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2 Samuel 5

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Introduction:

Saul is dead and David is no longer on the run.

About 7 years have passed with David ruling over Judah from Hebron in the south and Ishbosheth, Saul’s one remaining son, ruling over Benjamin and the rest of Israel from Mahanaim in the north.

Ishbosheth’s commander of armies and potential ally of David, Abner, is dead, having been assassinated by David’s military commander, Joab.
And with chapter 4, Ishbosheth was assassinated by 2 men who thought they would be rewarded by David.
But as was the case with the Amalekite messenger in chapter one who claimed to have taken Saul’s life, David had the assassins put to death.
David had reigned seven years in Hebron over the tribe of Judah; now he was to reign over the entire nation for thirty-three years, making a total of forty years.
David had reigned seven years in Hebron over the tribe of Judah; now he was to reign over the entire nation for thirty-three years, making a total of forty years.
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In the last chapter,

In our chapter for tonight, the tribes of Israel now make David king.

The tribes of Israel now make David king. He is the only viable military leader with a proven record of victories in past campaigns (5:1–5). One of David’s first acts is to take the strategic city of Jerusalem, and make it his capital (vv. 6–16; see Jerusalem). The Philistines recognize the threat David poses as Israel’s king. They organize a preemptive strike intended to kill him before he can weld Israel together (v. 17). David, guided by God, deals the Philistines a series of quick defeats, foreshadowing the end of that sea people’s military and technological dominance. David at last is in command of his people, and immediately reveals the vigor that will mark his actions throughout his long future reign.

In our chapter, the elders of the tribes of Israel will anoint him as their king.

This was David’s third anointing.
This was David’s third anointing—Samuel had anointed him at home in Bethlehem, and the men of Judah had anointed him at Hebron (2:4). See for David’s song of victory after God had defeated all his foes and given him peace.
Prior to this:
Samuel had anointed David at his home in Bethlehem.
The men of Judah had anointed him at Hebron.
is David’s song of victory after God had defeated all his foes and given him peace.
In that Psalm he wrote:
Psalm 18:30 NKJV
As for God, His way is perfect; The word of the Lord is proven; He is a shield to all who trust in Him.
From taking on bears and lions while guarding his father’s sheep … to defeating Goliath … to battles both mental and physical … the Lord has brought David through.
The LORD had the prophet Samuel anoint David as His choice for King of Israel and the LORD has seen David through.
As for the rest of Israel, they were not left with a lot of choices.
As was the case with Saul, even though God chose for king a man like the people wanted, it was still God who appointed Saul as king.
God was in control.
And God also chose David, who was a man after God’s own heart, and as for the people, there was really no other choice but David.
God was in control.
David is the only viable military leader with a proven record of victories in past campaigns (5:1–5).
He is the only viable military leader with a proven record of victories in past campaigns (5:1–5). One of David’s first acts is to take the strategic city of Jerusalem, and make it his capital (vv. 6–16; see Jerusalem). The Philistines recognize the threat David poses as Israel’s king. They organize a preemptive strike intended to kill him before he can weld Israel together (v. 17). David, guided by God, deals the Philistines a series of quick defeats, foreshadowing the end of that sea people’s military and technological dominance. David at last is in command of his people, and immediately reveals the vigor that will mark his actions throughout his long future reign.
As the elders said in verse 2, “When Saul was king over us, you were the one who led Israel out and brought them in.”
Do not read below:
2 Samuel 5:2 NKJV
Also, in time past, when Saul was king over us, you were the one who led Israel out and brought them in; and the Lord said to you, ‘You shall shepherd My people Israel, and be ruler over Israel.’ ”
2 Samuel
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One of David’s first acts is to take the strategic city of Jerusalem, and make it his capital (vv. 6–16; see Jerusalem).

Prior to this point, Jerusalem was in the hands of the Jebusites.

