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The Holy Spirit

A Series of Four Lectures

Hilltop Chapel

May 2004

  1. Introduction –
    1. Adam’s song leading “Fruits of the Spirit”
    2. Long time since I’ve heard anyone talk about this subject

                                                    i.     Probably avoided in most assemblies due to abuses in charismatic churches

                                                  ii.     Similar to the way most Protestants avoid discussing Mary due to abuses in the Catholic church

    1. Series of 4 talks

                                                    i.     Personality/deity of the Spirit

                                                  ii.     Works of the Spirit

                                                iii.     Gifts of the Spirit

                                                iv.     Fruits of the Spirit

    1. Much of my outline, except for the last talk on fruits of the Spirit, is taken from “The Moody Handbook of Theology” by Paul Enns, published in 1989  
  1. Personality and Deity of the Spirit
    1. Introduction                                                     i.     Holy Spirit is both a person and God, and has characteristics of both.

                                                  ii.     He is represented various ways in the scriptures, that illustrate some of his characteristics

    1. Controversial – many heresies have arisen

                                                    i.     Arianism

1.     Taught by Arius, a priest of Alexandria (Egypt) in mid 3rd century

2.     Asserts that Spirit is only an influence, emanating from the Father

3.     Also that Jesus was a created being and therefore not God

4.     Condemned by Council of Nicea in 325 AD (Nicene creed came from this council)

5.     Lives on today in doctrines of Unitarianism, Jehovah’s Witnesses, The Way and others

                                                  ii.     Sabellianism

1.     Taught by Sabellius, a Roman of the early 3rd century

2.     His view denies the separate personality of Christ and the Holy Spirit.

3.     Today this view lives on in another branch of Pentecostalism called Oneness Pentecostals, or United Pentecostals, or Apostolic Pentecostals.

    1. Personality                                                     i.     Identified repeatedly in the scriptures as a person, not as a force or influence: not a Star-Wars like “the force be with you!”

                                                  ii.     Will look at his attributes, works, position, designations

                                                iii.     Attributes

1.     Intellect –  He has a conscious, thinking mind:

a.      1Co 2.10 - But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.

b.     Rom 8.27 - And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God.

2.     Knowledge – he possesses knowledge: 1Co 2.11 - For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God.

3.     Emotions – he has feelings

a.      Grief: Eph 4.30 - And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.

b.     Vexation (being puzzled, irritated, distressed): Isa 63:10 - But they rebelled, and vexed his holy Spirit: therefore he was turned to be their enemy, and he fought against them.

4.     Will – power of sovereign choice and decision, as well as command

a.      Directed Peter to go to Cornelius: Acts 11.12 - And the Spirit bade me go with them, nothing doubting. Moreover these six brethren accompanied me, and we entered into the man’s house:

b.     Directed in the choice of missionaries to be sent out: Acts 13.2 - As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them.

c.      Exercised it in influencing the movements of Paul:  Acts 16.6 - Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden of the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia,

                                                iv.     Works – he performs many works, similar to those of the Father and Son

1.     He teaches: John 14.26 - But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.

2.     He testifies: John 15.26 - But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me: (also illustrates how he comes from the Father)

3.     He guides: John 16:13  Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come.

4.     He convicts:

a.      John 16.8 - And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:

b.     Greek word for “reprove” is “elegcho” which means to convict; also used as rebuke, convince,

5.     He regenerates

a.      Ezek 36.25-27 - Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: from all your filthiness, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them.

b.     Tit 3.5 - Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;

6.     He intercedes

a.      Ro 8.26-27 - Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered. And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God.

b.     Eph 2:18 - For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.

                                                  v.     Position – things can be done to offend him that don’t make sense unless he has real personality

1.     Blasphemed

a.      Consists of attributing to Satan the works of the Spirit

b.     Mk 3.28-29 - Verily I say unto you, All sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith soever they shall blaspheme: But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal damnation:

2.     Resisted

a.      Acts 7.51 - Ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost: as your fathers did, so do ye.

3.     Lied to

a.      Acts 5.3 - But Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back part of the price of the land?

