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Hell and Eternal Punishment

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Hades/Sheol

Place of the dead, but not necessarily to a place of torment for the wicked dead.

Eternality

Matthew 18:8 ESV
8 And if your hand or your foot causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to enter life crippled or lame than with two hands or two feet to be thrown into the eternal fire.
Matthew 25:30 ESV
30 And cast the worthless servant into the outer darkness. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’
Matthew 25:46 ESV
46 And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.”
Luke 16:19–31 ESV
19 “There was a rich man who was clothed in purple and fine linen and who feasted sumptuously every day. 20 And at his gate was laid a poor man named Lazarus, covered with sores, 21 who desired to be fed with what fell from the rich man’s table. Moreover, even the dogs came and licked his sores. 22 The poor man died and was carried by the angels to Abraham’s side. The rich man also died and was buried, 23 and in Hades, being in torment, he lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham far off and Lazarus at his side. 24 And he called out, ‘Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus to dip the end of his finger in water and cool my tongue, for I am in anguish in this flame.’ 25 But Abraham said, ‘Child, remember that you in your lifetime received your good things, and Lazarus in like manner bad things; but now he is comforted here, and you are in anguish. 26 And besides all this, between us and you a great chasm has been fixed, in order that those who would pass from here to you may not be able, and none may cross from there to us.’ 27 And he said, ‘Then I beg you, father, to send him to my father’s house— 28 for I have five brothers—so that he may warn them, lest they also come into this place of torment.’ 29 But Abraham said, ‘They have Moses and the Prophets; let them hear them.’ 30 And he said, ‘No, father Abraham, but if someone goes to them from the dead, they will repent.’ 31 He said to him, ‘If they do not hear Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be convinced if someone should rise from the dead.’ ”
Tormented night and day forever
The devil is thrown into the lake of fire.
His torment will be forever.
Won’t all outside of Christ experience the second death?
Revelation 20:10 ESV
10 and the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.
Revelation 20:14 ESV
14 Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire.
Revelation 20:15 ESV
15 And if anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire.
Revelation 14:11 ESV
11 And the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever, and they have no rest, day or night, these worshipers of the beast and its image, and whoever receives the mark of its name.”
Matthew 13:40–42 ESV
40 Just as the weeds are gathered and burned with fire, so will it be at the end of the age. 41 The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all law-breakers, 42 and throw them into the fiery furnace. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
Mark 9:43–48 ESV
43 And if your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life crippled than with two hands to go to hell, to the unquenchable fire. 45 And if your foot causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life lame than with two feet to be thrown into hell. 47 And if your eye causes you to sin, tear it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than with two eyes to be thrown into hell, 48 ‘where their worm does not die and the fire is not quenched.’
Luke 12:4–5 ESV
4 “I tell you, my friends, do not fear those who kill the body, and after that have nothing more that they can do. 5 But I will warn you whom to fear: fear him who, after he has killed, has authority to cast into hell. Yes, I tell you, fear him!
Matthew 8:12 ESV
12 while the sons of the kingdom will be thrown into the outer darkness. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”
Matthew 13:50 ESV
50 and throw them into the fiery furnace. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
2 Thessalonians 1:9 ESV
9 They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might,
Isaiah 66:22–24 ESV
22 “For as the new heavens and the new earth that I make shall remain before me, says the Lord, so shall your offspring and your name remain. 23 From new moon to new moon, and from Sabbath to Sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before me, declares the Lord. 24 “And they shall go out and look on the dead bodies of the men who have rebelled against me. For their worm shall not die, their fire shall not be quenched, and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh.”

Annihilationism

Destruction—illustration of a car crash…the car was destroyed. Doesn’t mean the car ceased to exist.
Hebrews 10:39 ESV
39 But we are not of those who shrink back and are destroyed, but of those who have faith and preserve their souls.
James 4:12 ESV
12 There is only one lawgiver and judge, he who is able to save and to destroy. But who are you to judge your neighbor?
2 Peter 2:1 ESV
1 But false prophets also arose among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them, bringing upon themselves swift destruction.
1 Corinthians 5:5 ESV
5 you are to deliver this man to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, so that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord.
1 Thessalonians 5:3 ESV
3 While people are saying, “There is peace and security,” then sudden destruction will come upon them as labor pains come upon a pregnant woman, and they will not escape.
1 Timothy 6:9 ESV
9 But those who desire to be rich fall into temptation, into a snare, into many senseless and harmful desires that plunge people into ruin and destruction.
2 Peter 3:16 ESV
16 as he does in all his letters when he speaks in them of these matters. There are some things in them that are hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other Scriptures.
Against Ann.
Matthew 25:46 ESV
46 And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.”
Not just an age that will pass. The same word is used. “aioneos”
“aioneos”—refers to a particular age..or can refer to something that is eternal…will last forever.
Either way, in this passage, the age of punishment is the same as the age of life.
Punishment = kolasis…it actually means punishment. Correction or pruning is not an acceptable meaning for the word. (BDAG)
Judgment…is it just the day of judgment or is there a specific day of judgement and then an ongoing receiving of judgment from God?
Hebrews 10:26–27 ESV
26 For if we go on sinning deliberately after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, 27 but a fearful expectation of judgment, and a fury of fire that will consume the adversaries.

Degrees of Reward and Punishment

1 Corinthians 3:13–16 ESV
13 each one’s work will become manifest, for the Day will disclose it, because it will be revealed by fire, and the fire will test what sort of work each one has done. 14 If the work that anyone has built on the foundation survives, he will receive a reward. 15 If anyone’s work is burned up, he will suffer loss, though he himself will be saved, but only as through fire. 16 Do you not know that you are God’s temple and that God’s Spirit dwells in you?
Matthew 11:22 ESV
22 But I tell you, it will be more bearable on the day of judgment for Tyre and Sidon than for you.
Matthew 11:24 ESV
24 But I tell you that it will be more tolerable on the day of judgment for the land of Sodom than for you.”
Hebrews 10:29 ESV
29 How much worse punishment, do you think, will be deserved by the one who has trampled underfoot the Son of God, and has profaned the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has outraged the Spirit of grace?
Romans 2:6–10 ESV
6 He will render to each one according to his works: 7 to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and immortality, he will give eternal life; 8 but for those who are self-seeking and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, there will be wrath and fury. 9 There will be tribulation and distress for every human being who does evil, the Jew first and also the Greek, 10 but glory and honor and peace for everyone who does good, the Jew first and also the Greek.
Luke 12:47–48 ESV
47 And that servant who knew his master’s will but did not get ready or act according to his will, will receive a severe beating. 48 But the one who did not know, and did what deserved a beating, will receive a light beating. Everyone to whom much was given, of him much will be required, and from him to whom they entrusted much, they will demand the more.

Hell As a Place of Divine Judgment

2 Thessalonians 1:5–10 ESV
5 This is evidence of the righteous judgment of God, that you may be considered worthy of the kingdom of God, for which you are also suffering— 6 since indeed God considers it just to repay with affliction those who afflict you, 7 and to grant relief to you who are afflicted as well as to us, when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels 8 in flaming fire, inflicting vengeance on those who do not know God and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. 9 They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might, 10 when he comes on that day to be glorified in his saints, and to be marveled at among all who have believed, because our testimony to you was believed.
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