The Jebusites were descended from the 3rd son of Canaan.
He is the only viable military leader with a proven record of victories in past campaigns (5:1–5). One of David’s first acts is to take the strategic city of Jerusalem, and make it his capital (vv. 6–16; see Jerusalem). The Philistines recognize the threat David poses as Israel’s king. They organize a preemptive strike intended to kill him before he can weld Israel together (v. 17). David, guided by God, deals the Philistines a series of quick defeats, foreshadowing the end of that sea people’s military and technological dominance. David at last is in command of his people, and immediately reveals the vigor that will mark his actions throughout his long future reign.
In our chapter, David will take Jerusalem from the Jebusites to make it the new capital of Israel.
By chapter 6, David is fully established ruling from Jerusalem and the Ark of the Covenant is brought there.
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Also in this chapter, David takes on the Philistines.

Of course, the Philistines had personal experience with David.

As a young man, he had killed their great hero Goliath.
In order to marry Saul’s daughter Michal, David had slain 200 Philistines.
And of course there were other battles and skirmishes between David and the Philistines.
But let’s not forget that when David was on the run from Saul he had lived in Ziklag with permission of the Philistine king and had raided and worked on their behalf.
In fact, the Philistine king grew to trust David enough to make him his personal bodyguard.
So, the Philistines were very much aware of what David was capable of and they recognized the threat David posed to them as Israel’s king.
And to mitigate what could be a disaster for them, they organized a preemptive strike intended to kill him before he can weld Israel together (v. 17).
But David, guided by God, deals the Philistines a series of quick defeats.
This foreshadows the end of the military and technological dominance they had been enjoying over the Israelites.
So, David is at last in command of all Israel.
And very quickly we see reveals the strength of character and military capability that will mark his actions throughout his long future reign.
Prayer: Heavenly Father, we thank You for everyone here this evening. Thank You that You know each of us by name and have caused us to walk with You. Lord, we open up Your word desiring to hear from You ... not man's word or wisdom, but Your Words and Wisdom. Please soften our hearts to receive from You.

v1-5

The assassination of Ishbosheth left the eleven tribes without a king.

There was no more able heir to claim Saul’s throne.

As we saw in the last chapter, there was yet a surviving male grandson of Saul, Mephibosheth.
But he was physically unfit to rule.
The other possible claimant was Abner, Ishbosheth’s military commander who already had his eyes on the throne.
But Abner was dead, murdered by Joab.
Before he was assassinated, Abner had made a peace deal with David and had begun work to pave the way for David to be made king of all twelve tribes.
I find it interesting that the elders of Israel make 2 statements about why they are finally come to David to anoint him king.
First, he had led Israel’s armies under Saul.
Second, the Lord had already chose David to be king.
These 2 things seem out of order.
The fact that David was God’s chosen king should be their first concern.
And the fact that David led Israel in battle under Saul is supporting evidence.
However, we could also look at this from the perspective of David having been faithful in his responsibilities under Saul.
And now being recognized as King with the leaders of all the tribes convening at Hebron and crowning him king.
The next step was for the leaders of all the tribes to convene at Hebron and crown David king.
The next step was for the leaders of all the tribes to convene at Hebron and crown David king.
The qualifications for Israel’s king were written in the Law of Moses in .
Do not read below:
Deuteronomy 17:14–20 NKJV
“When you come to the land which the Lord your God is giving you, and possess it and dwell in it, and say, ‘I will set a king over me like all the nations that are around me,’ you shall surely set a king over you whom the Lord your God chooses; one from among your brethren you shall set as king over you; you may not set a foreigner over you, who is not your brother. But he shall not multiply horses for himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt to multiply horses, for the Lord has said to you, ‘You shall not return that way again.’ Neither shall he multiply wives for himself, lest his heart turn away; nor shall he greatly multiply silver and gold for himself. “Also it shall be, when he sits on the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write for himself a copy of this law in a book, from the one before the priests, the Levites. And it shall be with him, and he shall read it all the days of his life, that he may learn to fear the Lord his God and be careful to observe all the words of this law and these statutes, that his heart may not be lifted above his brethren, that he may not turn aside from the commandment to the right hand or to the left, and that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children in the midst of Israel.

From verse 15 of , we see that the first and most important requirement was that he was to be chosen by the Lord from the people of Israel.

