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Power to Cleanse

The Gospel of Mark  •  Sermon  •  Submitted
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The Healing of the Leper

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Bible Reading

Mark 1:40–45 NIV84
40 A man with leprosy came to him and begged him on his knees, “If you are willing, you can make me clean.” 41 Filled with compassion, Jesus reached out his hand and touched the man. “I am willing,” he said. “Be clean!” 42 Immediately the leprosy left him and he was cured. 43 Jesus sent him away at once with a strong warning: 44 “See that you don’t tell this to anyone. But go, show yourself to the priest and offer the sacrifices that Moses commanded for your cleansing, as a testimony to them.” 45 Instead he went out and began to talk freely, spreading the news. As a result, Jesus could no longer enter a town openly but stayed outside in lonely places. Yet the people still came to him from everywhere.

Introduction

This is Bible Quotation Text.
We come this morning to another wonderful example of Christ’s great authoritative power that He exercised.
We come this morning to another wonderful example of Christ’s great authoritative power that He exercised.
Over the past few weeks in our study in the Gospel of Mark, we’ve seen numerous instances of this power of Christ being exercised, and the awe and wonder of the crowds of people as they see this man working these mighty miracles in their presence.
As can be expected when true miracles are performed, the crowds flocked to Christ, all hoping that the sick that were with them in their own households could also receive this healing touch in their own lives. And they weren’t disappointed!!
This is a test
This morning we turn ourselves to another healing that Christ performed. But this healing was more than merely a healing. This healing of a man with leprosy (which disease I’ll discuss more in a moment) was particularly called a “cleansing” in this passage. When the man affected comes to Christ, he says to Christ “if you are willing, you can make me clean.”
As I prepared for this message, the amazing parallel that can be found in this example of the cleansing of the Leper compared to the cleansing of a sinner coming to the Lord Jesus Christ for spiritual cleansing was unmistakable.
In fact even in the Scriptures, we find that a parallel is drawn between sickness and sin. One of the well known examples is where Christ speaks to the teachers of the law and the pharisees, and says to them...
Mark 2:17 NIV84
17 On hearing this, Jesus said to them, “It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners.”
“It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners.”
“...It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners.” (Mark 2:17)

“It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners.”

()
The Holy Bible: New International Version. (1984). (). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
A similar connection between sin and sickness was conveyed by the apostle Peter, when he wrote in ...
4 Ah, sinful nation,
a people loaded with guilt,
a brood of evildoers,
children given to corruption!
They have forsaken the LORD;
they have spurned the Holy One of Israel
and turned their backs on him.
5 Why should you be beaten anymore?
Why do you persist in rebellion?
Your whole head is injured,
your whole heart afflicted.
6 From the sole of your foot to the top of your head
there is no soundness—
only wounds and welts
and open sores,
not cleansed or bandaged
or soothed with oil.
A similar connection between sin and sickness was conveyed by the apostle Peter, when he wrote in ...
24 He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, so that we might die to sins and live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed. ().
The Holy Bible: New International Version. (1984). (). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
And so as we go through this text this morning and consider this profound healing / cleansing that is performed by Christ, I’m going to do just that:
And so as we go through this text this morning and consider this profound healing, I’m going to do just that: for each step and observation, I will draw out for us a beautiful spiritual parallel, and I do trust that this will encourage us and challenge us as we see just what it is that God has done for each one of us who are in Christ, as He has brought cleansing and healing in our own lives.
I will draw out for us what I believe is a wonderful spiritual parallel, and I do trust that this will encourage us and challenge us as we see just what it is that God has done for each one of us who are in Christ, as He has brought cleansing and healing in our own lives.
This is Reference Quotation Text.
We’ve been considering the beginning of the ministry of Jesus Christ
Just by way of setting the context, and where this is taking place...
Mark doesn’t include for us the details of where precisely this took place, or what was going on at the time. Matthew however states that this event took place after Jesus had preached the sermon on the mount. And it’s as Jesus came down the mountain following His teaching, with a significantly sizable crowd of people following him, that the lepor approaches Him.
Luke further makes mention that this happened in one of the towns, rather than out in the wilderness areas ()