4.     Obeyed – entire narrative of Acts 10 is a study in obedience

                                                vi.     Designations – always referred to with masculine pronoun “he” although a gender-neutral word for Spirit exists in Greek

    1. Deity – concepts similar to what I discussed regarding deity of Jesus (had to leave out this whole section when preaching due to time constraints!)                                                     i.     Look at – divine titles, attributes, and works

                                                  ii.     Divine titles

1.     Repeatedly referred to as “spirit of God” (26 times)

2.     As the spirit of man is intrinsic to him and bound up in him, so the Spirit of God is an inseparable part of his being

                                                iii.     Divine attributes

1.     Omniscience – 1Co 2:10-12 - But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God.

2.     Omnipotence –

a.      The Spirit intimately involved with creation from its very beginning: Gen 1.2 - And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

b.     Also specifically with the creation of man:  Job 33.4 - The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life.

3.     Omnipresence

a.      Ps 139.7-10 - Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; Even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me.

b.     There is no way to escape from the Spirit of God; he is divine and so he is present everywhere

4.     Eternal – He “always was, always will be and always remains the same”: Heb 9.14 - How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?

5.     Holiness – one of key aspects of deity; God is entirely set apart, and separated, from sin and sinners

a.      Referred to in KJV as HOLY Ghost 89 times

b.     Referred to in KJV as HOLY Spirit 7 times

c.      Mt 12.32 - And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come.

                                                iv.     Divine works

1.     Creation –

a.      All 3 members of Trinity are separately credited with creating the world

b.     Already referenced in Gen 1.2

c.      Ps 104.30 -Thou sendest forth thy spirit, they are created: and thou renewest the face of the earth.

2.      He conceived Jesus in Mary – Mt 1.20 - But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost.

3.     He inspired the Scriptures – 2Pe 1.21 - For the prophecy came not in old time  by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.

4.     He sanctifies us:

a.      2Th 2.13 - But we are bound to give thanks alway to God for you, brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth:

b.     1Pe 1.2 - Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.

    1. Representations in the scripture – an incomplete list                                                     i.     Dove – a symbol of purity and peace

1.     Lk 3.22 - And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased.

2.     Jn 1.32 - And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him.

                                                  ii.     Fire – symbolizes the presence and also the judgment of God

1.     Acts 2.3-4 - And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.

2.     1Ki 18.38 - Then the fire of the LORD fell, and consumed the burnt sacrifice, and the wood, and the stones, and the dust, and licked up the water that was in the trench.

                                                iii.     Water- a symbol of eternal life: Jn 7.38-39 - He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)

                                                iv.     Some others – clothing, pledge, oil, seal, wind

    1. So we see that the Holy Spirit                                                     i.     Has a true personality, different from and separate from, the Father and the Son

                                                  ii.     Shares all the same aspects of Deity that both the Father and Son possess

                                                iii.     Is pictured in the Scripture in various ways that illustrate some of his roles

  1. Works of the Spirit
    1. Include the following:                                                     i.     Baptizing

                                                  ii.     Indwelling

                                                iii.     Sealing

                                                iv.     Other works in other times

1.     Old testament believers

2.     Jesus’ life

                                                  v.     Revelation & inspiration

    1. Baptizing

                                                    i.     Key points

1.     What it is and isn’t

2.     Unique to the church age

3.     Includes all believers in church age

4.     Brings us into union with all other believers

5.     Brings us into union with Christ

6.     Performed by the Holy Spirit

                                                  ii.     What it is, what it isn’t

1.     What it is

a.      The baptizing work of the Holy Spirit may be defined as that work whereby the Spirit places the believer into union with Christ and into union with other believers in the Body of Christ

b.     Thus it occurs at the time of salvation

c.      1Co 12.12-14 - For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit. For the body is not one member, but many.

2.     What it isn’t

a.      Not water baptism

b.     Not a “second blessing” – e.g. speaking with tongues or some other sign

                                                iii.     Unique to the church age

1.     Hadn’t happened yet as of Acts 1.5 - For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence.

2.     Already past as of Acts 11.15 - And as I began to speak, the Holy Ghost fell on them, as on us at the beginning.

3.     Began at Pentecost and continues as of the present time

                                                iv.     Includes all believers in this age

1.     1Co 12.13 (above) says “we have all been baptized”

2.     Rom 6.5 - Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection:

3.     Those who are “baptized” are all those who have been united to Him in his death, i.e. all believers

                                                  v.     Brings us into union with other believers

1.     Ancestry, previous social/religious status not relevant

2.     Spiritual condition also not an issue – Corinthians were notably carnal, yet they were included

                                                vi.     Brings us into union with Christ (same verses as iii)

                                              vii.     Performed by the Holy Spirit! 1Co 12.13 (above) – the Spirit baptizes us, bringing us into the body of Christ. NOT something that some other person, e.g. a church elder, does for us!

