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Biblical Interpretation Session 3 filled

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The purpose of this session is to learn how to expand the observation step of inductive Bible study by observing other scripture in relation to the passage being studied. This will be an important step so that we can interpret the passage correctly.

I.  Prayer for Illumination

            1. Pray for a clear mind

            2. Pray for the Holy Spirit to “cast His light” on His word

            3. Pray for God’s direction to ensure an attitude of humility

II. Observation: review

            a. Read the passage several times (10 is not too many)

            b. Ask preliminary questions

      i.    Who is the author?

      ii.    What are the circumstances at the time of writing?

      iii.   Who are the recipients?

      iv.   What can you learn about them (Jew or Gentile, wealthy or poor, etc.)

      v.   Where was the book (letter) written?

      vi.   When was the book written?

      vii. Are there any problems addressed?

c. In-depth Observation

                  i.  Outline the passage

                  ii. Ask questions about the passage

III. Correlation

            a. The process begins by asking questions about the passage.

            b. Primary principle: Scripture interprets Scripture

            c. In process of correlation, ask the question, “What do other passages of the Bible say that are related to this passage?”

            d. Examine parallel passages

            e. Study Bibles contain cross-references in the margins. Use them.

            f.  The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge is very useful for this purpose.

            g. A good Bible Dictionary can be helpful for defining certain terms.

IV. Matt 16:13-20

a. Review the observations made concerning the passage.

Observations from Matt 16:13-20

b. Look at parallel passages:

i. Do they have additional information?

ii. Do they omit information?

            Mark 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-21

c. What questions do you have regarding the passage?

d. Answer those Questions using the TSK or cross-references from you Bible

V. Remaining Steps of Inductive Bible Study

            a. Interpretation

            b. Application
The Passage: Matt 16:13-20

Revelation of the Person of the King

Mark 8:27–30; Luke 9:18–21

13 When Jesus came into the region of Caesarea Philippi, He asked His disciples, saying, “Who do men say that I, the Son of Man, am?”

14 So they said, “Some say John the Baptist, some Elijah, and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.”

15 He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?”

16 Simon Peter answered and said, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”

17 Jesus answered and said to him, “Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but My Father who is in heaven.

Revelation of the Church

18 And I also say to you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it. 19 And I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.”

20 Then He commanded His disciples that they should tell no one that He was Jesus the Christ.[1]

Observations from Matt. 16:13-20

1.      Matthew is writing this account

2.      This encounter occurred before the crucifixion

3.      Jesus traveled to Caesarea Philippi

4.      The disciples traveled with Him

5.      Jesus asks a question

6.      Jesus calls himself the “Son of Man”

7.      Jesus wants to know who men think he is (public opinion)

8.      Not all men know who Jesus is

9.      Jesus was thought to be John the Baptist, Elijah, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets

10.  Jesus wants to know who the disciples think he is

11.  Only Simon Peter answered

12.  Peter called Jesus “the Christ”

13.  Peter refers to Jesus as the “Son of the living God”

14.  Jesus blessed Peter

15.  Peter’s testimony could not come from flesh and blood

16.  Peter’s testimony was revealed by the Jesus’ Father

17.  The Father is in heaven

18.  Jesus refers first to Simon and then calls him Peter

19.  Jesus will build His church

20.  Jesus will build His church on a rock

21.  Jesus gives Simon Peter the keys to heaven

22.  Peter was given authority to bind and loose on earth

23.  Jesus did not want the disciples to reveal that he is the Christ


Questions regarding Matt 16:13-20

1. Why did Jesus wait until they reached Caesarea Philippi to ask this question?

2. Why did Jesus refer to himself as the Son of Man and Peter refer to him as the Son of God?

3. What is the significance of Jesus being the Christ? How would the Jews of that time understand this statement?

4. What is the rock upon which Jesus will build his Church?

5. What are the keys to heaven?

6. What does it mean to bind on earth or loose on earth?

7. Why does Jesus want his identity to remain secret?

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge for Passage

13[2] came. 15:21 Ac 10:38 Caesarea Philippi. Caesarea Philippi was anciently called Paneas, from the mountain of Panium, or Hermon, at the foot of which it was situated, near the springs of Jordan; but Philip the tetrarch, the son of Herod the Great, having rebuilt it, gave it the name of Caesarea in honor of Tiberius, the reigning emperor, and he added his own name to it, to distinguish it from another Caesarea on the coast of the Mediterranean. It was afterwards named Neronias by the young Agrippa, in honor of Nero; and in the time of William of Tyre, it was called Belinas. It was, according to Josephus, a day’s journey from Sidon, and 120 stadia from the lake of Phiala; and, according to Abulfeda, a journey of a day and a half from Damascus. Many have confounded it with Dan, or Leshem; but Eusebius and Jerome expressly affirm that Dan was four miles from Paneas, on the road to Tyre. It is now called Banias, and is described, by Seetzen, as a hamlet of about twenty miserable huts, inhabited by Mohammedans; but Burckhardt says it contains about 150 houses, inhabited by Turks, Greeks, etc.