1. The Cry

1.1 The Physical Picture

We begin then by considering this morning “The Cry” of the man who came to Jesus, and we’ll see that in verse 40.
A man with leprosy came to him and begged him on his knees, “If you are willing, you can make me clean.” ().
The Holy Bible: New International Version. (1984). ().
A man with Leprosy...
The first thing that I’d like us to consider at we look at this cry of the man to Jesus is this disease known as or described as leprosy.
We need to understand and recognise that the term used here covers a wide variety of chronic skin diseases that were highly infectious and contagious. It was not limited to the leprosy (Hansen’s disease) of our day.
Leprosy was one of the most common, and also one of the most feared of all diseases in the world at the time of the writings of Scripture (Old / New Testament period). The terrifying reality for anyone in that day who suffered from one of these leprous skin diseases was not only that it ravaged the body and was sometimes life threatening, but further to that it resulted in the infected person’s utter excommunication and expulsion from society.
In the book of Leviticus, there were extensive directions recorded for the priests in terms of how they were to diagnose and also deal with the person who had such diseases.
God gave to the nation of Israel very strict instructions to send away those who were Leprous in order to ensure that the dwelling place of the Israelites, and more importantly the camp in which God Himself dwelt, was kept pure. The leprous skin diseases were seen as unclean, and thus those suffering with these diseases needed to be expelled from the camp. Listen to the words in ...
The LORD said to Moses, 2 “Command the Israelites to send away from the camp anyone who has an infectious skin disease or a discharge of any kind, or who is ceremonially unclean because of a dead body. 3 Send away male and female alike; send them outside the camp so they will not defile their camp, where I dwell among them.” 4 The Israelites did this; they sent them outside the camp. They did just as the LORD had instructed Moses. ().
The Holy Bible: New International Version. (1984). (). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
If you have evern in your life had to experience some kind of isolation from life with others, you’ll know how unbearable this existence would have been. In fact we get a sense of the burden that this situation presented to those who suffered from it both from the Scriptures and from other external writings.
In , we read the account of Aaron and Miriam who grumbled against and spoke out against Moses because he had married a Cushite woman. As a result of their grumbling against Moses (who was God’s chosen servant to lead Israel) God came down in a pillar of cloud and reprimanded them, and when the cloud lifted again, it was found that Miriam was leprous like snow. But listen to the words of Aaron as he turns to Miriam and sees her condition ()...
Aaron turned toward her and saw that she had leprosy; 11 and he said to Moses, “Please, my lord, do not hold against us the sin we have so foolishly committed. 12 Do not let her be like a stillborn infant coming from its mother’s womb with its flesh half eaten away.” ()
The Holy Bible: New International Version. (1984). (). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
Aaron recognised that for Miriam to be cursed with this infectious skin disease would render her as good as dead!!! Like a stillborn infant.
We see something similar in the writings of Josephus (the early Jewish historian) when he writes concerning Moses...
And for the lepers, he [Moses] suffered them not to come into the city at all, nor to live with any others, as if they were in effect dead persons; (1)
Those who suffered with Leprosy were as good as dead dear friends.
And this is the nature of the man who now approaches Jesus. A man who knows and understands what it means to be with such a condition that he has absolutely no hope in life, but is destined to live a pitiful life in utter isolation.
Now dear friends, we need to realise and recognise the boldness and desperation of this man. If those who were looking on had seen him approaching, not doubt they would have caused a big fuss and stir. As a leper, it was required of this man to walk around shouting out “unclean, unclean” for everyone to hear. He was not permitted to go near those who were clean.
It’s interesting to note that Luke records that this leper was covered in Leprosy. His entire body was affected and infected!!! It would have been obvious to all those looking on that here was a man who was certainly unclean, and who should be avoided at all costs.
But this man recognises his unclean condition, and took a great risk, and approached Jesus as he saw the opportunity.
What’s important for us to consider next concerning his approach to Jesus is the fact that he threw himself down at the feet of Jesus. In it says he came and knelt down - he was on his knees. In it says that the man fell with his face to the ground, and begged Jesus to make him clean.
And so we see this man running up to Jesus, and as he approaches, he falls down on his knees, and he throws his face down to the ground and lies prostrate before Jesus, knowing that he as a person has no hope in this world for healing, apart from divine intervention!!! And here before this man stands Jesus, the One who is healing people and changing their lives radically.
And so the Leper, recognising his pitiful condition, cries out to Jesus!!! He begs Jesus!!! - “Lord, if you are willing, you can make me clean”
We see that this man with leprosy approaches Jesus. The significance of this should not escape our attention.
These are profound words from this man. It’s not that the man doubts the power of Jesus. He comes to Jesus with utter faith and trust in the ability and power of Jesus to heal. “If you are willing...”
What we find here is a man who is humble in spirit. A man who knows his feeble condition, and his lowly place. Here is a man stripped of all pride and haughtiness in his life. He’s an outcast, a nobody. And he comes to Jesus, recognising that this is his only hope for a healed and full life. And he pleads with him - if you are willing, you can make me clean!