He was to be a king “whom the Lord your God chooses.”
Verse 2 of our chapter reminds us that the people were aware that Samuel had anointed David king some 20 years before this.
They knew that it was God’s will that David ascend the throne.
The nation needed a shepherd, and David was that shepherd.
Asaph recognized this in
Psalm 78:70–72 NKJV
He also chose David His servant, And took him from the sheepfolds; From following the ewes that had young He brought him, To shepherd Jacob His people, And Israel His inheritance. So he shepherded them according to the integrity of his heart, And guided them by the skillfulness of his hands.
In contrast, Saul had been “the people’s king” whom the Lord had given to them according to their desire.
God had given Saul as a judgment against Israel because they wanted to be like the other nations.
Hosea 13:11 NKJV
I gave you a king in My anger, And took him away in My wrath.
To get to the heart of the matter, God wanted to be recognized as the King of Israel, no matter what man sat on the royal throne.
A large part of this was whether the king recognized God as being the true King of Israel.
Saul was more interested in exalting himself.
David, however, is more interested in exalting the Lord as King.

Over the years, when they rejected the LORD as King, He gave them the kind of kings their hearts wanted and deserved.

And down the line from David, the kings more and more led the people in rejecting God.
The LORD warned the people by the reign of Saul and then desired for Israel to be ruled by the godly man, David.
Saul had been “the people’s king” but he wasn’t the Lord’s first choice, for God had given him as a judgment against Israel because they wanted to be like the other nations (; ). The Lord loved His people and knew they needed a shepherd, so He equipped David to be their king. Unlike Saul, who was a Benjamite, David was from the royal tribe of Judah () and was born and raised in Bethlehem. Because of this, he was able to establish the dynasty that brought the Messiah Jesus Christ into the world, and He, too, was born in Bethlehem.
The Lord loved His people and knew they needed a shepherd, so He equipped David to be their king.
But David would be the high-mark … a picture of the future reign of Christ, though a flawed picture, as David was a sinful person.
Unlike Saul, who was a Benjamite, David was from the royal tribe of Judah ().
said that Judah would be the tribe from which kings were to reign and that the Messiah would be from the tribe of Judah.
Genesis 49:10 NKJV
The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor a lawgiver from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes; And to Him shall be the obedience of the people.
David was born and raised in Bethlehem., and according to , the future Messiah would be born in Bethlehem.
Do not read below:
Micah 5:2 NKJV
“But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Though you are little among the thousands of Judah, Yet out of you shall come forth to Me The One to be Ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth are from of old, From everlasting.”
So, with the end of Saul’s dynasty, God established the dynasty that would bring the Messiah Jesus Christ into the world.
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Because of this, he was able to establish the dynasty that brought the Messiah Jesus Christ into the world, and He, too, was born in Bethlehem.

Back to our text, the people who gathered at Hebron were representatives from all the tribes.

They enthusiastically gave their allegiance to the new king ().

In fact describes this group.
Do not read below:
1 Chronicles 12:23–40 NKJV
Now these were the numbers of the divisions that were equipped for war, and came to David at Hebron to turn over the kingdom of Saul to him, according to the word of the Lord: of the sons of Judah bearing shield and spear, six thousand eight hundred armed for war; of the sons of Simeon, mighty men of valor fit for war, seven thousand one hundred; of the sons of Levi four thousand six hundred; Jehoiada, the leader of the Aaronites, and with him three thousand seven hundred; Zadok, a young man, a valiant warrior, and from his father’s house twenty-two captains; of the sons of Benjamin, relatives of Saul, three thousand (until then the greatest part of them had remained loyal to the house of Saul); of the sons of Ephraim twenty thousand eight hundred, mighty men of valor, famous men throughout their father’s house; of the half-tribe of Manasseh eighteen thousand, who were designated by name to come and make David king; of the sons of Issachar who had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do, their chiefs were two hundred; and all their brethren were at their command; of Zebulun there were fifty thousand who went out to battle, expert in war with all weapons of war, stouthearted men who could keep ranks; of Naphtali one thousand captains, and with them thirty-seven thousand with shield and spear; of the Danites who could keep battle formation, twenty-eight thousand six hundred; of Asher, those who could go out to war, able to keep battle formation, forty thousand; of the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh, from the other side of the Jordan, one hundred and twenty thousand armed for battle with every kind of weapon of war. All these men of war, who could keep ranks, came to Hebron with a loyal heart, to make David king over all Israel; and all the rest of Israel were of one mind to make David king. And they were there with David three days, eating and drinking, for their brethren had prepared for them. Moreover those who were near to them, from as far away as Issachar and Zebulun and Naphtali, were bringing food on donkeys and camels, on mules and oxen—provisions of flour and cakes of figs and cakes of raisins, wine and oil and oxen and sheep abundantly, for there was joy in Israel.

