Back to the Basics: The Fall Part 3 (Gen. 3:14-24)
I have really been enjoying going through Genesis 3 with you. You know, you always think you know a passage so well only to sit down to study it again and being blown away with how deep God’s Word really is! Donkey told Shrek how he has layers like an onion, but there is nothing like the layers found in the Word of God! Today we will finish up the chapter as we cover this point in the statement of faith:
3. That the first man, Adam, was created by God in His image, but fell from his original state by sinning against God, and hence incurred upon himself and all his posterity the guilt of sin, condemnation, and death; therefore, all humans are in need of salvation, but are totally incapable of saving themselves.
We will also introduce point 4:
That after the Fall, God, in His mercy and love, made provision for human redemption through the establishment of the covenant of grace with His people by the promise and the actual giving of the Savior Jesus Christ, whom to believe is justification and life.
So far we looked at:
I. The sequence of sin (vv.1-6)
We said the sequence of sin begins with doubting God’s Word and then doubting His character, which leads to denying God and disobeying His voice. Secondly, we looked at:
II. The consequences of sin (vv.7-24)
We looked at several consequences from Gen. 3:7-13: Guilt and shame, hiding, fear and isolation as well as denial and blame shifting. We also see God already acting in grace toward our first parents. He does not run and annihilate them, but walks toward them. He doesn’t drive them out of hiding, but draws them out. He looks for a full confession so that He can break the grip of sin in their lives and restore them, but even when Adam and Eve do not own up to their sin, He still does not destroy them.
Let’s look at some more consequences:
d) Suffering and Death (vv.15a, 16-19)
In the last ten verses of this chapter, God is a judge, but He is also a Redeemer. He is full of grace and yet full of truth. So there is a sentence that goes forth, but the same time there is a promise of redemption. Let’s look at the bad news first.
Look at Gen. 3:15. We will go back to verse 14 later. We have suffering now between Satan and believers. So, suffering in spiritual warfare. Even though this is under the “suffering” point, this must have startled Satan. He must have been licking his chops thinking he has put a dent into God’s plans, that Adam and Eve were now his, but if God says there will be conflict with Eve’s offspring, that must mean that there will be people who will not stand for Satan’s schemes and will be saved.
But nevertheless, we do have suffering now in the area of spiritual warfare. Satan will come as a serpent and Paul says, “I’m afraid that as the serpent deceived Eve by his cunning, your thoughts will be led astray from a sincere and pure devotion to Christ” (2 Cor. 11:3). We learned in 1 Peter that this snake can also be like a lion, prowling around seeking whom he may devour (1 Pet. 5:8). We fight not flesh and blood, but powers and principalities in the air (Eph. 6:12). Satan will be allowed to have conflict with us as a result of our first parents joining up with him in defying God.
So suffering from spiritual warfare is another consequence of the Fall. Secondly, look at Gen. 3:16. There will also be suffering in relationships. Eve was called to be a wife and mother. In both of these roles were to be sources of personal enjoyment and satisfaction. However, now from these two sources of joy would be the source of her trouble. One commentator says, “It is appropriate punishment since procreation was central to her divine commission and because she had been instrumental in her husband’s ruin (cf. 3:17a).” Again, with these judgments, there is also grace. Eve thought she was going to die, but God is telling her that she will have offspring.
So a painful labor, without medicine back then, is part of the penalty. Though labor and delivery signals hope of new life, it is also a painful and perpetual reminder of sin and the woman’s part in it. Also, this is not simply the contractions in labor he is thinking about here. He is talking about, generally speaking, the entire pain of raising children. The word “pain here means ‘painful toil’ and refers to the emotional as well as the physical. Mothering itself, with its attendant joys, was also a source of painful labor.” So all of mothering (not to say fathers don’t suffer either): from the pain she feels when a child is sick, the countless times anxiety fills her heart about her children’s lives, the way her heart breaks at rebellion and all the pain in between that sin will bring is in view here. So the woman, continually giving birth to little sinners and raising sinners, will suffer pain. And I know a lot of moms wish there was an epidural for the way their heart breaks in raising children. John Macarthur adds here, “ The curse is the sorrows related to the very place where a woman seeks her highest joy, in her husband and her children.” Again, there is redemption here as well, which we will get to, but generally speaking, this is the suffering for women.