    1. Indwelling                                                     i.     Who is indwelt?

1.     Jn 14.16-17 - And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.

2.     Relates to all believers and is permanent

                                                  ii.     A gift to all believers without exception

1.     Jn 7.38-39 - He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)

2.     1Jn 4.13 - Hereby know we that we dwell in him, and he in us, because he hath given us of his Spirit.

                                                iii.     Given at salvation

1.     Eph 1.13 – In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise,

2.     Gal 3.2 - This only would I learn of you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?

3.     Conditioned only on belief, not on works – water baptism is a work

                                                iv.     The converse is also true – anyone NOT having the Spirit is an unbeliever!

1.     Rom 8.9 - But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.

2.     Jude 19 - These be they who separate themselves, sensual, having not the Spirit.

                                                  v.     He indwells all believers, both carnal and spiritual

                                                vi.     His indwelling is permanent

    1. Sealing                                                     i.     References

1.     2Co 1.21-22 - Now he which stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God; Who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts.

2.     Eph 1.13 - In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise,

3.     Eph 4.30 - And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.

                                                  ii.     Meaning

1.     All these use the same Greek word - sfragizw sphragizo

2.     Means to set a seal upon, mark with a seal

a.      For security from Satan

b.     To keep secret

c.      To authenticate, prove beyond doubt

3.     Similar to branding cattle

                                                iii.     Significance

1.     The seal is the Spirit himself, and is placed upon us by God at the time of salvation

2.     We are proven by the Spirit to be God’s possession, and are thus protected from being harmed by Satan

    1. Inspiration & revelation                                                     i.     OT

1.     Holy Spirit moved the writers of the OT, speaking through them

a.      2Pe 1.21 - For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.

b.     Acts 1.16 - Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus.

2.     Used various methods: spoken word, dreams, visions, theophanies

3.     The writers were aware that this was being done:

a.      2Sa 23.2 - The Spirit of the LORD spake by me, and his word was in my tongue. (David)

b.     Ezek 2.2 - And the spirit entered into me when he spake unto me, and set me upon my feet, that I heard him that spake unto me.

                                                  ii.     NT

1.     Spirit also worked in the NT writers; Jesus told them that this would happen: Jn 16.12-15 - I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you. All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall shew it unto you.

2.     NT writers also were aware of the Spirit’s workings:

a.      Gal 1.12 - For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ.

b.     1Co 2.13 - Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual.

3.     NT writers recognized each other’s writings as inspired:

a.      Paul 1st says this: 1Ti 5.18 - For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward.

b.     And then quotes from Luke: Lk 10.7 - And in the same house remain, eating and drinking such things as they give: for the labourer is worthy of his hire. Go not from house to house.

    1. Other works for other times                                                     i.     OT

1.     Indwelling – was selective, not always permanent

a.      Only a few people were said to be indwelt by the Spirit

                                                                                                                i.     Joshua: Num 27.16 - And the LORD said unto Moses, Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and lay thine hand upon him;

                                                                                                              ii.     David: 1Sa 16.13 - Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the LORD came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah.

b.     Others were temporarily indwelt to enable them for some specific task

                                                                                                                i.     Gideon (to help him defeat the Midianites): Jdg 6.34 - But the Spirit of the LORD came upon Gideon, and he blew a trumpet; and Abiezer was gathered after him.

                                                                                                              ii.     Jephthah (to help him defeat the Ammonites): Jdg 11.29 - Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead, and Manasseh, and passed over Mizpeh of Gilead, and from Mizpeh of Gilead he passed over unto the children of Ammon.