The total number of officers and men who came to David at Hebron is 340,800.

The total number of officers and men is 340,800, all of them loyal to David. The people remained with David for three days and celebrated God’s goodness to His people.
And all of them were loyal to David … it says:
1 Chronicles 12:38 NKJV
All these men of war, who could keep ranks, came to Hebron with a loyal heart, to make David king over all Israel; and all the rest of Israel were of one mind to make David king.
The people remained with David for 3 days and celebrated God’s goodness.
The people remained with David for three days and celebrated God’s goodness to His people.
Verse 3 says that King David made a covenant with the people.
This was an affirmation of His willingness to abide by God’s covenant with His people.
especially and .

God’s covenant with His people as expressed in the Law of Moses, is the foundation of the nation of Israel.

If the king and the people obeyed God’s will, He would bless and care for them.
But if they disobeyed and worshiped false gods, He would discipline them.
Each new king was required to affirm the supremacy and authority of God’s law.
They were to promise to obey it, and even says he is to make a copy of it for his own personal use.
Do not read below:
Deuteronomy 17:18 NKJV
“Also it shall be, when he sits on the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write for himself a copy of this law in a book, from the one before the priests, the Levites.

So, David entered into a covenant with the Lord and with the people.

David entered into a covenant with the Lord and the people.
In this covenant he would have agreed to uphold and obey God’s law and to rule in the fear of the Lord.
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So, finally, here David is … King over all Israel.

When David was a teenager, Samuel had anointed him privately as recorded in .

Later, in , the elders of the tribe of Judah had anointed him when he became their king.

At that time he was thirty years old.
And now the elders of the whole nation anointed David and proclaimed him as their king.
Now, he is about 38 years of age.
No longer was David an inexperienced kid.
He had been tested and trained by the Lord.
And he takes the throne of Israel as a seasoned warrior and a gifted leader with the blessing of the Lord.
For Israel, there had been so many years of difficulty and division.
But now the nation had a king who was God’s choice and the people’s choice.
God takes time to prepare His leaders, and much to be pitied is the person who “succeeds” before he or she is ready for it.

v4-9

Abner and Ishbosheth had established their capital at Mahanaim.

Mahanaim was over on the East side of the Jordan River on the boundary of Gad and Manasseh.