1.2 The Spiritual Reality

Friends, before we move on to consider the response of Jesus in this instance, let us pause for a moment and consider the wonderful parallel between this leper and the spiritual condition of all people in their sin.
While people in general (perhaps some of us here this morning) may in a sense have great pity on the man who was suffering from leprosy, the fact that is often missed by mankind is that all man is in a desperately ill state spiritually, apart from the healing touch of Christ.
We could say that
We could say that at the very least, this leper had full knowledge and understanding of his leprous condition. It was a physical sickness and affliction upon his body. He lived day in and day out suffering under this affliction. He lived day in and day out experiencing the isolation which the sickness brought him, as he lived apart from the society which was regarded as clean.
But friends, we need to understand that all man, apart from the gracious hand of God, suffers under a condition far worse and of far greater consequence that this man who suffered with leprosy. All mankind, since the day that Adam and Eve rebelled against and went in contravention of God’s command in , has suffered as slave to sin.
, - just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned… by the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners
- for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God
Sin is that which makes mankind (all of mankind) unclean before a holy and a pure God. Sin is that which results in our separation and banishment from the presence of God.
The sad reality is that so often man fails to see just how serious and sinful sin truly is.
Extent of Sin (compared to Leprosy)
We need to understand clearly that just as the man with leprosy in this instance had his entire body covered with leprosy, so it is that our entire lives - body, soul and spirit - are affected and infected with sin!!!
The prophet Jeremiah wrote:
- The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately sick; who can understand it?
- “For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false witness, slander.”
Our hearts dear friends, and truly our entire lives are affected and tainted by this sin and wickedness that pervades us since our father Adam disobeyed God! And as a result of that everything that we do, all that we are, is covered with sin, tainted with sin. It is not that we are as sinful as we possibly could be. It is simply that all that we do is affected, because our hearts - the very essence of our being desires that which is contrary to God. It desires self-gratification.
Listen to Paul’s words to the church in Rome:
- For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am of the flesh, sold under sin.
- For I know that nothing good dwells in me, that is, in my flesh.
When the apostles wrote to the churches and explained to them the nature of their former lives and what characterised their former lives prior to coming to Christ, they spoke of these believers having been slaves to sin!!!
- Jesus answered them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone who commits sin is a slave to sin.”
- For we ourselves were once foolish, disobedient, led astray, slaves to various passions and pleasures, passing our days in malice and envy, hated by others and hating one another.
- Formerly, when you did not know God, you were enslaved to those that by nature are not gods.
, - We know that our old self was crucified with him in order that the body of sin might be brought to nothing, so that we would no longer be enslaved to sin. Do you not know that if you present yourselves to anyone as obedient slaves, you are slaves of the one whom you obey…?
Over and over, the Scriptures paint this graphic picture of the sad state of our sin. How sick and wicked is the heart of a man. But dear friend, have you recognised the sinfulness of your sin?