                                                                                                            iii.     Balaam (to help him prophesy blessing upon Israel): Num 24.2 - And Balaam lifted up his eyes, and he saw Israel abiding in his tents according to their tribes; and the spirit of God came upon him.

c.      Not necessarily related to salvation as it was independent of the person’s spiritual state

                                                                                                                i.     Joshua, David, and Gideon obviously were believers

                                                                                                              ii.     Jephthah was the son of a harlot and was living immorally

                                                                                                            iii.     Balaam was clearly an unbeliever

d.     Not necessarily permanent -  the Spirit left Saul: 1Sa 16.14 - But the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him.

2.     We are clearly in a position of blessing and privilege relative to these OT individuals

                                                  ii.     Life of Jesus – Holy Spirit involved throughout

1.     In messianic prophecies ahead of time: Is 42.1 - Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles.

2.     In the virgin birth: Mt 1.20 - But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost.

3.     In his call to ministry: Lk 4.18-19 - The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, To preach the acceptable year of the Lord.

4.     In the daily aspects of his ministry: Lk 4.1 - And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness,

5.     At his death: Heb 9.14 - How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?

6.     At his resurrection: 1Pe 3.18 - For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit:

    1. So what?                                                     i.     Inspiration/revelation

1.     Provide us with the word of God

2.     Leads us to faith

                                                  ii.     Baptism of the spirit

1.     Imparts salvation

2.     Unites us with Christ and fellow believers

                                                iii.     Sealing of the spirit

1.     Marks us as His

2.     Protects against Satan

                                                iv.     Indwelling

1.     Guides and directs

2.     Encourages in temptation

3.     prompts us to share with others

4.     Interprets scripture for us

  1. Gifts of the Spirit
    1. (Introduction/review)                                                     i.     So far have looked at person and works of the Holy Spirit

1.     3rd person of the Trinity

2.     Shares fully in divine attributes of Father and Son

                                                  ii.     In the life of believer

1.     Son pays for sins

2.     Father forgives them

3.     Spirit marks (seals) and indwells us

4.     Then provides gifts as –

a.      A means of expanding our knowledge of God

b.     To enable us for service

c.      Because He loves us

5.     Every believer has at least one gift

    1. Spiritual gifts – what are they? 2 Greek words used to describe:

                                                    i.     pneumatikov pneumatikos

1.     Appears 26 times

a.      Translated “spiritual” in all occurrences in KJV

b.     Referring to either the human or divine spirit, or to the wind

2.     1Co 12:1 - Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ignorant.

3.     1Co 14:12 - Even so ye, forasmuch as ye are zealous of spiritual gifts, seek that ye may excel to the edifying of the church.

4.     Both of these verses occur as parts of discussions of sign gifts

a.      Chapter 12 mentions the sign gifts and describes them

b.     Chapter 14 a discussion of the abuse of tongues

                                                  ii.     carisma charisma

1.     Appears 17 times

a.      Always translated “gift” or “free gift”

b.     Carries connotation of grace, an unmerited favor

c.      The word from which our modern term “charismatic” was derived

2.     Ro 12:6 - Having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us, whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith;

3.     1Co 12:28 - And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues.

4.     1Pe 4:10 - As every man hath received the gift, even so minister the same one to another, as good stewards of the manifold grace of God.

5.     Other references deal with gift of salvation

                                                iii.     NOT a natural talent! A divine enabling that comes with or after salvation and expands as it is used

    1. Today given with 2 main purposes                                                     i.     To an individual, to enable him or her for personal spiritual service

                                                  ii.     To a particular local church, an individual particularly fitted to assist in the edification and maturation of that local body

    1. In apostolic age, some additional purposes                                                     i.     To take the place of the word, since the NT hadn’t yet been written

1.     Jesus died, resurrected, ascended and Spirit arrived all in about AD 33

2.     Earliest NT book (Matthew), written 37 (Scofield), 45 (Bill MacDonald) or perhaps even later

3.     Bulk of the NT not written until after 55, over 20 years after founding of church

4.     Even what was written, wasn’t widely available

a.      Written in Greek

b.     Most people couldn’t read

c.      No printed books; everything hand-copied by scribes (contrast with today!)