Mr 8:27 Whom. Lu 9:18 *etc: I the. 8:20 9:6 12:8,32,40 13:37,41 25:31 Da 7:13 Mr 8:38 10:45 Joh 1:51 3:14 5:27 12:34 Ac 7:56 Heb 2:14-18

14 John. 14:2 Mr 8:28 Elias. Mal 4:5 Mr 6:15 Lu 9:18,19 Joh 7:12,40,41 9:17

15 But. 13:11 Mr 8:29 Lu 9:20

16 Thou. 14:33 26:63 27:54 Ps 2:7 Mr 14:61 Joh 1:49 6:69 11:27 20:31 Ac 8:37 9:20 Ro 1:4 Heb 1:2-5 1Jo 4:15 5:5,20 the living. De 5:26 Ps 42:2 Da 6:26 Ac 14:15 1Th 1:9

17 Blessed. 5:3-11 13:16,17 Lu 10:23,24 22:32 1Pe 1:3-5 5:1 Simon. Joh 1:42 21:15-17 for. Ga 1:11,12,16 but. 11:25-27 Isa 54:13 Lu 10:21,22 Joh 6:45 17:6-8 1Co 2:9-12 Ga 1:16 Eph 1:17,18 2:8 3:5,18,19 Col 1:26,27 1Jo 4:15 5:20

18 thou. 10:2 Joh 1:42 Ga 2:9 upon. Isa 28:16 1Co 3:10,11 Eph 2:19-22 Re 21:14 I will. Zec 6:12,13 1Co 3:9 Heb 3:3,4 my. 18:17 Ac 2:47 8:1 Eph 3:10 5:25-27,32 Col 1:18 1Ti 3:5,15 and the. Ge 22:17 2Sa 18:4 Job 38:17 Ps 9:13 69:12 107:18 127:5 Pr 24:7 Isa 28:6 38:10 1Co 15:55 *marg: shall not. Ps 125:1,2 Isa 54:17 Joh 10:27-30 Ro 8:33-39 Heb 12:28 Re 11:15 21:1-4

19 give. Ac 2:14 *etc: Ac 10:34 *etc: Ac 15:7 the keys. Isa 22:22 Re 1:18 3:7 9:1 20:1-3 and whatsoever. 18:18 Joh 20:23 1Co 5:4,5 2Co 2:10 1Th 4:8 Re 11:6

20 charged. 8:4 17:9 Mr 8:30 9:9 Lu 9:21,36 Jesus. Joh 1:41,45 20:31 Ac 2:36 1Jo 2:22 5:1

4073 πέτρα [petra /pet·ra/] n f. From the same as 4074; TDNT 6:95; TDNTA 834; GK 4376; 16 occurrences; AV translates as “rock” 16 times. 1 a rock, cliff or ledge. 1a a projecting rock, crag, rocky ground. 1b a rock, a large stone. 1c metaph. a man like a rock, by reason of his firmness and strength of soul.

4074 Πέτρος [Petros /pet·ros/] n pr m. Apparently a primary word; TDNT 6:100; TDNTA 835; GK 4377; 162 occurrences; AV translates as “Peter” 161 times, and “stone” once. 1 one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. Additional Information: Peter = “a rock or a stone”.[3]


[1]The New King James Version, Mt 16:13. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1996, c1982.

[2]The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge: Five Hundred Thousand Scripture References and Parallel Passages. Introduction by R.A. Torrey., Mt 16:13. Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1995.

n n: noun or neuter

f f: feminine

TDNT Theological Dictionary of the New Testament

TDNTA Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Abridged in One Volume

GK Goodrick-Kohlenberger

AV Authorized Version

pr pr: proper or pronoun

m m: masculine

[3]Strong, James. The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible : Showing Every Word of the Test of the Common English Version of the Canonical Books, and Every Occurence of Each Word in Regular Order. electronic ed., G4073. Ontario: Woodside Bible Fellowship., 1996.

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