The leper from our passage this morning recognised that he was covered with this sickness from head to toe. He knew his desperate state. The knowledge and recognition and understanding of that state that he was in, drove him to despair.
Out state in our sin and wickedness, when we truly understand it, should do no less.
Inability to Heal our Sin (compared to Leprosy)
We need to consider further, that in as much as the leper in our passage this morning was unable to cure himself of his leprosy, so we too friends are entirely incapable of curing ourselves or ridding ourselves of the sinful nature that we carry around in our bodies!!
Left to our own strength, and left to ourselves in our sinful state, there is no hope at all of coming into the presence of God. There is no hope at all of having fellowship with God and with His Son, because we are sinful by birth, and thus unable to enter into God’s presence without divine intervention. Utterly incapable.
And so friends, the only appropriate response for us should be the response that was found in this leper.
He fled to Jesus Christ, and threw himself at the feet of Christ, knowing that here was the One who was powerful to heal and to cleanse.
And that is a perfect picture of the sinner who has no other hope in eternity other than to cast themselves before the feet of the Saviour.
It is as we recognise our sin in our hearts, and as we in turn recognise the perfections of God in His holiness; when we recognise that as a result of our dirtiness and filthiness as a result of sin, that we must throw ourselves down at the feet of Christ.
This is the picture that is given in the Scriptures themselves concerning the sinner confronted with sin.
It’s the picture of Isaiah in Isaiah chapter 6, when he fell down before God, crying woe is me, for I am a man of unclean lips, and I live amongst a people of unclean lips.
It’s the picture of the apostle Peter, when Christ called the disciples to cast out their nets into the sea after they had caught no fish all night the previous night. But after obeying they caught a load of fish so large that their nets began to break, and they needed another boat to come and help them haul in this load. As Peter saw this, he recognised that before him stood someone so powerful, so righteous, so holy, that he fell on his knees and cried out to Jesus: “Go away from me. Lord; I am a sinful man!” ().
This is the posture of humility and submission. It is the recognition that you come desperate and needy before the only one able to offer you any kind of remedy for your hopeless situation.
That is the posture that each and every person outside of Christ needs if he desires salvation - if not physically, certainly spiritually!!!
Our need to fall prostrate before Christ (compared to Leper)
How sad that this posture is all but lost, even in many churches. But the Scriptures teach us that this is the posture that is required when coming before God. Both James and Peter, quoting , write that God opposes the proud, but gives grace to the humble. James, after having quoted that Proverb, goes on to write...
Submit yourselves, then, to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. 8 Come near to God and he will come near to you. Wash your hands, you sinners, and purify your hearts, you double-minded. 9 Grieve, mourn and wail. Change your laughter to mourning and your joy to gloom. 10 Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will lift you up. ().
The Holy Bible: New International Version. (1984). (). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
James’ emphasis there is that sin should be done away with. The sinner should humble themselves before the Holy God that we serve.
Friend, have you come to that place where you’ve seen that you have no other hope in this world, and that you stand condemned before a Holy and Righteous God, and the only hope that remains for you is to humble yourself before him, to throw yourself down before Him, and to cry out to Him, “Lord, if you are willing, you can make me clean”?