                                                  ii.     To validate the ministry of the apostles

                                                iii.     To confirm the workings of the Spirit – e.g. the salvation of the Gentile believers in Acts 10

                                                iv.     These facts, plus the fact that many of the sign gifts seem already to have stopped by the end of Acts, suggest that some gifts are temporary and some permanent

                                                  v.     The dispensational view of God’s workings toward man would also support that idea

    1. Passages listing gifts                                                     i.     Eph 4.11-12 - And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ:

                                                  ii.     Rom 12.6-8 - Having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us, whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith; Or ministry, let us wait on our ministering: or he that teacheth, on teaching; Or he that exhorteth, on exhortation: he that giveth, let him do it with simplicity; he that ruleth, with diligence; he that sheweth mercy, with cheerfulness.

                                                iii.     1Co 12.4-11 - Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit. And there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord. And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal. For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit; To another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit; To another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues: But all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will.

                                                iv.     1Co 12.28 - And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues.

    1. Types of gifts                                                     i.     Sign gifts – supernatural signs that validated the authority of the person possessing them. Generally temporary, not needed once the Word of God was complete: 1Co 13:10  But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.

                                                  ii.     Service gifts – enablings for various types of service within the church. Generally permanent, and expressed throughout the church age

    1. Some specific gifts                                                     i.     Temporary ones

1.     Apostles – Eph 4.11

a.      Limited to those who were eye witnesses to the risen Christ (Acts 1.22)

b.     Also were able to do miracles (2Co 12.12)

c.      A foundational gift (Eph 2.20)

d.     Spoken of in Heb 2.3-4 as past tense

e.      Nobody meets these requirements today

2.     Prophecy – Rom 12.6

a.      Someone able to receive direct revelation from God

b.     Not just predicting the future – also brought edification, exhortation and consolation to the church (1Co 14.3) – thus bringing new information

c.      No longer needed as Word of God is complete

3.     Miracles – 1Co 12.10

a.      The ability of an individual to perform miraculous acts (not the same as God performing them directly – that still continues)

b.     Occurred only in 3 short time frames in Scripture

                                                                                                                i.     Moses & Joshua

                                                                                                              ii.     Elijah and Elisha

                                                                                                            iii.     Jesus and the apostles – in the NT always occurred in connection with an apostle

c.      Authenticated the message being given

d.     Not needed today – no apostles or prophets, and no new message needing validation

4.     Healing – 1Co 12.9 (I’d like to have this one!)

a.      A specific form of the gift of miracles - person empowered to heal illnesses in others

b.     Characteristics – healings were:

                                                                                                                i.     Instantaneous

                                                                                                              ii.     Complete

                                                                                                            iii.     Permanent

                                                                                                            iv.     Limited to physical, not psychological illnesses

                                                                                                              v.     Unconditional – faith NOT required (at least one such healing in John 9.25 involved someone who didn’t even know who Jesus was)

                                                                                                            vi.     Purposeful

                                                                                                          vii.     Subordinate to preaching the gospel – occurred at the same time

                                                                                                        viii.     Significant – intended to validate the message being preached

                                                                                                             ix.     Successful

                                                                                                               x.     All-inclusive – even to the extent of raising the dead

c.      Already fading out before the end of Acts

                                                                                                                i.     Paul told Timothy to drink some wine for his stomach – why not just heal him?

                                                                                                              ii.     Paul could not heal Epaphroditus (Phil 2.27)

5.     Discerning spirits – 1Co 12.10

a.      A supernatural ability to discern truth and falsehood, necessary to validate the ministry of those claiming to have new revelation from God

b.     No longer needed since the word of God is complete

6.     Word of wisdom – 1Co 12.8 – Involved receiving direct revelation from God and then imparting it to others

7.     Word of knowledge – 1Co 12.8

a.      Ability to properly understand truths revealed to apostles and prophets

b.     Related to other foundational gifts of prophecy and teaching

c.      1Co 13.8 indicates that this gift has passed

8.     Tongues – 1Co 12.28

a.      Supernatural ability to speak a foreign language without training - Language of scripture indicates these are real languages or “dialects”, not imaginary or “heavenly” ones

b.     A lesser gift

                                                                                                                i.     Given as a sign to unbelieving Jews

                                                                                                              ii.     Intended to facilitate evangelism, not minister to believers

c.      Clearly indicated as temporary (1Co 13.8)

d.     Never intended for self-edification

e.      Not all believers were expected to possess this gift

f.       Used as a sign to confirm the ministry of the apostles

9.     Interpreting tongues – 1Co 12.10 - supernatural ability to translate foreign languages that might be used in the assembly