David’s capital was at Hebron in the territory of Judah.
To choose one or the other would have sent a bad message.
Would David show favoritism toward Judah … or would he have a distant throne in Mahanaim?
Neither of those places was good for a new ruler who needed to unify the nation.
over the Jordan River on the boundary of Gad and Manasseh, while David’s capital was at Hebron in the tribe of Judah. But neither city was suitable for a new ruler who was seeking to unify the nation and make a new beginning. David wisely chose as his capital the Jebusite city of Jerusalem on the border of Benjamin (Saul’s tribe) and Judah (David’s tribe). Jerusalem had never belonged to any of the tribes, so nobody could accuse David of playing favorites in setting up his new capital.
Instead, David wisely chose as his capital the Jebusite city of Jerusalem.
Jerusalem was on the border of Benjamin (Saul’s tribe) and Judah (David’s tribe).
It was also on the west side of the Jordan and accessible to all the tribes.
Additionally, Jerusalem had never belonged to any of the tribes, so nobody could accuse David of playing favorites in setting up his new capital.
These were all important considerations, but the seat of authority should also be defensible.
Jerusalem was built on a rocky hill and surrounded on three sides by valleys and other hills.
Political considerations were important, but so was security, and the topography of Jerusalem made it an ideal capital city. Built on a rocky hill and surrounded on three sides by valleys and hills, the city was vulnerable only on the north side. The Valley of Hinnom lay on the south, the Kidron Valley on the east, and the Tyropean Valley on the west. “Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King” ( kjv). “Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined” ( kjv). The Jewish people have always loved the city of Jerusalem, and today it is revered by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. To be born in Jerusalem was a high honor indeed ().
The only city vulnerable point was the north side.
The Valley of Hinnom lay on the south, the Kidron Valley on the east, and the Tyropean Valley on the west.
describes Jerusalem as:
Psalm 48:2 NKJV
Beautiful in elevation, The joy of the whole earth, Is Mount Zion on the sides of the north, The city of the great King.
Psalm 48:
And describes it as, “The perfection of beauty.”
Do not read below:
Psalm 50:2 NKJV
Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God will shine forth.
Psalm 50
Additionally, this is the place where the Lord says He has “written His name.”
“Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King” ( kjv). “Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined” ( kjv). The Jewish people have always loved the city of Jerusalem, and today it is revered by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. To be born in Jerusalem was a high honor indeed ().
And if you look at the outline of the valleys that run through and around Jerusalem, it looks like the letter Shin, which is shorthand for Shaddai, one of the names of God.
You may remember also that Jerusalem was the city of Melchizedek, who met with Abraham back in Genesis.
The Lord must have guided David in a special way when he chose Jerusalem to be his capital, because Jerusalem would play a strategic role in the working out of His great plan of salvation. God had promised the Jews that He would appoint a place where they could come to worship Him (), and He must have revealed to David that Jerusalem was that place. Later, David would purchase property on Zion which would become the site for the temple that his son Solomon would build (). The church sees the earthly Jerusalem as a city of legalistic bondage, but the heavenly Jerusalem as a symbol of the covenant of grace in Christ Jesus () and the eternal home of Christ’s people (; ). God has set His King on the throne (), and one day He will speak in His wrath and judge those who oppose Him and His truth.
As a priest and king, He foreshadowed Christ in His ministry as both Priest and King.
We’ll talk more about this in our study of Hebrews.
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It seems pretty clear that David was led of the LORD to choose Jerusalem for his capital.

Jerusalem would play a very important role in God’s plan of salvation for the world.

In Deuteronomy12, God promised a place where Israel could come to worship Him.
Jerusalem would be that place.
Later, David purchased property on Zion which would become the site for the temple.
Though David would be prohibited by God from building the Temple, his son Solomon would build it.
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God has set His King on the throne (), and one day He will speak in His wrath and judge those who oppose Him and His truth.

The Jebusites who lived in Jerusalem thought that their city could not be taken.

In fact, so confident were they that they bragged that even the blind and the lame could defend it.

David knew something that the Jebusites didn’t.
He knew that the Lord had promised Moses that Israel would conquer all the nations living in Canaan.
Of course, that included the Jebusites.
So, David promised that the man who entered the city and subdued it would be the commander of his army.
And what was the weak point?
David told them to go up through the water shaft.
David’s nephew Joab accepted the challenge, captured the city, and became captain of David’s troops.
1 Chronicles 11:6 NKJV
Now David said, “Whoever attacks the Jebusites first shall be chief and captain.” And Joab the son of Zeruiah went up first, and became chief.
So Joab seems to have sneaked his men into town through a water system.
In 1867 when British explorer Charles Warren discovered a 40-foot vertical opening through solid rock, which came to be called Warren's Shaft.
Excavations on Mount Zion have revealed a water shaft that would have been difficult but not impossible to climb.
The shaft was near a system of tunnels around the Gihon Spring, Jerusalem's only natural source of water located outside the city walls to the south.
It is thought that the tunnels provided access to the spring when the city was under siege.
So then, it was for a time believed that this was Joab's point of entry.
However, archaeological evidence indicates this could not have been the point of access and there was likely another system during the time of David.
Whatever the case, Joab and his men were able to enter the city by the water system and take it.
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Now, the Jerusalem that we know today is much larger than that which existed in David’s time.