2. The Cure

The Cure

2.1 The Physical Picture

If you have been there dear friends, or if you feel yourself there even now this morning, then what a wonderful place that is to be.
It is a wonderful place to be, because we see, as our passage continues, that the one before whom this leper fell, was one who was filled with much compassion!!! Verse 41...
41 Filled with compassion, Jesus reached out his hand and touched the man. “I am willing,” he said. “Be clean!” 42 Immediately the leprosy left him and he was cured. ()
The Holy Bible: New International Version. (1984). (). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
Here was this leper who was unclean, and was an outcast of society. But despite the fact that his situation as a leper rendered him unfit for presence within society, let alone to be touched by those he lived among, Jesus, filled with compassion, reaches out his hand to this man and touches him.
One can only imagine the chills that must have been sent down the spine of this man, as Jesus reaches out his hand and touches him. In all likelihood he was filled with emotion, and tears welled up in his eyes as he felt the loving touch of a person who otherwise would have dreaded his presence. [consider videos of people getting hearing aid, and who hear for the first time]
One can also imagine the utter shock of the crowds who surrounded them, seeing with shock and horror that this great, authoritative teacher, would actually dare to reach out and touch that which was filthy, unclean.
We must realise the significance of this act of Jesus in touching the man. Jesus could very easily have merely spoken to the man, and said to the man “Be Clean” and the man would have been healed. There was no necessity for Jesus to touch this man in order to heal him. But Christ deliberately stretches out His hand, and touches the man who is unclean.
Sinclair Ferguson writes concerning this incident:
“By touching him, he was really saying: ‘I am prepared to become, by choice, what you are by nature - a man under the judgment of the law - in order to share with you what I have - freedom and life.’ As in all miracles, so in this one, Jesus is showing his grace and salvation. He is demonstrating the way in which his kingdom comes: through identifying himself with us in our sin, and bearing the judgment of the law of God against it. He became sin for us, although he was himself sinless, so that we might receive his righteousness in the presence of God.” [2]
The beautiful words of Jesus to this man were “I am willing, be clean.”
Immediately, the leprosy of this man leaves his body, and he was cured. Again (as we’ve considered already on a number of occasions this past week) there was instant cleansing, and it was complete cleansing.
This account brings to mind the account of Naaman who was the commander of the army of the king of Aram. He had leprosy, and he was told by Elisha that if he wanted to be clean, then he should go and dip himself in the Jordan river 7 times, and he would be clean. And so after eventually doing that, we read in , that after dipping himself and coming out of the water...
his flesh was restored and became clean like that of a young boy.
And so here, this leper, having lived with this condition, and been in a desperate situation, is cleansed of his sickness, and is found once again to be clean, able to live once again in the presence of the community.
The Holy Bible: New International Version. (1984). (). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

2.2 Spiritual Reality

What about us, dear friends? As we come and throw ourselves before the feet of our master, recognising that we are indeed unclean and unworthy even to be in His presence, will he cast us away? Will he tell us to depart from His presence because according to the holy law of God we are sinful and unclean, and should never be permitted into His presence?
Not at all!! As the Lord Jesus had mercy on / took pity on / had compassion on this man who was unclean with leprosy, so too Jesus Christ has mercy upon those who humble themselves before Him, repent of their wicked ways, and seek forgiveness.
- All that the Father gives me will come to me, and whoever comes to me I will never drive away.
- Humble yourselves, therefore, under God’s mighty hand, that he may lift you up in due time. Cast all your anxiety on him because he cares for you.
- If we claim to be without sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness.
Herein is the wonderful truth for us today. That if we come to that place of reconising our sin, such that we are moved to a point of utter despair in terms of our own strength and worthiness before God, when we throw ourselves prostrate before the Saviour, and great out, “if you will, you can make me clean”, then dear friends, we too can know the healing touch of the Saviour upon our broken lives.
It does not matter dear people, what the sin is that we have in our lives. It does not matter how dirty, how unclean, how rotten, how fallen, it matters not how great the sins are that we have committed in our lives: He will never withhold his healing hand for the person who seeks cleansing. Never!!
If you are sitting here today, and you are burdened by your own sin in your life; if you are engaging in all kinds of sins, but by the grace of God have come to the realisation that your wickedness before God renders you liable for judgment and places you under his wrath, then turn away from your wicked way. Humble yourself before Him. He will have compassion upon you. He will cleanse you, such that as far as the east is from the west, so far will your transgressions be removed from you ().
The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit;
a broken and contrite heart,
O God, you will not despise. (Ps. 51:17)
The Holy Bible: New International Version. (1984). (). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
This is the glorious Gospel. You have no hope for yourself. There is nothing that you can do about your desperate state. But you can come to Him who is able. But it must be done, dear friend, with a broken and contrite spirit!!