                                                  ii.     Permanent ones

1.     Teacher -  Rom 12.7, 1Co 12.28

a.      Supernatural ability to explain and apply the truths in the Word of God

b.     Probably the most important gift currently in operation

c.      Not the same as a natural ability or talent!

d.     Requires both disciplined study of the word and ability to communicate it well

e.      Requires development

f.       Not every good teacher is also a good pastor

2.     Helps (ministering) – Rom 12.7

a.      Providing assistance to one another

b.     Probably refer to the succoring of those in need, whether poor, sick, widows, orphans, strangers, travellers, etc

3.     Administration – elders/deacons etc – 1Co 12.28

a.      Ability to provide godly leadership to the assembly

b.     Mainly refers to elders & deacons, but could apply to leadership in other areas, e.g. Sunday school supervisor

4.     Evangelism – Eph 4.11

a.      All believers expected to share the gospel, but some have a special, supernatural enabling to do it well

b.     Involves –

                                                                                                                i.     Burden for the lost

                                                                                                              ii.     Ability to make clear presentations and persistence in doing so

                                                                                                            iii.     Training others to do likewise

5.     Pastor-teacher – Eph 4.11

a.      Not the same as “teacher”

b.     A supernatural enabling that includes both the ability to spiritually guide and care for a body of believers, as well as teach them

c.      All pastors by necessity are teachers, but not all teachers are good pastors

d.     Not necessarily related to the gift of administration – not all pastor/teachers are gifted in providing leadership; administration requires skills not needed in pasturing and teaching

6.     Exhortation – Rom 12.8

a.      Greek word means “call alongside to help”, or “admonish”

b.     “The exhorter is one who has the ability to appeal to the will of the individual to get him to act.”

c.      The gift of exhortation is basically the supernatural ability to encourage others and urge them to decision and action

d.     Requires patience

e.      Should be done with God’s word as a guide

f.       Important in counseling situations

7.     Giving – Rom 12.8

a.      Involves giving from our material resources to support the work of God

b.     Does not require a person to be rich, just to recognize needs and provide for them

c.      Should be done eagerly and liberally

d.     Should not be done for recognition but doesn’t necessarily have to be in secret either

8.     Mercy – Rom 12.8

a.      Greek word refers to showing compassion or pity towards poor, sick or suffering people

b.     Done with cheerfulness, not out of any sense of obligation

9.     Faith – 1Co 12.9

a.      “The gift of faith is the faith which manifests itself in unusual deeds of trust.…This person has the capacity to see something that needs to be done and to believe God will do it through him even though it looks impossible.”

b.     You must have faith in Jesus Christ to be saved, but those with the gift of faith go beyond that of the rest of the believers who are not gifted.

c.      Some examples – George Mueller, Hudson Taylor

    1. Filling – Eph 5.18 - And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit;                                                     i.     Means allowing the Spirit to be in control of our lives, and allowing Him to guide our thoughts and actions

                                                  ii.     Unlike baptism, indwelling & sealing, this is a recurring rather than one-time event

                                                iii.     Greek word has the connotation of completeness

                                                iv.     Essential for –

1.     Our maturity as believers

2.     Our Christian service

                                                  v.     Some characteristics

1.     Commanded by God

2.     Conditional upon our obedience to God’s commands

3.     A repeated event

                                                vi.     In order for this to occur we should

1.     Not grieve the Spirit: Eph 4.30 - And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.

2.     Not quench the Spirit: 1Th 5.19

3.     Walk by the Spirit: Gal 5.16 - This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.

                                              vii.     Result of being filled

1.     Will be receptive to the Spirit’s teaching (1Co 2.9-13)

2.     Will exhibit joy and unity in the church (Eph 5.19-20)

3.     Will produce the fruits of the Spirit (Gal 5.22-23)

    1. Summary                                                     i.     Many gifts of the Spirit – some for the apostolic age only, some for the entire church age

                                                  ii.     Everybody has at least one

                                                iii.     Should pray to God to reveal our gifts and help us develop them

  1. Fruits of the Spirit
    1. Intro                                                     i.     Gal 5.22-23 - But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.