So not only is there suffering physically, emotionally and spiritually in childbearing and child-raising, as she gives birth to little sinners, she is also married to a big sinner. You give birth to little sinners and are married to a big sinner! Before we go there, let me share a brief word on using pain medicine in delivery. I think some would say that not taking an epidural or pain alleviation drugs in delivery is the way we should go because that is how God intended us to be. Women should bear the curse of sin.
I do not think that’s the application intended here. First of all, we already mentioned that this is not only physical childbearing in view here. Secondly, if you really believe this to be true, then we should apply the same principles to Adam’s penalty as well. God cursed the ground and told Adam to work it. So bring the tractor and lawnmower back to Home Depot. Get down on all fours and chew the grass down! Don’t interfere with the curse in any way! It doesn’t make sense.
Anyway, notice the disruption in her relationship with her husband. The word “desire” is also found in Gen. 4:7. God says sin will attempt to control and dominate Cain. What is this desire? As a commentator explains, “It means a desire to break the relationship of equality and turn it into a relationship of servitude and domination. The sinful husband will try to be a tyrant over his wife. Far from being a reign of co-equals over the remainder of God’s creation, the relationship now becomes a fierce dispute, with each party trying to rule the other. The two who once reigned as one attempt to rule each other.” John Macarthur says, “Literally, it could read you shall seek control over your husband. You will desire to exert your will. That is a sign of the curse. You will desire to take charge, to be in control, to master. That desire shows up in various women in various ways. Some of them it's a quiet, silent desire that smolders. With others, it is a shouting desire that isn't much of a secret to anybody. And the more godless women are, very often the more hostile they are to men.” Sin has corrupted both the willing submission of the wife and the loving headship of the husband. Again, this relationship too God will redeem, but here we see what the consequences of sin have done to the marriage relationship.
So suffering in spiritual warfare and suffering in relationships. There will also be suffering in making a living. Let’s move to Adam in Gen. 3:17-19. Actually, let’s back up for a moment. Look back at Gen. 2:15. There Adam is told to “work and keep” the garden (Gen. 2:15). Interestingly, the word, “work” or “dress” means “to serve.” Man was put in the garden to serve. The word, “keep” means to “protect.” The basic meaning of this root is “to exercise great care over,” to the point, if necessary, of guarding.” He was to keep the garden from intruders. So often we picture Adam as a gardener, but he was to be much more. He was supposed to be a warrior and watchman as well. Remember that men! You are called to protect as well as to provide; a worker, watchman and warrior for your home. This says two things. First of all, this shows us that work was there before the Fall. Physical labor is not a consequence of sin. Eden wasn’t a vacation where Adam passed his time with uninterrupted bliss as he lounged around and Eve fed him grapes. Adam worked and that glorified the Lord. We will look at what exactly is part of the Fall in making a living in a second. Secondly, Adam failed to do his job. He let the intruder into the garden!
So Adam must have been bracing himself when God got to him. Was God going to hit him with a lightning bolt? No, we see again God’s judgment and mercy here. See God’s grace here as well. Cursed is “the ground,” God says, not Adam. Here Adam the gardener and warrior, will become Adam the toiler. The sin was that he “ate,” and now from vv.17-19, God mentions “eating” five times. The judgment matches the sin. Like Eve, the same place he was to find joy and satisfaction, he will instead find pain, blisters, backaches, sweat and frustration. K.A. Mathews explains, “Ironically, the ground that was under the man’s care in the garden as his source of joy and life (2:15) becomes the source of pain for the man’s wearisome existence (v. 17)…and in the cultivation of the wild and stubborn ground the man will know the toilsome pain of deriving food from the dust. The ground will now be his enemy rather than his servant.” So the idea of working for a living is not part of the Fall, but the way you have to work and all the toil and sweat of it to put food on the table is part of the Fall.
We now mostly live in an industrialized world, but there are places around the world where agriculture is the way people make a living. And from the Fall, thorns, thistles, bad weather, drought, famine, food harming insects and all kinds of weeds will now make agriculture a hard way of life for the farmer. But even if your job is not a physical one, work can be demanding. There is struggle, sweat and stress involved in trying to make a living. So now “Adam is depicted as a broken farmer whose very meals, which are derived from the grain of his agrarian life, are spoiled by the fatigue of his striving.” And God says that as he works the ground, he will be reminded that as he was taken from the earth, he will return to the ground and die. So “man’s lifelong struggle for survival will eventually end in death.” Many of us complain about working now and can’t wait until we hit retirement, but think about Adam. He had to work 900 years!