Then, the city occupied a much smaller portion … about 11 football fields in size.

In years following, David and his successors strengthened the fortress by building walls.
The City of David is still undergoing archaeological excavation today.
In verse 9, the word “millo” (v. 9) means “earthwork.”
In verse 9, the word “millo” (v. 9) means “earthwork.”
It refers to a stone embankment that was built on the southeastern side of the mount.
It is a curved, 60 ft high, 1,500 feet long and 900 feet wide, narrow stone structure.
It was probably built to support additional buildings and a wall.
In fact, in 1997 there was a large stone structure discovered above the stepped stone embankment.
It is thought that this structure might have been the palace.
Archaeologists have uncovered what they call “a stepped-stone structure,” about 1,500 feet long and 900 feet wide, that was a supporting terrace for other structures, and they assume this was the “millo.”
The Bible records that both Solomon and King Hezekiah strengthened this part of Mount Zion.
Now, there is an interesting verse back in that says:
1 Samuel 17:54 NKJV
And David took the head of the Philistine and brought it to Jerusalem, but he put his armor in his tent.
That was back when David killed Goliath.
David was a kid, Saul was king, and Jerusalem was in the hands of the Jebusites.
So then, how is it that David took Goliath’s head to Jerusalem?
Well, there are a few possibilities.
For one it may have been that David went around to local cities displaying Goliath’s head to declare this great victory that God had given Israel.
As such, he may have passed by Jerusalem, which was in the territory of Judah and Benjamin to declare the strength of God to the Jebusites to strike fear in their hearts.
In other words … we’re coming.
Another possibility is that it was just recorded in that David brought Goliath’s head back to Jerusalem, but that actually happened when David took the city.
If that’s the case, then as grisly as it sounds, David must have preserved the head for all those years and kept it as a trophy and reminder of God’s faithfulness.
It may have been prominently displayed in David’s palace and perhaps could have been placed in David’s tomb as a memorial.
Wouldn’t it be interesting if David’s tomb were excavated and the remains of Goliath’s head were found?
But, it is not known where David’s tomb is, although Josephus recorded that Herod the Great tried to loot David’s tomb but found someone had beat him to it.
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Real quick before we move on, I want to comment on verse 8 which says, “The lame and the blind, who are hated by David’s soul.”
the lame and the blind, who are hated by David’s soul
We read that and probably think, “Whoa … that seems way out of line.”
What we miss is that this isn’t speaking of people who are lame and blind.
“The Lame and the Blind” speaks of idols.
The Jebusites thought that even their Lame and Blind Idols could defend the city.
But David says, “No … we are the army of the Living God.”
“I hate your idols and we are going to kick the idols out of the house of Jerusalem.”

v10-16

v10-16

v10-16

Israel was a small nation.

What made Israel special and distinguished Israel from her neighbors was it’s special covenant relationship with God.

Hiram was probably just beginning his reign as king of Tyre.
He would have been 19 years old at this time and would reign for 34 years.
Tyre is located to the north of Israel on the coast of the Mediterranean in what we would think of as southern Lebanon today, but was Phoenicia then.
Hiram established Tyre as the most important port city in the Mediterranean, and maintained friendly contacts with Israel.
ruled in the 10th century bc (969–936), established Tyre as the most important port city in the Mediterranean, and maintained friendly contacts with Israel.
Hiram’s empire would grow dramatically and between Hiram’s power at sea and David’s power on land, the grip of the Philistines would be broken.
Kim, K. (2016). Hiram, King of Tyre. In J. D. Barry, D. Bomar, D. R. Brown, R. Klippenstein, D. Mangum, C. Sinclair Wolcott, … W. Widder (Eds.), The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.
The Lexham Bible Dictionary Hiram, King of Tyre

ruled in the 10th century BC (969–936), established Tyre as the most important port city in the Mediterranean, and maintained friendly contacts with Israel.