                                                  ii.     Evidence one might expect to see from a life in which the Spirit of God is living and reigning (“filled with the Spirit”)

                                                iii.     A more difficult study than I expected due to the similarities of some of the fruits

1.     Kindness, goodness, gentleness (song uses NASB) translated in KJV as gentleness, goodness, meekness

2.     Greek word for “kindness” sometimes translated as “goodness” or “gentleness”

3.     Greek word for “gentleness” sometimes translated as “goodness”

4.     Trying to figure out the nuances of these, which the Spirit obviously considers to be different, took some time & I don’t claim to have the final right answer!

    1. Specific types of fruit

                                                    i.     Love – a supernaturally provided ability to show love to our fellow man even when it isn’t reciprocated

1.     agaph agape (Strong’s 26)

a.      Brotherly love, affection, good will

b.     Similar to the love that God shows to His Son and to man

2.     Joh 15:13 - Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.

3.     1Pe 4:8 - And above all things have fervent charity among yourselves: for charity shall cover the multitude of sins.

4.     1Jo 3:1 - Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God: therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not.

                                                  ii.     Joy

1.     cara chara (Strong’s 5479)

a.      Translated “joy” or “gladness”

b.     Can be either a feeling or an action

2.     Feeling - called forth by well-being, success, or good fortune

a.      Mt 18.13 - And if so be that he find it, verily I say unto you, he rejoiceth more of that sheep, than of the ninety and nine which went not astray.

b.     Ro 16.19 - For your obedience is come abroad unto all men. I am glad therefore on your behalf: but yet I would have you wise unto that which is good, and simple concerning evil.

3.     Action – commanded by scripture; can be engaged in regardless of how the person feels

a.      Mt 5.11-12 - Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake.  Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.

b.     Jas 1:2 - My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations;

                                                iii.     Peace

1.     eirhnh eirene (Strong’s 1515)

a.      Translated peace, rest, quietness

b.     At least 3 aspects:

                                                                                                                i.     Between man and God

                                                                                                              ii.     Within man

                                                                                                            iii.     Between man and man

2.     Between man and God

a.      Rom 5.1 - Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:

b.     Col 1.19-20 - For it pleased the Father that in him should all fulness dwell; And, having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself; by him, I say, whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven.

3.     Within man

a.      Phil 4.1 - And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.

b.     Jn 16.33 - These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world.

4.     Between man and man

a.      Lu 2:14 - Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.

b.     Heb 12:14 - Follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord:

                                                iv.     Patience (KJV “longsuffering”)

1.     makroyumia makrothumia (Strong’s 3115)

a.      Translated “longsuffering” or “patience”

b.     Self–restraint before proceeding to action. The quality of a person who is able to avenge himself yet refrains from doing so

c.      Can refer to patience in regard to persons or circumstances

2.     Persons

a.      Eph 4.2 -  With all lowliness and meekness, with longsuffering, forbearing one another in love;

b.     2Ti 4:2 - Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine.

3.     Circumstances –

a.      Actually a related Greek word  - upomonh hupomone

b.     Ro 5:3-4 - And not only so, but we glory in tribulations also: knowing that tribulation worketh patience; And patience, experience; and experience, hope:

                                                  v.     Kindness (KJV gentleness)

1.     crhstothv chrestotes (Strong’s 5544)

a.      Translated variously goodness, kindness, gentleness (this is the only time it is used as “gentleness”)

b.     Involves respect, courtesy, and an ability to be considerate of others

c.      It often occurs with philanthropy; It is the grace which pervades the whole nature, mellowing all which would be been harsh and austere

d.     An attitude as much as an action

e.      Can be directed from God to us, or from us to others

                                                                                                                i.     God’s kindness to us is part of his nature

                                                                                                              ii.     Our kindness to others is the spiritual gift as it is clearly not part of our nature

2.     God’s kindness to us – most importantly reflected in our salvation, but also in many other ways

a.      Ro 2:4 - Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?

b.     Ro 11:22 - Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God: on them which fell, severity; but toward thee, goodness, if thou continue in his goodness: otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.