Let’s talk here about inherited sin or original sin for a moment. Paul explains the effects of Adam’s sin in Rom. 5:12-21. Look at Rom. 5:12: “…sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned.” So when Adam sinned in the garden, he didn’t sin as an isolated, disconnected individual. Adam sinned as the representative of the whole human race. God thought of all who would descend from Adam as sinners. Wayne Grudem adds, “Though we did not yet exist, God, looking into the future and knowing that we would exist, began thinking of us as those who were guilty like Adam.” Therefore, all of us have been affected by his sin. As a result of Adam’s sin we all became sinners. David says in the womb he was a sinner (Ps. 51:5). No child needs to take a class on disobedience and selfishness!
This is what is known as original sin. Original does not refer to the first sin per se, but refers to the consequences of the first sin had on humanity. So not only does God impute legal guilt to us because of Adam’s sin, but we also inherit a sinful nature because of Adam’s sin. So we are not sinners because we sin, but we sin because we are sinners! Now before you say, “That’s unfair that because of Adam represented us in sin and now his sin and guilt is imputed or credited to us,” remember that God used the same procedure in our salvation. Christ, the sinless representative (this is Paul’s argument in Romans 5), became our representative and God imputed or credited His righteousness to us to replace the sin, guilt and condemnation. Talk about unfair! Grudem summarizes this by saying, “That is simply the way in which God set up the human race to work. God regards the human race as an organic whole, a unity, represented by Adam as its head. And God also thinks of the new race of Christians, those who are redeemed by Christ, as an organic whole, a unity represented by Christ as head of his people.”
So suffering is a consequence of sin, as evidenced by spiritual warfare, fractured relationships and even in making a living. In the end, death came into the picture to all of us. We have one more consequence in this text:
e) Loss of fellowship with God (vv.22-24)
Look over at Gen. 3:22-24. God has dialogue with Himself, which He can do as the Trinity. Here we see that Satan had partially told the truth. Man did know good and evil, but not like God, who loves good and hates evil. Man, having experienced evil on the inside, now knows good and evil in the sense that they love evil and hate the good. In essence, they did not become like God, they became like Satan!
Now in the garden were two supernatural trees (Gen. 2:9). One tree was the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and the other one was the tree of life. Here we see that partaking of the tree would give humans eternal life. Now this does not mean there was some special chemical in either tree or in the fruit that made it magical. I think God decrees this to be the way things would work, that in partaking of it, there would be consequences.
Now God knows that man, in having sinned, will try to save himself. Adam and Eve just heard the judgment and already started feeling some of the consequences. Now if you were Adam and this happened, I guess you would try to get yourself out of this mess right? If you are headed toward death, the natural inclination would be trying to find a way to reverse it. This is similar to people getting botox and anti-aging creams, etc. to look young again. So I can picture Adam looking at Eve saying, “Honey, we can fix this. Let’s get back to the tree of life and reverse this whole death thing. We can go back and eat of it and things will be okay again.” See, man is always trying to save himself and trying to live forever, but the truth is, man is incapable of saving himself.
We might initially think, “Well, isn’t that a good thing? To neutralize death and live forever?” Here’s the problem. They would live forever as wicked, fallen, depraved sinners. This is God’s grace here. Today, people are already bitter and sick of life at age 50 and 60 or earlier and now to live forever like that? Actually, that’s what hell is: eternal life as a fallen sinner. Macarthur agrees as he says, “And if Adam and Eve had remained in the Garden, the temptation to overpower death by eating would have been overwhelming and they would have gone straight to that tree thinking it could neutralize the effects of death by eating from the tree of life and they would have sentenced themselves to the most gruesome kind of living.”
Even though it is God’s grace here, they are nevertheless going to lose the greatest gift they had: their fellowship with God. By the way, notice that the sentence does not really end in Gen. 3:22. It’s almost as if God was going to say something, but held Himself back, like someone really excited to share good news, but knows he/she can’t, because it’s not the right time.
