seven brothers with us; and the first married and died, and having no children left his wife to his brother; 26 so also the second, and the third, down to the seventh. 27 “Last of all, the woman died. 28 “In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife of the seven will she be? For they all had married her.” 29 But Jesus answered and said to them, “You are mistaken, not understanding the Scriptures nor the power of God. 30 “For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 31 “But regarding the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was spoken to you by God: 32 ‘I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? He is not the God of the dead but of the living.” 33 When the crowds heard this, they were astonished at His teaching.
Matthew 22:23–33 NASB95
23 On that day some Sadducees (who say there is no resurrection) came to Jesus and questioned Him, 24 asking, “Teacher, Moses said, ‘If a man dies having no children, his brother as next of kin shall marry his wife, and raise up children for his brother.’ 25 “Now there were seven brothers with us; and the first married and died, and having no children left his wife to his brother; 26 so also the second, and the third, down to the seventh. 27 “Last of all, the woman died. 28 “In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife of the seven will she be? For they all had married her.” 29 But Jesus answered and said to them, “You are mistaken, not understanding the Scriptures nor the power of God. 30 “For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 31 “But regarding the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was spoken to you by God: 32 ‘I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? He is not the God of the dead but of the living.” 33 When the crowds heard this, they were astonished at His teaching.

A. The Absurd Set-Up (23-28)

Matthew 22:23–28 NASB95
23 On that day some Sadducees (who say there is no resurrection) came to Jesus and questioned Him, 24 asking, “Teacher, Moses said, ‘If a man dies having no children, his brother as next of kin shall marry his wife, and raise up children for his brother.’ 25 “Now there were seven brothers with us; and the first married and died, and having no children left his wife to his brother; 26 so also the second, and the third, down to the seventh. 27 “Last of all, the woman died. 28 “In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife of the seven will she be? For they all had married her.”
Pharisees believed that you were resurrected exactly the same (body, scars, clothes, etc.) until it was proven that you were resurrected and then you can take any form that you wish.
Pharisees believed that you were resurrected exactly the same (body, scars, clothes, etc.) until it was proven that you were resurrected and then you can take any form that you wish.
Deuteronomy 25:5–6 NASB95
5 “When brothers live together and one of them dies and has no son, the wife of the deceased shall not be married outside the family to a strange man. Her husband’s brother shall go in to her and take her to himself as wife and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her. 6 “It shall be that the firstborn whom she bears shall assume the name of his dead brother, so that his name will not be blotted out from Israel.
Deut.
They were trying to catch Him in a logical absurdity like “Can make a rock so big that even He can’t move it?” or “Everything that I say is a lie, and I am lying.”

B. The Amazing Answer (29-33)

Matthew 22:29–33 NASB95
29 But Jesus answered and said to them, “You are mistaken, not understanding the Scriptures nor the power of God. 30 “For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 31 “But regarding the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was spoken to you by God: 32 ‘I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? He is not the God of the dead but of the living.” 33 When the crowds heard this, they were astonished at His teaching.
Ignorant of the Scriptures.
Ignorant of the power of God. God is not limited by the current physical and social design. He made this world by speaking them into existence, and a God that powerful can certainly make a new world.
When Jesus answered them, they were like a balloon deflating.
When Jesus answered them, they were like a balloon deflating.
astonished = out of their minds.
Application:
Our Savior is amazing.
Jesus healed people physically and the people were astounded, but just as astounding was His wisdom. It was supernatural wisdom for He is a supernatural man—He is God.
Jesus spoke authoritatively as one who new the future.
Jesus relied on Scripture to answer the deep questions of life.
People are still impressed today. We are compelled to love Him, hate Him, or deny Him. Are you amazed? Then love Him.
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