3.     Our kindness to others

a.      Col 3:12 - Put on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, bowels of mercies, kindness, humbleness of mind, meekness, longsuffering;

                                                                                                                i.     A command regarding how we are to behave as believers

                                                                                                              ii.     Through the working of the Holy Spirit in our lives, these things can be possible; but certainly not otherwise

b.     2Co 6:6 - By pureness, by knowledge, by longsuffering, by kindness, by the Holy Ghost, by love unfeigned,

                                                                                                                i.     In this verse Paul is describing his own behavior towards those to whom he was ministering

                                                vi.     Goodness

1.     agaywsunh agathosune (Strong’s 19)

a.      Always translated “goodness”

b.     Involves good works more so than attitudes

c.      It is character energized, expressing itself in benevolence, active good. It does not spare sharpness and rebuke to cause good in others. A person may display his zeal for goodness and truth, in rebuking, correcting, or chastising. Christ’s righteous indignation in the temple is an example

2.     Ro 15:14 – And I myself also am persuaded of you, my brethren, that ye also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one another.

                                              vii.     Faithfulness (KJV “faith”)

1.     pistiv pistis (Strong’s 4102)

a.      Translated mostly as “faith” but also as “assurance”, “belief”, “fidelity”

b.     In this verse, mainly refers to faithfulness & trustworthiness toward other men as opposed to faith in God

c.      Most other places refers to our faith in God

2.     Tit 2:10 - Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.

3.     2Ti 2:22 - Flee also youthful lusts: but follow righteousness, faith, charity, peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart.

                                            viii.     Gentleness (KJV “meekness”)

1.     praothv praotes (Strong’s 4236)

a.      Always translated as “meekness” in KJV, but implies gentleness, mildness as well

b.     Involves patience when we receive injuries, knowing that God will vindicate us

c.     It does not denote outward expression of feeling, but an inward grace of the soul, calmness toward God in particular. It is the acceptance of God’s dealings with us considering them as good in that they enhance the closeness of our relationship with Him. It does not blame God for the persecutions and evil doings of men.

2.     2Ti 2:25 - In meekness instructing those that oppose themselves; if God peradventure will give them repentance to the acknowledging of the truth;

3.     Tit 3:2 - To speak evil of no man, to be no brawlers, but gentle, shewing all meekness unto all men.

                                                 ix.     Self-control (KJV “temperance”)

1.     egkrateia egkrateia (Strong’s 1466)

a.      Appears only 3 times in NT; KJV always translates as temperance

b.     Context always suggests “self-control” as in the NASB

2.     Acts 24.24-25 - And after certain days, when Felix came with his wife Drusilla, which was a Jewess, he sent for Paul, and heard him concerning the faith in Christ. And as he reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come, Felix trembled, and answered, Go thy way for this time; when I have a convenient season, I will call for thee.

3.     2Pe 1.5-7 - And beside this, giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue; and to virtue knowledge; And to knowledge temperance; and to temperance patience; and to patience godliness; And to godliness brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness charity.

  1. Summary of study
    1. Who the Spirit is – a personality and deity #. What He does for us at salvation – baptizing, indwelling, sealing
    2. His gifts and filling to us as we go on in our Christian lives
    3. The fruit that results in our lives when we allow Him to lead and direct us


Scripture Neuter Noun Masculine Pronoun
John 15:26John 16:13John 16:14 pneuma (Spirit)pneuma (Spirit)pneuma (Spirit) ekeinos (He)ekeinos (He)ekeinos (He)


Attribute Father Son Holy Spirit
Life Joshua 3:10 John 1:4 Romans 8:2
Omniscience Psalm 139:1–6 John 4:17–18 1 Corinthians 2:10–12
Omnipotence Genesis 1:1 John 1:3 Job 33:4
Omnipresence Jeremiah 23:23–24 Matthew 28:20 Psalm 139:7–10
Eternity Psalm 90:2 John 1:1 Hebrews 9:14
Holiness Leviticus 11:44 Acts 3:14 Matthew 12:32
Love 1 John 4:8 Romans 8:37–39 Galatians 5:22
Truth John 3:33 John 14:6 John 14:17

This chart reflects the unity and the equality of the Godhead. The Holy Spirit exhibits the same attributes of deity as the Father and the Son.



[1]Enns, P. P. (1997, c1989). The Moody handbook of theology. Chicago, Ill.: Moody Press.

[2]Enns, P. P. (1997, c1989). The Moody handbook of theology. Chicago, Ill.: Moody Press.

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