But here is the sad part in Gen. 3:23. God expels them from the garden. Sin has separated us from God. Intimacy is replaced with separation from God. Here we see the stupidity of the decision to sin. Sin never delivers what it promises. So “even though man’s quest to “be like God” (vv.5–7) was obtained, the goal itself proved to be undesirable. Man, who had been created “like God” in the beginning (1:26), found himself after the Fall curiously “like God”—but no longer “with God” in the garden (v.22). In this subtle verbal interchange, the author has shown that man’s happiness (ṭôḇ, “good”) does not consist of his being “like God” so much as it does his being “with God,” enjoying the blessings of his presence (Ps 16:11).”
So in an effort to be “like God” which they already were in one sense as being made in His image, they lose the opportunity to be “with God,” which is a horrible serious consequence. Then in Gen. 3:24, God makes sure Adam and Eve would never try to get back to save themselves again by placing “cherubim and a flaming sword” to guard the garden. Pastor Kent Hughes explains, “A flaming sword, representing the justice and holiness of God at work in his judgments, flashed to and fro (cf. Jeremiah 47:6; Ezekiel 21). Adam, the garden’s caretaker, was now excluded, like a thief, never to enter it again.” And here God sends a message that if mankind was ever going to get back to fellowship with God, God will have to make the way and not man.
We looked at the sequence of sin: doubting God’s Word, doubting His character and denying and disobeying Him. We now looked at all of the consequences of such a choice: guilt, shame, hiding, fear, isolation, denial, blame shifting, suffering in spiritual warfare, suffering in relationships, suffering in making a living, death and loss of fellowship with God. And today the consequences are the same in small or higher degrees when we sin. Is there any hope for mankind? Here is the last thought:
III. The Promises of Redemption (vv.14, 15b-24)
As I mentioned earlier, flowing through these verses are not just curses and condemnation, but promises and blessing of redemption. So I want to go back and highlight all of those here. First of all we have the promise of:
a) A defeated enemy (vv.14-15)
Notice God does not give Satan a chance to talk. He was already condemned. He does not need an opportunity neither does he want a chance to repent. The judgment on the snake is that it is to now move on its belly. This judgment here is symbolic of Satan’s defeat. Satan who tried to exalt himself to be like God, will now be cast down as symbolized how the snake moves about. Hamilton notes, “This posture will make him eat dust. Such a penalty matches the serpent’s sin. He who tempted Eve to eat now himself will eat dust.” The idea of “eating dust” does not literally mean that the snake will have a new diet. It is symbolic of total defeat and humiliation (Ps. 44:25; 72:9; Is. 25:12). So I do not think the serpent had legs or was walking upright before the Fall. If you are going to take the judgment on crawling on its belly literally, you will also have to believe that snakes literally eat dust as a literal change in the snake’s diet as well. But whenever you see a snake slithering on the ground, be reminded that Satan is a defeated enemy. So God is now attaching a new significance to why a snake slithers, just like he gave a new significance to the meaning of a rainbow (Gen. 9:13).
Satan is also told that there will always be a remnant of people fighting against his untruth. No Satan, you are not sovereign, calling the shots. Satan’s been acting like he’s in charge her until now. No, God will have the final say. And God in control says, “I’m in charge of you and let me tell you what you’re getting.” “I will put enmity between you and the woman,” God says. This is a “…deep animosity between persons, between morally responsible persons.” Satan thought at this point he had the allegiance and devotion of God’s best creation of man and woman. He may have thought he has all of mankind as well. He had made them enemies of God by causing them to defy God. Macarthur adds, “both Adam and Eve had chosen Satan's words over God's. They had chosen Satan's worldview over God's. They had chosen Satan's leadership over God's. They had chosen Satan's companionship over God's. And thus, they had become the friend of Satan and the enemy of God. And they hid from God, and they didn't want fellowship with God, and they had rejected God for Satan. But that was not forever fixed.”
But notice what God says. He is going to make Satan and Eve enemies. How is that going to happen? I think God is telling us that Eve will be converted. Eve will experience salvation. How else can a person move from being a friend and ally of Satan to an enemy of him? This messes up Satan’s plan as he thought he would capture all of humanity! But God says, no. You are not even going to get Eve. And we can safely assume Adam too is included in this salvation. Satan is a defeated enemy! Adam is very encouraged by this as he goes ahead and names woman, Eve, in Gen. 3:20, which means the mother of all living. He is already experiencing the grace of God and acting on the promise that Eve will not immediately die, but God has plans for her destiny.