Hiram established Tyre as the most important port city in the Mediterranean, and maintained friendly contacts with Israel.
He brought Tyre to prominence with long-distance maritime trade.

Now, it may have been that this relationship he suddenly made with David was one of convenience more than anything.

It was beneficial to him to have a friend to the south … especially since the Israelites were not seafaring people and thus not competition.
The Philistines, however, were dangerous on land and at sea … and it benefitted both David and Hiram for the Philistines to be out of the picture.
It was also good for Hiram because Israel could easily block the trade route to Tyre, and the Phoenicians depended on Jewish farmers for their food.
After the death of David Hiram entered into a similar alliance with Solomon, and assisted him greatly in building the temple.
In fact, Phoenician historians record that Solomon married the daughter of Hiram.
Phoenician historians record that Solomon married the daughter of Hiram.
All of this seems good and beneficial.

Phoenician historians record that Solomon married the daughter of Hiram.

After the death of David he entered into a similar alliance with Solomon, and assisted him greatly in building the temple
It is interesting that as seemingly helpful as Hiram seems, Ezekiel
Israel was a small nation that was distinguished from her neighbors by her special covenant relationship with the true and living God (), and the Jews were warned not to form alliances with their neighbors that would compromise their testimony. Unless his successor bore the same name, Hiram was probably just beginning his reign as king of Tyre, for he befriended both David and Solomon during their reigns ().
But remember that Israel was a nation that was distinguished from her neighbors by a special covenant relationship with God.
As such, the Israelites were warned not to form alliances with their neighbors that would compromise their testimony.
Israel was a nation that was distinguished from her neighbors by her special covenant relationship with the true and living God (), and the Jews were warned not to form alliances with their neighbors that would compromise their testimony.
Unless his successor bore the same name, Hiram was probably just beginning his reign as king of Tyre, for he befriended both David and Solomon during their reigns ().
Israel was a small nation that was distinguished from her neighbors by her special covenant relationship with the true and living God (), and the Jews were warned not to form alliances with their neighbors that would compromise their testimony. Unless his successor bore the same name, Hiram was probably just beginning his reign as king of Tyre, for he befriended both David and Solomon during their reigns ().
David interpreted Hiram’s kindness as another evidence that the Lord had indeed established him on the throne of Israel.
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Now, in the next section, the Philistines are defeated.

It’s likely that David’s palace was built for him after this.

It may have been Hiram’s way of recognizing David’s accession to the throne.

In verse 13, after mention of a palace, we have the “house” that the Lord was building for him … his family.

The mention of David’s palace and his alliance with Hiram offered the writer opportunity to mention David’s family, the “house” that the Lord was building for him (). prohibited Israel’s king from taking many wives, but David seems to have ignored this law, as did Solomon after him (; ).

Now, you may remember that prohibited Israel’s king from taking many wives.

But David seems to have ignored this law, … as did Solomon after him.
As we saw in chapter 3, at least one of David’s wives was a princess.
This suggests that the marriage was a political alliance, and no doubt there were other similar marriages.
Marriages like this were a common way to secure good relationships with other nations.
There are a few lists of David’s children in Scripture.
One is those born while he reigned in Hebron … we saw this back in chapter 3.
And then there were those born after he moved to Jerusalem which are listed here and in .
His first wife was Saul’s daughter Michal, she was childless.
In Hebron:
Ahinoam of Jezreel gave birth to Amnon, David’s firstborn ().
Abigail the widow of Nabal gave birth to Chileab, also called Daniel ().
Princess Maacah bore Absalom (3:3) and Tamar ().
Haggith gave birth to Adonijah (3:4).
Abital bore Shephatiah (3:4).
And Eglah bore Ithream (3:5).
In Jerusalem:
Bathsheba bore David 4 children (): Shimea (or Shammah), Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon.
His other wives, who are not named bore David Ibhar, Elishua, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet.
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David also had children by his concubines, so he had a large family to manage.
It’s no wonder that David had a really difficult family life.
The law clearly stated that the king was not to multiply wives, but both David and Solomon ignored this law, and both paid dearly for it.
It’s likely that some of the wives, like Maacah, represented alliances that David made with neighboring kings to help guarantee the security of Israel.

v17-21

Now, remember that the Philistine king was quite fond of David.