3. The Charge (Warning)

I want to move on, and briefly consider what takes place after Christ has healed this man.
In verse 43-44 we read:
Jesus sent him away at once with a strong warning: “See that you don’t tell this to anyone. But go, show yourself to the priest and offer the sacrifices that Moses commanded for your cleansing, as a testimony to them.”
The Holy Bible: New International Version. (1984). (). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
Jesus gives to this man a strong warning.
The first part of that warning is that the man should not tell anyone of this healing that has taken place. The reason for this would be essentially in line with what we’ve considered in the weeks gone by. Jesus didn’t want the focus of the people to be on the healing ministry. His miracles were merely to be signs of the fact that God’s kingdom had come among them. The emphasis was to be on submitting to the rule and reign of Christ within their hearts, rather than on the healings themselves.
But somewhat more perplexing is Jesus’ command to the man to go and show himself to the priest, and to offer the sacrifices that Moses commanded. Why would Jesus command this man to do this? It was as if He was here saying that it is still necessary to go through these processes and requirements of the law.
I think the thrust of his reasoning behind this is found in the words “as a testimony to them”. This leper who was now cured of his leprosy, would go before the priests as a testimony that here was one who had been cured of the incurable. The only way in which a person could be cured was through divine intervention. Once commentator writes:
If leprosy was like being a walking corpse, then the cleansing of leprosy would be the equivalent of raising a person from the dead. [3]
The only way in which this man could possibly have been healed was through divine intervention. And so when he presented himself to the priest, the testimony would be that God had worked. There could be no denying on the part of the priests that this was a work of God, and thus they would of necessity need to confess that Jesus himself was sent by God.
And the religious leaders of that day certainly did not want to confess Jesus Christ as one sent by God!! But with the evidence at hand, and everything pointing to the truth of Christ having come from the father, they would be self-condemned!!

4. The Consequences

One final consideration as we look at this passage, and that is the consequences of this healing, and of the lepers failure to follow the commands and instructions of Christ. In verse 45 we read:
Instead he went out and began to talk freely, spreading the news. As a result, Jesus could no longer enter a town openly but stayed outside in lonely places. Yet the people still came to him from everywhere.
No doubt the leper now healed was so overcome with joy and gratitude, that he felt compelled to go out and share with others what great works had been done in his life. Perhaps he thought that the command of Jesus was due to Jesus wanting to be modest and not boastful. But whatever the thinking of the man was, he went out to spread the word, and thus instead of being an aid and a helper in the work of Christ, he in fact became a stumbling block.
Sinclair Ferguson rightly outlines a basic lesson of discipleship through this event, which is relevant to us all:
“The Lord’s work should be done only in the Lord’s way, according to the Lord’s word. There is no better principle by which to serve him than the one which Mary learned and taught: ‘ Do whatever he tells you’” [4]
As Christians, as those who have known the healing power of Jesus Christ in our own lives, we would do well to take up the word of God, and to do whatever it says that we should do. That is how we become witnesses for Christ in this world. Not through dreaming up ways and means of bringing in large numbers to church, but rather through obedience to that which Christ has commanded us, however foolish it may appear to be.

Conclusion

It’s time for us to close, and as we do that, I want to ask the question:
Do you feel yourself infected with the leprosy of sin, which has not yet been dealt with?
If you do, I would urge you to run without hesitation to the Saviour and throw yourself down at His feet, and ask Him for cleansing!! He is not only able to cleanse you and to present you as faultless before the Father one day, but He is willing to cleanse you. He longs for sinners to run to him and confess their sin, and depend upon Him for righteousness.
Or have you this morning already come to that point where you have thrown yourself face-down before the Saviour, and have received his cleansing and imputed righteousness?
If that is so, then dear friend, the instruction to you and I from Christ departs from the instruction that He gave to the leper. He has not asked us to keep this matter silent. He has not asked us to not spread the news. Instead, He has asked us to go out into all the world and to make disciples of all nations!!! We are in fact tasked with sharing abroad, far and wide, the wonderful grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, so that others too may come to Him and be saved, that they may be cleansed.
As we go into this week, let us as His children, as those who have experienced this profound, and most wonderful cleansing from our sin, go out with much jubilation, because God has done a wonderful work in our lives!
All Praise to Him!!!

Bibliography

1. Josephus, F., & Whiston, W. (1987). The works of Josephus: complete and unabridged (p. 97). Peabody: Hendrickson.
2. Ferguson, S.B. (1999). Let’s Study Mark (p.21). Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust.
3. Cooper, R. L. (2000). Mark (Vol. 2, p. 16). Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers.
4. Ferguson, S.B. (1999). Let’s Study Mark (p.23). Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust.
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