When God mentions Satan’s “seed” or “offspring,” and compares it the woman’s “seed” or “offspring,” He is referring to the fact that unbelievers and all haters of God, including demons and Satan will oppose believers. But the point is, “Satan, you have not won all of humanity.” The whole human race does not belong to you and you will not be able to walk through human history without a fight. In fact, out of human beings will come one person. He will bruise your head. This individual will provide the final blow to you. He will fight you and decisively crush you. Notice the comparison. Satan will bruise or strike His heel, since you are on the ground, defeated and can’t do much. But He will crush your head. And we know this is referring to Jesus Christ. He was “bruised” for our transgressions (Is. 53:5). Here we have the first gospel message as early as Genesis 3!
Since Satan heard this, he’s been trying to figure out who “he” is. Is it Abel? So he works through Cain and kills him. He sees male believers in Gen. 6 and so possesses some of the unbelieving women to seduce them. Why? To corrupt the seed! He thought it would be Moses. So he killed male babies in Ex. 1. And on and on he goes, trying to figure out who this “He” is. So when Jesus is born, he tries desperately through Herod to kill the male children again. Finally he gets Jesus on the cross. This is when he struck “his heel.” But this was a little nick for Christ, for in three days it was healed. And on the cross, Satan’s head was crushed as Christ rose with power in His hand, canceling our debt, reconciling us to God and opening Heaven! And Satan is already sentenced here, but we are waiting for the execution, which God promises one day to do in His time (Rev. 20:10).
Secondly, we have the promise of:
b) Redeemed Relationships
As I mentioned earlier, God promises salvation will come to Adam and Eve. He will change their hearts. And in changing their hearts, God will redeem some of the penalty of sin in regards to relationships. Though we don’t know how Adam and Eve’s marriage and their parenting was post-salvation, Paul gives us some commentary in Eph. 5:22ff and 1 Tim. 2:13-15. Let’s look at 1 Timothy. We don’t have time to go over everything there, but what Paul is saying that childbearing and child-raising can be redeemed as mothers live godly lives and raise their children for Christ. This does not guarantee that all children of godly parents will get saved, but knowing Christ can redeem the pain of the suffering caused by the Fall and in a sense “save” woman, reversing Eve’s consequence.
Secondly, Paul tells us that marriage can be redeemed as well, reversing the curse. Though it is in our nature to dominate each other, if both husband and wife submits to Christ as the head, Christ can redeem the marriage with the husband’s loving and sacrificial leadership and the wives voluntary submission. What about in the area of:
c) New framework for work
Paul tells us that Christ also redeems our work ethic. Look at Colossians 3:22-25. Several times he mentions “the Lord.” You are to work thoroughly, habitually, honestly, heartily with humility with Christ as your motivation and your reward at the end. You have a new framework for why you work so hard now. Macarthur adds, “Here's a new dimension of work. Work is the sphere of our witness and work is the sphere of our worship. All of a sudden as a Christian the whole work world takes on a different perspective. It now becomes the realm of witness and the realm of worship.”
Are you living out the redeemed framework for work? Lastly there is the promise of:
d) A Redeemer to come
Lastly, God hints here of a Redeemer to come. We already mentioned the promise of Christ crushing Satan’s head. Look over at Gen. 3: 21. God does for the couple what they could not do for themselves. He dresses them His way. He covers their shame and guilt. He is probably also preparing them for the hostile environment they would be living in. Here is the first indication of redemption by substitutionary sacrifice, i.e atonement. God must have killed an animal on their behalf and clothed them with its skin. Little did they know that one day God Himself will be the sacrifice to permanently clothe His children in His righteousness.
Paul also tells us that all creation is longing for the curse to be lifted (Rom. 8:18-23). The Redeemer will come and redeem creation as well. Look again at the angels guarding the Tree of Life. Jon Courson keenly observes, “This same picture will be painted again in the tabernacle, for over the mercy seat, sprinkled with sacrificial blood, were cherubim and the bright Shekinah glory of God. But the place we see this picture painted most powerfully is not in the Garden, nor in the tabernacle, but in an empty tomb where two angels clothed in light sat at either end of a slab stained with the sacrificial blood of the Lamb of God.”