Even though the Philistine military commanders suspected something was up with David, Achish still was favorably inclined toward David.

So, while David was minding his own business in Hebron, the Philistines thought he was still a vassal of theirs.
But when he became king of the whole nation of Israel … suddenly they realized that David was a threat.
And so it seems they figured that while he was fresh to the throne they should go on the offensive.
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David got word that the Philistine army was approaching.

As long as David was minding his own business in Hebron, the Philistines thought he was still one of their vassals; but when he became king of the whole nation of Israel, the Philistines knew he was their enemy and they attacked him. It’s probable that these attacks occurred before David relocated in Jerusalem, because he and his men went down to “the stronghold” (5:17), the wilderness area where he had lived in the days when Saul was out to kill him (; ). David got word of the approaching Philistine army, quickly maneuvered his soldiers, and met the invaders in the Valley of Rephaim, just a short distance from Jerusalem.

So, he met the Philistine army in the Valley of Rephaim, just a short distance from Jerusalem.

But first, as he usually did, David inquired of the Lord either by the Urim and the Thummim or perhaps by the prophet of Gad.
The Lord affirmed that He was with David and would give Israel victory.
Assured by the Lord that He would give Israel victory, David met the Philistines two miles southwest of Jerusalem, and he forced them to retreat.
So, David met the Philistines 2 miles southwest of Jerusalem, and was victorious.
He forced them to retreat.
In fact, they fled so quickly that they left their idols behind, and David and his men burned them.
The Philistines were sure the presence of their gods would assure them victory, but they were wrong.
David gave God all the glory and called the place Baal-perazim, which means “Lord of breaking through.”
It may be that it was at this time that the Gadite warriors of joined David’s army, although that is not clear.
This was probably the occasion when 3 of David’s “mighty men” broke through the Philistine lines and obtained for David water from the Bethlehem well (; ).
It took a great deal of faith and courage for them to do this, and what they did was in response to a desire in David’s heart and not an order from his lips.
They obtained the water because they loved their king and wanted to please him.

v22-25

With verse 22, we find that the Philistines returned to fight David a second time.

And David sought the Lord’s will a second time.

This of course is unlike Joshua after the victory at Jericho, when he assumed the same strategy would work.
David didn’t assume that the same strategy would work again.
God gave him a new battle plan, he obeyed it, and the Lord gave him the victory.
From Gibeon to Gezer was a distance of fifteen to twenty miles.
And David chased them the whole way.
Was it just the wind?
It was by this victory that Israel regained the territory that Saul lost in his last battle.
Or was it troops of Angels?
And soon David took back the cities the Philistines had taken from Saul.
God coming to lead His people to victory? The strategy worked and David pursued the enemy all the way from Gibeon to Gezer, a distance of fifteen to twenty miles. By this victory Israel regained the territory that Saul lost in his last battle. In subsequent campaigns, David also took back the cities the Philistines had taken from Saul (; ). David had repeated battles with the Philistines, and the Lord gave him one victory after another ().
By defeating the Philistines, a message went out to Israel’s enemies that they had better be careful what they do to Israel.
God coming to lead His people to victory? The strategy worked and David pursued the enemy all the way from Gibeon to Gezer, a distance of fifteen to twenty miles. By this victory Israel regained the territory that Saul lost in his last battle. In subsequent campaigns, David also took back the cities the Philistines had taken from Saul (; ). David had repeated battles with the Philistines, and the Lord gave him one victory after another ().
The people had long recognized that David was a brave and skillful warrior, and these two victories added greater glory to God and honor to His servant. By defeating the Philistines, David gave notice to Israel’s enemies that they had better be careful what they did to him and his people.
Prayer: Lord Father we thank You for this time we’ve had together studying Your Word and we ask that You would make it fertile in our lives to do what You desire. Thank You for loving us so much and may Your desires be the desires of our hearts.
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