And then in Rev. 22:1-4, we see that we will once again because of Christ, have access to the tree of life again! Paradise lost will be paradise regained. Fellowship restored with our God again! All because of the 2nd Adam!
As I close, I want to praise our Redeemer and 2nd Adam! Without a Redeemer, I am Adam. I am trying to find good apart from God. I live in guilt, I have shame. I live in fear. I fail as a husband. My work is burdensome. I blame others. I blame God. I doubt His heart. I doubt God. I try to master my own existence. Without a Redeemer, I'm a sinner. Jesus Christ, the second Adam, succeeds where the 1st Adam failed. The first Adam comes into the Garden of Eden and sins. The second Adam comes into the Garden of Gethsemane and bears sin. The first Adam is tempted by Satan in a plush paradise and gives in. The second Adam is tempted by Satan in a wilderness and resists. The first Adam and hides from God in seclusion. The second Adam reveals God in the open and is exposed for our sin. The first Adam brought thorns and thistles into the world; the second Adam wore a crown of thorns. The first Adam knew what it was like to sweat; the second Adam knew what it was to sweat great drops of blood. The first Adam experienced sorrow; the second Adam was a man of sorrow, and familiar with suffering. The first Adam died; the second Adam tasted death for all. The first Adam brought sin and condemnation in the world and the second Adam brought righteousness and salvation to the world. The first Adam brought decay into the world; the second Adam is bringing about the restoration of all things.
Let us worship this second Adam, Jesus Christ! The truth is a redeemer has come for us. He has showed me His goodness on the cross. He paid my debt, took my guilt and replace it with forgiveness. He replaced my shame with honor. He replaced my fear with joy and trust. He took my blame. He died in my place, so I can live. He defeated the Enemy. He redeems my marriage and relationships. He clothes me in righteousness. He brings me back into the Tree of Life, to be my Tree of Life. He tasted death and destroyed it! And I long for Him to come and restore all things. Until then, come to Him. Let us ask Him to help us not give in to the Enemy, to live in relationships redeemed by the cross, to be honest and not hide, to have power instead of fear, to not give into guilt and shame, to accept and own up to our sin and in confession, to find freedom and life again. As Glenn Stanton says, “We serve a God who created our humanity, weeps at the fall of our humanity, became our humanity, and is redeeming our humanity.”
Mathews, K. A. (2001). Vol. 1A: Genesis 1-11:26 (electronic ed.). Logos Library System; The New American Commentary (249). Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers.
Hughes, R. K. (2004). Genesis: Beginning and Blessing. Preaching the Word (88). Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books
Macarthur, J. “The Curse on the Woman Part 1,” http://www.biblebb.com/files/mac/gen316curse.htm accessed 17 March 2011.
Hamilton, V. P. (1990). The Book of Genesis. Chapters 1-17. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (202). Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. EerdmansPublishing Co.
Macarthur, J. “The Curse on the Woman Part 2,” http://www.biblebb.com/files/mac/gen316curse2.htm accessed 17 March 2011.
Hamilton, V.P. (171).
Mathews, K. A. (252).
Mathews, K. A. (253).
Wenham, G. J. (83).
Grudem, W. A. (1994). Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine (495). Leicester, England; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Inter-Varsity Press; Zondervan Pub. House.
Macarthur, J. “The Promise of Redemption Part 2,” http://www.gty.org/Resources/Sermons/90-248 accessed 18 March 2011.
Gaebelein, F. E., Sailhamer, J. H., Kaiser, W. C., Harris, R. L., Allen, R. B., & Zondervan Pub. House. (1990). The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Volume 2: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers (59). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House.
Hughes, R. K. (96).
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Macarthur, J. “The Curse on the Serpent Part 2.”
Macarthur, J. “Curse of the Man Part 2,” http://www.gty.org/Resources/Sermons/90-246 accessed 19 March 2011.
Courson, J. (2005). Jon Courson's Application Commentary: Volume One: Genesis-Job (13–14). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.
Adapted from Wayne Christensen, “The consequences of sin Parts 1-4,” http://www.foxlakechurch.org/Genesis Series - The Consequences of Sin - 4 Parts.pdf and “The curse on Adam,” http://www.foxlakechurch.org/The Curse On Adam.pdf accessed 17 March 2011.
Stanton, Glenn. “The Conservative Humanist,” http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2006/april/24.42.html?start=3 accessed 19 March 2011.